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European Pakistanis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Europeans in Pakistan
Total population
80,000+ (2015)[1]
excluding multiracial people
~0.03% of Pakistan's population
Regions with significant populations
Nationwide including cities in Punjab, Sindh, and Islamabad Capital Territory; sizable populations in other regions
Languages
Various European languages · English · Urdu and other Languages of Pakistan
Religion
Christianity · Islam
Related ethnic groups
European diaspora

European Pakistanis, or depending on the preference White Pakistanis, comprise residents of Pakistan who are of European origin.

History

Prior to its independence in 1947, Pakistan was part of the colonial British Raj empire in South Asia. British control of the region began with the annexation of Sind in 1843, the Punjab and North-West Frontier in 1849, and Baluchistan in 1876.[2] The colonial period expanded European presence and influence in South Asia. Thousands of European settlers arrived in the subcontinent as administrators, soldiers, officials, civilians, missionaries and traders.[3] During the 1940s, there were small populations of European Jews scattered across cosmopolitan cities such as Karachi and Lahore. They arrived as part of the Jewish exodus to British India following the outbreak of World War II in Europe. However, by the late 1960s, most of these Jews effected a secondary migration and left for Israel or Western nations.[4] The terms gora, firangi or angrez are used in Pakistan to refer to a White person.[5]

Demographics

The following sections outline current expatriate European communities in Pakistan, sorted by their geographical region of origin.

Central Europe

The Swiss community in Pakistan numbered 336 people as of 2014, based on embassy registrations.[6][7][8] There is also a small Austrian expatriate group.[9] Czechs in Pakistan are a minor community consisting of expatriates, and Czech nationals married to Pakistanis. A Czech Film Club was set up in Islamabad by the Czech embassy, as of 2004. It arranged screenings of Czech films for Czechs living in Pakistan as well as Czech-speakers.[10] There is also a minor German community as well.

Eastern Europe

There is a very small Ukrainian community in the country, numbering a few dozen. It includes businesspersons, journalists, diplomats and Ukrainian spouses married to Pakistanis. Most of them reside in metropolitan cities.[11] The Russian community in Pakistan is a small one, and has been present since the Soviet era. There are also White Pakistanis of Armenian and Turkish descent[12] There are some Romanians, concentrated in Islamabad.[13][14][15]

Northern Europe

Northern European expatriates in Pakistan primarily consist of Scandinavian communities. A pattern of return-migration is observed among Danes of Pakistani origin, of whom some families have settled in Pakistan.[16] Around 100 other Danes were living in Pakistan as of 2006.[17] There were also around 200 Swedes in Pakistan, and they are spread throughout the country.[18] The population of Finns in Pakistan is fewer in number.[19]

A Norwegian diaspora is present in the country, a large number of them being Norwegians of Pakistani descent.[20] Up to 4,000 Norwegian citizens live in Pakistan.[21] The town of Kharian in Gujrat district of Punjab is known as "Little Norway", as the majority of Pakistani-Norwegians hail from this area and many of them have resettled here.[22][23] Others split their time between Norway and Pakistan.[24] They have established family businesses and built large houses in the town, including those who have moved back to Pakistan post-retirement.[22][25] Remittances and investment by Norwegians have boosted the town's economy and real estate.[26] Those who are more accustomed to urban living prefer owning houses in larger cities such as Islamabad and Lahore.[27] Private schools in Kharian supported by the embassy provide Norwegian-language classes to the children of Norwegian citizens, making assimilation easier when the expatriates return to Norway.[21][26] According to Statistics Norway, one-in-three Pakistani-Norwegian youth spend at least a year or more in Pakistan, gaining key exposure to their cultural roots.[27][28] The Norwegian community maintains keen interest in politics back home and observes the country's national events.[29][30]

Southern Europe

As of 2010, 300 Italian nationals were residing in Pakistan.[31][32] Some Italians are notable in the region's history as empire mercenaries, such as Paolo Avitabile and Jean-Baptiste Ventura who served in Punjab and the Frontier under Ranjit Singh.[33] There is a small Spaniard population in Pakistan, mainly confined to Islamabad.[34][35] There is also a minor Portuguese community residing in Karachi. The community is known for establishing missionary schools, and for its contribution to the country's pop music scene.[36] The Portuguese presence in South Asia dates back to the start of the 16th century, following the rise of the Portuguese Empire. The empire did not control any regions that are part of modern Pakistan. However, it did possess colonies in India (most notably Goa), and made a series of incursions along Pakistan's present southern coastline. In 1568, the Portuguese led by admiral Fernão Mendes Pinto attacked Debal (near Thatta) when they encountered Ottoman traders' ships anchored at the port.[37]

Western Europe

In 2005, over 47,000 Britons resided in Pakistan. By 2015, their population was 80,000, making them by far the largest Western community.[38][1] They comprise English and smaller numbers of Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish expatriates.[39] The community also includes a large number of British Pakistanis who have resettled in Pakistan. The city of Mirpur in Kashmir, where the majority of British Pakistanis originate from, is called "Little Britain" due to its expatriate British population.[40][41][42] Colonial-era buildings, infrastructure, laws, institutions, governance and culture left by the British exist throughout Pakistan as a legacy of the empire.[43]

Irish people have been present in the South Asian subcontinent since the days of the East India Company.[44] Many of them served as soldiers and government officials for the colonial empire.[45] Around half of the British forces in the subcontinent consisted of Irish manpower.[43] Others became renowned as educators, nurses and Christian missionaries.[43][46][47] This tradition continues today, as several convent schools in Pakistan are run by Irish nuns – such as the Convents of Jesus and Mary in Karachi, Lahore and Murree,[48] or the Presentation Convent Schools in Punjab founded by the Presentation Sisters.[47][49] Many Roman Catholic missionaries from Ireland have been working in Pakistan for decades, and are involved in social work or provision of services to the country's Christian community.[50][51][52][53] Irish expatriates also work as medical volunteers or have occupied key positions representing international organisations such as the United Nations.[47][54] Notable Irish-Pakistanis include Sister John Berchmans Conway who became a teacher,[55] and Jennifer Musa who married into the Qazi family and entered politics – earning the title "Queen of Balochistan."[56]

Among other Western European diasporas include a small French community as well.

Organisations

European countries have embassies in Islamabad, while some also have deputy missions in Karachi and Lahore. In addition, the European Union is represented in Pakistan through a delegated mission.[57]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Gishkori, Zahid (30 July 2015). "Karachi has witnessed 43% decrease in target killing: Nisar". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 3 August 2017. As many as 116,308 Afghan nationals are living as immigrants in the country, higher than any other country,” Nisar told the House. Besides Afghans, 52,486 Americans, 79,447 British citizens and 17,320 Canadians are residing in the country, the interior minister added.
  2. ^ Myers, Bernard Samuel (1959). Encyclopedia of world art, Volume 11. McGraw-Hill. p. 4.
  3. ^ Bosma, Ulbe; Raben, Remco (2008). Being "Dutch" in the Indies: A History of Creolisation and Empire, 1500-1920. NUS Press. p. 16. ISBN 9789971693732. In 1861, for instance, a census in British India registered a count of 70,962 European soldiers – including their families – and 40,379 civilians.
  4. ^ Friedman, Gabe; The Forward (19 October 2014). "When Jews Found Refuge in an Unlikely Place: Pakistan". Haaretz. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  5. ^ Terry Victor; Tom Dalzell (1 December 2007). The Concise New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English. Routledge. p. 1991. ISBN 978-1-134-61533-9.
  6. ^ "Bilateral relations Switzerland–Pakistan". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (Switzerland). 3 November 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  7. ^ Nelson, Anna; Zarifeh, Ramsey (3 June 2002). "Swiss diplomats to remain in India and Pakistan". Swiss Info. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  8. ^ Toor, Liaqat (3 November 2013). "Smacking of strong Swiss flavours at food festival". Pakistan Observer. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  9. ^ "Austrian Food Festival 2013". Austrian Embassy, Islamabad. 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2016. Our experts and students from HLT Retz prepared Austrian food specialties, considering cultural sensibilities. In total 300 guests – local guests, Austrians in Pakistan and members of the diplomatic corps - accepted the invitation to the Austrian Residence.
  10. ^ Report on the Foreign Policy of the Czech Republic: between January 2004 and December 2004. Ministerstvo zahraničních věcí České republiky. 2005. p. 146. ISBN 9788086345550.
  11. ^ "Ambassador of Ukraine in the Republic of Pakistan for "Viva-Ukraine"". Viva Ukraine. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  12. ^ Jacquard, Roland (2002). In the Name of Osama Bin Laden: Global Terrorism & the Bin Laden Brotherhood. Duke University Press. p. 21. ISBN 9780822329916.
  13. ^ "Romanian Embassy sets up election booth". The News. 2 November 2014. Archived from the original on 15 August 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  14. ^ "Embassy of Romania has asked its citizens in Pakistan to cast their vote for the National Referendum". Diplomatic Star. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  15. ^ "National Day of Romania celebrated". The News. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  16. ^ Rytter, Mikkel (2013). Family Upheaval: Generation, Mobility and Relatedness among Pakistani Migrants in Denmark. Berghahn Books. ISBN 9780857459404.
  17. ^ "Danish ambassador exits Pakistan". Hurriyet Daily News. 20 February 2006. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  18. ^ "Sweden loses contact with embassy in Pakistan, say officials". People's Daily Online. 4 November 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  19. ^ "Finland Closes Embassy in Islamabad". YLE. 9 July 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  20. ^ Hetland, Atle (28 July 2011). "The 2011 tragedy in Norway". The Nation. Retrieved 3 July 2016. I have also met some Pakistani-Norwegians in Islamabad after the tragedy, and many have wanted to talk with other Norwegians... That is a reminder to us Norwegians living in Pakistan, that we must also show empathy when tragedies happen in the beautiful land of Pakistan.
  21. ^ a b Zaman, Kadafi (15 June 2004). "Krever norsk skole i Pakistan". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  22. ^ a b Mussadaq, Maha (4 March 2012). "Claim to fame: A little bit of Norway lives in Kharian". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 3 July 2016. On Thursday, Ambassador of Norway to Pakistan Cecilie Landsverk made that pilgrimage and seemed very excited to meet the Norwegian-Pakistanis that live here. As she entered the little village of Ogarian in Kharian, she was greeted by Aslam Ahsan, a Norwegian-Pakistani, and his family at his residence. To greet the ambassador in a traditional manner, her car was escorted by a dancing horse. As soon as she stepped out, one was treated to another unusual sight. A man looking like a typical Pakistani farmer in his shalwar kameez and shawl around his shoulder greeted and conversed with the ambassador in Norwegian, with the rest of the family doing the same. "They look Pakistani but they are Norwegians," said Landsverk.
  23. ^ "Studietur Pakistan" (PDF). Tvangsekteskap.net (in Norwegian). December 2002. pp. 22–24. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  24. ^ "En Noman i Pakistan". NRK (in Norwegian). 2 May 2006. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  25. ^ Shahzad, Mirza Khurram (26 September 2014). "Footprints: Norway in Pakistan". Dawn. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  26. ^ a b "Remittances - the impact on communities". IRIN News. 18 May 2005. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  27. ^ a b Storhaug, Hege (21 October 2009). "Brought up in Pakistan". Human Rights Service (Norway). Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  28. ^ Erdal, Marta Bivand; Amjad, Anum; Bodla, Qamar Zaman; Rubab, Asma (23 June 2015). "Going Back to Pakistan for Education? The Interplay of Return Mobilities, Education, and Transnational Living". Peace Research Institute Oslo, Oslo, Norway & Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. 22 (8): 836–848. doi:10.1002/psp.1966.
  29. ^ van Laenen, Filip (2 August 2005). "Norwegian Left Courts Pakistani Vote". Brussels Journal. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  30. ^ Hyatt, Ishrat (19 May 2016). "Norwegian Constitution Day celebrated". The News. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  31. ^ "Italy may invest in infrastructure". The News. 4 February 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  32. ^ "Message from Italian Ambassador in Pakistan". Business Recorder. 24 May 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  33. ^ Amini, Iradj (2013). The Koh-i-noor Diamond. Roli Books Private Limited. p. 118. ISBN 9789351940357.
  34. ^ Bakhtawari, Zafar (14 October 2015). "Spanish national day celebrated". The Nation. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  35. ^ "Cuba hailed as role model in healthcare". Daily Times. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 3 July 2016. The representatives of diplomatic community, serving and former government representatives, members of the Spanish community in Islamabad, prominent health care professionals as well as students attended the seminar from the Spanish department of NUML.
  36. ^ Correa, Noel (12 June 2011). "Pakistan's Portuguese wonder: Magic fingers". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  37. ^ Paracha, Nadeem F. (13 March 2016). "Smokers' Corner: Once upon an ancient Karachi". Dawn. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  38. ^ "Brits Abroad". BBC News. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  39. ^ "Scottish Government's Pakistan Plan". Scottish Government. 2 September 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2016. We will explore the potential for engaging with the Scottish Diaspora in Pakistan and other networks to raise the profile of Scotland in Pakistan.
  40. ^ Maqbool, Aleem (4 March 2012). "How city of Mirpur became 'Little England'". BBC News. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  41. ^ Wilkinson, Isambard (5 December 2005). "British Pakistanis bring fish and chips to Kashmir's 'Beverly Hills'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  42. ^ Maqbool, Aleem (1 May 2010). "Chasing the UK vote in Pakistan's 'Little Britain'". BBC News. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  43. ^ a b c Walbridge, Linda (2012). The Christians of Pakistan: The Passion of Bishop John Joseph. Routledge. pp. 11, 23–24, 150–151, 185. ISBN 9781136131783.
  44. ^ Bielenberg, Andy (2014). The Irish Diaspora. Routledge. pp. 236–237. ISBN 9781317878124.
  45. ^ Lennon, Joseph (2008). Irish Orientalism: A Literary and Intellectual History. Syracuse University Press. p. 172. ISBN 9780815631644.
  46. ^ Kelly, Laura (2015). Irish Women in Medicine, C.1880s-1920s: Origins, Education and Careers. Oxford University Press. pp. 129–130. ISBN 9780719097409.
  47. ^ a b c Ó hAodha, Mícheál; Ó Catháin, Máirtín (2014). Irish Migrants in New Communities: Seeking the Fair Land?. Lexington Books. pp. 46–50. ISBN 9780739173831.
  48. ^ McGarry, Patsy (31 December 2007). "Bhutto educated to 'O' level stage by Irish nuns". Irish Times. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  49. ^ Bangash, Yaqoob Khan (24 December 2015). "Labour of love". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
  50. ^ Gargan, Mags (31 March 2016). "Irish missionaries vow to stand by Pakistani Christians despite upsurge in violence". The Irish Catholic. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  51. ^ Gargan, Mags (29 October 2015). "Missionaries fear high death toll from Pakistan quake". The Irish Catholic. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  52. ^ McKinley, Stephen (21–27 November 2001). "Priest keeps faith in Muslim heartland". The Irish Echo. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  53. ^ Khan, Jibran (28 June 2012). "Missionary in Pakistan: forming the laity in the Church and promoting Christian media". Asia News. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  54. ^ Khan, Saadia (22 December 2015). "Pakistan: Highs and lows in Balochistan". Medecins Sans Frontieres. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  55. ^ InPaper Magazine (16 January 2012). "A life to celebrate". Dawn. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
  56. ^ Kemp, Danny (14 December 2006). "Irish-born woman is 'Queen of Balochistan'". Dawn. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
  57. ^ "Political and Economic Relations". Delegation of the European Union to Pakistan. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
This page was last edited on 29 September 2020, at 18:44
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