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European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a standard means for comparing academic credits, i.e., the "volume of learning based on the defined learning outcomes and their associated workload" for higher education across the European Union and other collaborating European countries.[1] For successfully completed studies, ECTS credits are awarded. One academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS credits that are normally equivalent to 1500–1800 hours of total workload, irrespective of standard or qualification type.[citation needed] ECTS credits are used to facilitate transfer and progression throughout the Union. ECTS also includes a standard grading scale, intended to be shown in addition to local (i.e. national) standard grades.[2]

Current systems

List of credits given in one year in European countries[3]
Country Credit points per year Hours per credit point Credit point name
European Union (EU) 60 25-30[4] ECTS credits
EU Member States
Austria 60 25 ECTS (also ECTS-Punkte, ECTS credits)
Belgium 60 25-30 ECTS (also studiepunten, ECTS)
Bulgaria 60 25-30 кредити
Croatia 60 25-30 ECTS bodovi
Cyprus 60 30 ECTS
Czech Republic 60 ~26 kredity
Denmark 60 ~28 ECTS-point
Estonia 60 26 ainepunkt (EAP). Currently because many students are still used to the older system the longer name 'euroopa ainepunkt' is more often used for clarity's sake
Finland 60 27 opintopiste (op) / studiepoäng (Swedish) (lit. study point)
France 60 25-30[5] crédits ECTS
Germany 60 25-30 ECTS, Leistungspunkte (LP), Kreditpunkte (KP), Credit Points (CP) or Credits
Greece 60 30 ECTS, Credit Points (CP), Μονάδες Φόρτου Εργασίας (Διδακτικές Μονάδες - Δ.Μ) or Credits
Hungary 60 30 kredit(pont)
Ireland 60 ECTS
Italy 60 25 crediti formativi universitari (CFU)
Latvia 60 30 ECTS kredītpunkts (1 "Latvian" credit point (kredītpunkts) equals 1.5 ECTS)[6][7]
Lithuania 60 ~28 kreditai; ECTS kreditai
Luxembourg 60 ECTS
Malta 60 25 ECTS-credits
Netherlands 60 28 studiepunten (ECTS or EC)
Poland 60 25-30 punkty ECTS, eceteesy
Portugal 60 28 créditos ECTS
Romania 60 30 credite (SECTS)
Slovakia 60 25 kredity
Slovenia 60 25-30 kreditne točke
Spain 60 25-30 créditos ECTS
Sweden 60 26.667 högskolepoäng (Used from July 2007)
EFTA Member States
Iceland 60 25-30 einingar (units)
Liechtenstein 60
Norway 60 25-30 studiepoeng
Switzerland 60 25-30[8] ECTS-credits, Kreditpunkte (KP)
Other European Countries
Albania 60 30 Pikët ECTS
Bosnia and Herzegovina 60 25 ECTS bodovi
England, Wales and Northern Ireland 120 (60 ECTS) 10 (20 hours per ECTS) Credits. One ECTS credit is equivalent to two UK credits.[9][10]
Georgia 60 30 კრედიტები (kreditebi)
Montenegro 60 ECTS-krediti
North Macedonia 60 кредити (ECTS)
Russia 60 30 credits
Scotland 120 (60 ECTS) 10 (20 hours per ECTS)[11] SCQF credit points (2 SCQF points equal 1 ECTS point[12])
Serbia 60 30 ЕСПБ бодови / ESPB bodovi
Turkey 60 25-30 AKTS - kredi[13]
Ukraine 60 30 кредити

See also


  1. ^ "ECTS Users' Guide". Publications Office of the European Union. 2015. p. 10.
  2. ^ "European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) - Education and training - European Commission". Education and training.
  3. ^ "ECTS User's guide". Publications Office of the European Union. 2015.
  4. ^ typical values which can vary between national systems, "academic year" is normative
  5. ^ "Article 8 - Arrêté du 22 janvier 2014 fixant le cadre national des formations conduisant à la délivrance des diplômes nationaux de licence, de licence professionnelle et de master" [Article 8 - Order of 22 January 2014 establishing the national framework for courses leading to the award of national bachelor's, professional bachelor's and master's degrees]. Légifrance (in French). 22 January 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. ^ "Credit point system". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  7. ^ "Law of Higher education (in Latvian)". 1 January 1995. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  8. ^ "Richtlinien des Hochschulrates für die koordinierte Erneuerung der Lehre an den universitären Hochschulen der Schweiz im Rahmen des Bologna-Prozesses". Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  9. ^ "Erasmus Mundus credits" (PDF). University of Salford. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
  10. ^ "Higher education credit framework for England: guidance on academic credit arrangements in higher education in England" (PDF). Quality Assurance Agency.
  11. ^ "SCQF Credit Points" (PDF). Scottish Credit and Qualification Framework. p. 3. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  12. ^ "SCQF Credit Points" (PDF). Scottish Credit and Qualification Framework. p. 3. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  13. ^ "ECTS and Course Load - Yükseköğretim Kurulu". Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2016.

External links

This page was last edited on 27 May 2022, at 12:12
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