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Demography of Australia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Demographics of
 Australia
Indicator Rank Measure
Population
Population 53rd 25,121,400[1]
Economy
GDP (PPP) per capita 19th $63,699
GDP 12th $1.56 trillion
Unemployment rate ↓ 57th 5.80%[2]
CO2 emissions 11th 18.3 t
Electricity consumption 17th 213.5 TWh
Economic freedom 3rd 82.5
Politics
Human Development Index 2nd 0.937
Political freedom 1st (equal)* 1
Corruption (A higher score means less (perceived) corruption.) 11th 80
Press freedom 18th 5.38
Society
Literacy rate 21st 99%
Broadband uptake 17th 13.8%
Beer consumption 20th[3] 4.49 L
Health
Life expectancy 4th 81.2
Birth rate 148th 13.8
Fertility rate 137th 1.969††
Infant mortality 202nd 4.57‡‡
Death rate 122nd 7.56
Suicide rate 50th ♂ 14.9†‡
♀ 4.4†‡
HIV/AIDS rate 108th 0.10%
Notes
↓ indicates rank is in reverse order
(e.g. 1st is lowest)
per capita
per 1000 people
†† per woman
‡‡ per 1000 live births
†‡ per 100,000 people per year
♂ indicates males, ♀ indicates females

The demography of Australia covers basic statistics, most populous cities, ethnicity and religion. The population of Australia is estimated to be 25,121,400 as of 12 November 2018.[1] Australia is the 52nd most populous country in the world and the most populous Oceanian country. Its population is concentrated mainly in urban areas and is expected to exceed 28 million by 2030.[4]

Australia's population has grown from an estimated population of between 300,000 and 1,000,000 at the time of British settlement in 1788 due to numerous waves of immigration during the period since. Also due to immigration from other continents, the European component's share of the population is declining as a percentage.

Australia has an average population density of 3.3 persons per square kilometre of total land area, which makes it is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. This is generally attributed to the semi-arid and desert geography of much of the interior of the country. Another factor is urbanisation, with 89% of its population living in a handful of urban areas, Australia is one of the world's most urbanised countries.[5] The life expectancy of Australia in 1999–2001 was 79.7 years, among the highest in the world.

It is estimated that around 70% of the population is of European ancestry and descent.[6] Australia generally doesn't collect data on race and ethnicity, with the exception of Australian Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders.

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Transcription

Contents

Indigenous population

Indigenous Australians as a percentage of the population as of the 2011 census
Indigenous Australians as a percentage of the population as of the 2011 census

The earliest accepted timeline for the first arrivals of indigenous Australians to the continent of Australia places this human migration to at least 40,000 years ago.[7]

These first inhabitants of Australia were originally hunter-gatherers, who over the course of many succeeding generations diversified widely throughout the continent and its nearby islands. Although their technical culture remained static—depending on wood, bone, and stone tools and weapons—their spiritual and social life was highly complex. Most spoke several languages, and confederacies sometimes linked widely scattered tribal groups. Aboriginal population density ranged from approximately one person per 3 km2 (1 sq mi) along the coasts to one person per 90 km2 (35 sq mi) in the arid interior. Food procurement was usually a matter for the nuclear family, requiring an estimated 3 days of work per week. There was little large game, and outside of some communities in the more fertile south-east, they had no agriculture.

Dutch navigators landed on the coasts of modern Western Australia and Queensland several times during the 17th century. Captain James Cook claimed the east coast for Great Britain in 1770, the west coast was later settled by Britain also. At that time, the indigenous population was estimated to have been between 315,000 and 750,000,[8] divided into many tribes speaking many different languages. In the 2011 census, 495,757 respondents declared they were Aboriginal, 31,407 declared they were Torres Strait Islander, and a further 21,206 declared they were both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders.[9]

Since the end of World War II, efforts have been made both by the government and by the public to be more responsive to Aboriginal rights and needs.

Today, most of Australia's Indigenous population live on the east coast of Australia, where almost 60% of Indigenous Australians live in New South Wales (208,476) and Queensland (188,954) which roughly represents 2–5% of those state's populations. The Northern Territory has an Indigenous population of almost 70,000 and represents about 30% of the total Northern Territory population.

Cities

Australia contains five cities that consist of over one million people. Most of Australia's population live close to coastlines.[10]

Population density

The population density in Australia was last reported as 2.91/km2 (7.5/sq mi). The density was 2.8/km2 (7.3/sq mi) in 2008 and 2.86/km2 (7.4/sq mi) in 2009. That made Australia the 3rd least densely populated country in the world, after Namibia and Mongolia.

Life expectancy at birth from 1921 to 2015

Sources: Our World In Data and the United Nations.

1921-1950

Years 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930[13]
Life expectancy in Australia 61.0 62.9 61.7 62.5 63.2 62.9 62.8 62.9 63.1 64.9
Years 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940[13]
Life expectancy in Australia 65.3 65.6 65.4 64.8 65.1 65.2 65.8 65.8 65.8 66.2
Years 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950[13]
Life expectancy in Australia 66.1 65.9 66.4 68.0 68.5 68.0 68.6 68.5 69.1 69.0

1950-2015

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 69.4 1985–1990 76.2
1955–1960 70.4 1990–1995 77.7
1960–1965 70.9 1995–2000 78.8
1965–1970 70.8 2000–2005 80.3
1970–1975 71.8 2005–2010 81.5
1975–1980 73.6 2010–2015 82.3
1980–1985 75.1

Source: UN World Population Prospects[14]

Total Fertility Rate from 1850 to 1899

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[15]

The following figures show the total fertility rates since the first years of the English colonization.

Years 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[15]
Total Fertility Rate in Australia 4.94 5.01 4.07 5.03 4.86 5.32 5.19 5.63 5.71 5.75 5.71
Years 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[15]
Total Fertility Rate in Australia 5.67 5.8 5.59 5.75 5.64 5.33 5.41 5.43 5.19 5.19
Years 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[15]
Total Fertility Rate in Australia 5.09 4.97 5.01 4.93 4.81 4.81 4.69 4.74 4.8 4.73
Years 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[15]
Total Fertility Rate in Australia 4.73 4.62 4.66 4.77 4.78 4.74 4.77 4.76 4.65 4.69
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899[15]
Total Fertility Rate in Australia 4.62 4.52 4.4 4.13 4.07 3.81 3.78 3.64 3.66

Vital statistics since 1900

Source:[16]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Total fertility rates[fn 1][15] Net overseas migration[17][18][19]
1900 3,715,000 102,221 44,060 58,161 27.3 11.8 15.5 3.66
1901 3,765,000 102,945 46,330 56,615 27.1 12.2 14.9 3.64
1902 3,824,000 102,776 48,078 54,698 26.7 12.5 14.2 3.39
1903 3,875,000 98,443 47,293 51,150 25.3 12.1 13.2 3.58
1904 3,916,000 104,113 43,572 60,541 26.4 11.0 15.4 3.54
1905 3,974,000 104,941 43,514 61,427 26.2 10.9 15.3 3.51
1906 4,032,000 107,890 44,333 63,557 26.6 10.9 15.7 3.35
1907 4,091,000 110,347 45,305 55,042 26.7 11.0 15.7 3.35
1908 4,161,000 111,545 46,426 55,119 26.6 11.1 15.5 3.35
1909 4,232,000 114,071 44,172 59,899 26.7 10.3 16.4 3.35
1910 4,323,000 116,801 45,590 61,211 26.7 10.4 16.3 3.35
1911 4,425,000 122,193 47,869 74,324 27.2 10.6 16.6 3.51
1912 4,573,000 133,088 52,177 80,911 28.6 11.2 17.4 3.51
1913 4,746,000 135,714 51,789 83,925 28.2 10.7 17.5 3.51
1914 4,893,000 137,983 51,720 86,263 28.0 10.5 17.5 3.51
1915 4,971,000 134,871 52,782 82,089 27.1 10.6 16.5 3.51
1916 4,969,000 131,426 54,197 77,219 26.6 11.0 15.6 3.07
1917 4,917,000 129,965 48,029 81,936 26.3 9.7 16.6 3.35
1918 4,982,000 125,739 50,249 75,490 25.0 10.0 15.0 3.07
1919 5,080,000 122,290 65,930 56,360 23.6 12.7 10.9 3.07
1920 5,303,000 136,406 56,289 80,117 25.5 10.5 15.5 3.07
1921 5,411,000 136,198 54,076 82,122 24.9 9.9 15.0 3.12
1922 5,510,000 137,496 51,311 86,185 24.7 9.2 15.5 3.11
1923 5,637,000 135,222 56,236 78,986 23.7 9.9 13.8 3.02
1924 5,755,000 134,927 54,980 79,953 23.2 9.4 13.8 2.97
1925 5,882,000 135,792 54,658 81,134 22.9 9.2 13.7 2.95
1926 6,000,000 133,162 56,952 76,210 22.0 9.4 12.6 2.85
1927 6,124,000 133,698 58,282 75,716 21.6 9.4 12.2 2.80
1928 6,251,000 134,078 59,378 74,700 21.3 9.4 11.9 2.77
1929 6,355,000 129,480 60,857 68,623 20.2 9.5 10.7 2.64
1930 6,436,000 128,399 55,331 73,068 19.8 8.6 11.2 2.58
1931 6,500,000 118,509 56,560 61,949 18.2 8.7 9.5 2.36
1932 6,552,000 110,933 56,757 54,176 16.9 8.6 8.3 2.19
1933 6,603,000 111,269 59,117 52,152 16.8 8.9 7.9 2.17
1934 6,656,000 109,475 62,229 47,246 16.4 9.3 7.1 2.11
1935 6,707,000 111,325 63,599 47,726 16.5 9.4 7.1 2.12
1936 6,755,000 116,073 63,932 52,141 17.1 9.4 7.7 2.18
1937 6,810,000 119,131 64,496 54,635 17.4 9.4 8.0 2.21
1938 6,871,000 120,415 66,451 53,964 17.4 9.6 7.8 2.21
1939 6,935,000 122,891 69,147 53,744 17.6 9.9 7.7 2.22
1940 7,004,000 126,347 68,384 57,963 17.9 9.7 8.2 2.26
1941 7,077,000 134,525 71,176 63,349 18.9 10.0 8.9 2.36
1942 7,143,000 136,708 75,191 61,517 19.1 10.5 8.6 2.38
1943 7,201,000 149,295 74,486 74,809 20.6 10.3 10.3 2.57
1944 7,269,000 153,344 69,596 83,748 21.0 9.5 11.5 2.63
1945 7,347,000 160,560 70,231 90,229 21.7 9.5 12.2 2.74
1946 7,430,000 176,379 74,661 101,718 23.6 10.0 13.6 2.99
1947 7,517,000 182,384 73,468 108,916 24.1 9.7 14.4 3.08
1948 7,637,000 177,976 76,839 101,137 23.1 10.0 13.1 2.98
1949 7,792,000 181,261 75,260 106,001 22.9 9.5 13.4 2.99
1950 8,045,000 190,591 78,187 112,404 23.3 9.6 13.7 3.01
1951 8,307,000 193,298 81,788 111,510 23.0 9.7 13.3 3.06
1952 8,527,000 201,650 81,597 120,053 23.4 9.5 13.9 3.15
1953 8,739,000 202,235 80,188 122,047 22.9 9.1 13.8 3.23
1954 8,902,000 202,256 81,805 120,451 22.5 9.1 13.4 3.3
1955 9,089,000 207,677 82,036 125,641 22.6 8.9 13.7 3.35
1956 9,311,000 212,633 86,088 126,545 22.5 9.1 13.4 3.39
1957 9,530,000 220,358 84,953 135,405 22.9 8.8 14.1 3.41
1958 9,744,000 222,504 83,723 138,481 22.6 8.5 14.1 3.42
1959 9,947,000 226,976 89,212 137,765 22.6 8.9 13.7 3.41
1960 10,160,000 230,326 88,464 141,862 22.4 8.6 13.8 3.39
1961 10,391,000 239,986 88,961 151,025 22.8 8.5 14.3 3.35
1962 10,642,000 237,081 93,163 143,918 22.1 8.7 13.4 3.3
1963 10,846,000 235,689 94,894 140,795 21.5 8.7 12.8 3.24
1964 11,055,000 229,149 100,594 128,555 20.5 8.7 11.8 3.17
1965 11,280,000 222,854 99,715 123,139 19.6 8.8 10.8 2.97
1966 11,505,000 223,731 103,929 119,802 19.3 9.0 10.3 2.89
1967 11,704,000 229,796 102,703 127,093 19.4 8.7 10.7 2.85
1968 11,912,000 240,906 109,547 131,359 20.0 9.1 10.9 2.89
1969 12,145,000 250,175 106,496 143,681 20.4 8.7 11.7 2.93
1970 12,407,000 257,516 113,048 144,468 20.5 9.0 10.5 2.94
1971 12,663,000 276,361 110,650 165,711 21.5 8.6 12.9 2.98
1972 13,067,000 271,960 110,191 161,769 20.6 8.4 12.2 2.74
1973 13,303,000 255,848 111,336 144,512 19.1 8.3 10.8 2.49
1974 13,504,000 243,658 110,179 133,479 17.9 8.1 9.8 2.32
1975 13,722,000 239,794 114,501 125,293 17.4 8.3 9.1 2.15
1976 13,892,000 231,135 110,610 120,525 16.6 7.9 8.7 2.06
1977 14,033,000 226,954 111,490 115,464 16.1 7.9 8.2 2.01
1978 14,192,000 226,359 108,059 118,300 15.9 7.6 8.3 1.95
1979 14,359,000 223,370 108,315 115,055 15.5 7.5 8.0 1.91
1980 14,515,000 223,664 106,654 117,010 15.3 7.3 8.0 1.89
1981 14,695,000 230,920 109,429 121,491 15.6 7.4 8.2 1.94
1982 14,923,000 237,076 110,990 116,086 15.7 7.4 8.3 1.93 128,100
1983 15,184,000 241,764 112,918 128,846 15.8 7.4 8.4 1.92 73,300
1984 15,393,000 240,544 110,887 129,657 15.5 7.2 8.3 1.84 49,100
1985 15,579,000 241,814 114,197 127,617 15.4 7.3 8.1 1.92 73,800
1986 15,788,000 239,115 116,069 123,046 15.0 7.3 7.7 1.87 100,500
1987 16,018,000 242,977 116,139 126,838 15.0 7.2 7.8 1.85 125,800
1988 16,263,000 246,200 120,463 125,737 15.0 7.3 7.7 1.83 149,400
1989 16,532,000 250,155 118,767 131,388 15.1 7.1 8.0 1.84 157,500
1990 16,814,000 257,521 125,112 132,409 15.3 7.4 7.9 1.90 124,700
1991 17,065,000 261,158 119,572 141,586 15.2 7.0 8.2 1.85 86,500
1992 17,284,000 259,186 120,836 138,350 14.9 6.9 8.0 1.89 68,600
1993 17,494,000 259,959 121,338 138,621 14.8 6.9 7.9 1.86 30,100
1994 17,667,000 258,314 123,496 134,818 14.5 7.0 7.5 1.84 46,600
1995 17,854,000 258,210 126,232 131,978 14.4 7.0 7.4 1.82 80,200
1996 18,071,000 250,438 126,400 124,038 13.8 6.9 6.9 1.80 104,000
1997 18,310,000 253,660 127,298 126,362 13.7 6.9 6.8 1.78 87,200
1998 18,517,000 249,105 129,255 119,850 13.4 6.9 6.5 1.75 79,100
1999 18,711,000 249,965 128,278 121,487 13.3 6.8 6.5 1.75 96,500
2000 18,925,000 249,310 128,392 120,918 13.1 6.7 6.4 1.75 107,200
2001 19,153,000 247,500 128,913 118,587 12.8 6.7 6.1 1.73 135,700
2002 19,413,000 250,988 133,707 117,281 12.9 6.9 6.0 1.77 110,600
2003 19,651,000 246,663 132,239 114,424 12.5 6.7 5.8 1.75 116,500
2004 19,895,000 249,082 133,231 115,851 12.4 6.7 5.7 1.76 100,000
2005 20,127,000 255,934 131,354 124,580 12.6 6.5 6.1 1.79 123,800
2006 20,394,000 263,540 134,041 129,499 12.8 6.5 6.3 1.82 146,700
2007 20,697,000 274,330 134,785 139,545 13.2 6.4 6.8 1.87 232,700
2008 21,015,000 302,272 143,946 158,326 14.4 6.8 7.6 2.02 277,400
2009 21,262,000 295,700 140,760 154,940 13.9 6.6 7.3 1.90 299,800
2010 22,183,000 297,900 143,473 154,427 13.4 6.4 7.0 1.89 172,038
2011 22,340,000 301,617 146,932 156,050 13.5 6.6 6.9 1.92 205,679
2012 22,723,000 309,582 147,098 161,782 13.6 6.5 7.1 1.91 241,151
2013 23,162,000 308,065 147,708 160,357 13.3 6.4 6.9 1.88 235,797
2014 23,413,000 299,697 153,400 146,300 12.8 6.5 6.3 1.8 179,000
2015 23,858,000 305,377 159,052 146,325 12.8 6.7 6.1 1.81 181,000
2016[20] 311,104 158,504 152,600 12.8 6.5 6.3 1.789 243,800
2017 24,770,700[21] 308,500 160,900 147,600 1.77 240,400

In 2012, the total fertility rate of Australian-born women was 1.94, while for overseas-born women, it was 1.81,[22] while in 2013, it was 1.91 and 1.79 respectively.[23]

States and territories

State/territory Population
(2016 census)
Land area Population density % of population
in capital
Notes
km2 mi2 per km2 per mi2
 New South Wales 7,797,800 800,642 309,130 8.64 3 63% [24]
 Victoria 6,244,200 227,416 87,806 23.54 9 71% [25]
 Queensland 4,883,700 1,730,648 668,207 2.50 1 46% [26]
 Western Australia 2,567,800 2,239,170 864,548 0.89 0 73.4% [27]
 South Australia 1,717,000 983,482 379,725 1.62 1 73.5% [28]
 Tasmania 519,100 68,401 26,410 7.24 3 41% [29]
 Australian Capital Territory 406,400 2,358 910 151.49 58 100% [30]
 Northern Territory 245,000 1,349,129 520,902 0.16 0 54% [31]

Other general demographic statistics

As of December 2017, the population growth rate was 0.9%.[32] This rate was based on estimates of:[1]

  • one birth every 1 minute and 42 seconds,
  • one death every 3 minutes and 16 seconds,
  • one migrant person arriving to live in Australia every 1 minute and 1 second,
  • one Australian resident leaving Australia to live overseas every 1 minute and 51 seconds, leading to
  • an overall total population increase of one person every 1 minute and 23 seconds.

Much of the data that follows has been derived from the CIA World Factbook[19] and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, through censuses.

Population

Estimated resident population of Australia since 1981
Estimated resident population of Australia since 1981

The following figures are ABS estimates for the resident population of Australia, based on the 2001 and 2006 Censuses and other data.

25,121,400 (as of 12 November 2018)[1]
23,232,413 (July 2017 est.)
21,262,641 (July 2009 – CIA World Factbook)

Age structure

Population pyramid of Australia in 2016
Population pyramid of Australia in 2016
Australia's age and gender structure in 2005, illustrated in a population pyramid.[33]
Australia's age and gender structure in 2005, illustrated in a population pyramid.[33]
Australian population by age and sex (demographic pyramid) as of 1 July 2013
Australian population by age and sex (demographic pyramid) as of 1 July 2013
0–14 years: 17.8% (male 2,122,139/female 2,012,670)
15–24 years: 12.79% (male 1,524,368/female 1,446,663)
25–54 years: 41.45% (male 4,903,130/female 4,725,976)
55–64 years: 11.83% (male 1,363,331/female 1,384,036)
65 years and over: 16.14% (male 1,736,951/female 2,013,149) (2017 est.)

Median age

Map of the median age of Australians by Statistical Local Area in the 2011 census
Map of the median age of Australians by Statistical Local Area in the 2011 census
total: 38.7 years Country comparison to the world: 58th
male: 37.9 years
female: 39.5 years (2017 est.)
Total: 36.9 years[34]
Male: 36.6 years
Female: 38.1 years (2009 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.7 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.77 children born/woman (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 156th

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.3 years Country comparison to the world: 14th
male: 79.8 years
female: 84.9 years (2017 est.)

Birth rate

12.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 165th
12.47 births/1,000 population (2009 est.) (Rank 164)

Death rate

7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Net migration rate

5.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 21st
6.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population. (2009 est.) (Rank 15)

Population growth rate

1.03% (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 110th

Mortality rate

6.68 deaths/1,000 population (2009 est.) (Rank 146)

Languages (spoken at home)

English 72.7%, Mandarin 2.5%, Italian 1.2%, Arabic 1.4%, Greek 1.2%, Cantonese 1.2%, Vietnamese 1.2%, other 19.8% (2016 est.)[35]

Religions

Protestant 23.1% (Anglican 13.3%, Uniting Church 3.7%, Presbyterian and Reformed 2.3%, Baptist 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.1%, Lutheran .7%, other Protestant .5%), Roman Catholic 22.6%, other Christian 4.2%, Muslim 2.6%, Buddhist 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3% (Eastern Orthodox 2.1%, Oriental Orthodox .2%), Hindu 1.9%, other 1.3%, none 30.1%, unspecified 9.6% (2016 est.)

At the time of Australian Federation in 1901, the rate of natural increase was 14.9 persons per 1,000 population. The rate increased to a peak of 17.4 per thousand population in the years 1912, 1913 and 1914. During the Great Depression, the rate declined to a low of 7.1 per thousand population in 1934 and 1935. Immediately after World War II, the rate increased sharply as a result of the start of the post–World War II baby boom and the immigration of many young people who then had children in Australia. A rate plateau of over 13.0 persons per 1,000 population occurred for every year from 1946 to 1962.

There has been a fall in the rate of natural increase since 1962 due to falling fertility. In 1971, the rate of natural increase was 12.7 persons per 1,000 population; a decade later it had fallen to 8.5. In 1996 the rate of natural increase fell below seven for the first time, with the downward trend continuing in the late 1990s. Population projections by the Australian Bureau of Statistics indicate that continued low fertility, combined with the increase in deaths from an ageing population, will result in natural increase falling below zero sometime in the mid-2030s. However, in 2006 the fertility rate rose to 1.81, one of the highest rates in the OECD.

Since 1901, the crude death rate has fallen from about 12.2 deaths per 1,000 population, to 6.4 deaths per 1,000 population in 2006.[36]

Urbanisation

Urbanisation population: 89% of total population (2008)
Rate of urbanisation: 1.2% annual rate of change (2005–2010)

Sex ratio

At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 51.1
youth dependency ratio: 28.5
elderly dependency ratio: 22.6
potential support ratio: 4.4 (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS

Adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2007 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 18,000 (2007 est.)
Deaths: fewer than 200 (2003 est.)[37]

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 20 years
male: 20 years
female: 21 years (2014)

Incarceration and punishment

In June 2018, there was 42,855 adults imprisoned in Australia, which was an incarceration rate of 222 prisoners per 100,000 adult population.[38], or 172 per 100,000 total population.[39] Additionally, there was 69,397 people in community corrections (various non-custodial punishments such as parole, bail, probation and community service).[40]

In June 2017, there was 964 minors imprisoned in Australia.[41]

Country of birth

At the 2016 census, 26% of the Australian resident population, or 6,163,667 people, were born overseas.[42] Another 24% of the population were born in Australia, but have one or both parents born overseas.

The Australian resident population consists of people who were born in the following countries:

Country of birth of Australian residents at 2016 census[43]
Country of birth of Australian residents at 2016 census[43]
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics (2016 census)[42]
Place of birth Estimated resident population[a]
Australia Australia 15,615,531
England England[b] 907,570
New Zealand New Zealand 518,466
Mainland China Mainland China 509,555
India India 455,389
Philippines Philippines 236,400
Vietnam Vietnam 219,355
Italy Italy 174,042
South Africa South Africa 162,449
Malaysia Malaysia 138,364
Scotland Scotland[b] 119,417
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 109,849
Germany Germany 102,595
South Korea South Korea 98,776
Greece Greece 93,743
Hong Kong Hong Kong 86,886
United States United States 86,125
Lebanon Lebanon 78,653
Republic of Ireland Ireland 74,888
Indonesia Indonesia 73,213
Netherlands Netherlands 70,172
Iraq Iraq 67,352
Thailand Thailand 66,229
Pakistan Pakistan 61,913
Fiji Fiji 61,469
Iran Iran 58,112
Singapore Singapore 54,939
Nepal Nepal 54,754
Notes
  1. ^ Only countries with 50,000 or more are listed here.
  2. ^ a b United Kingdom total = 1,078,064

For more information about immigration see Immigration to Australia.

Ancestry of Australian population

The earliest accepted timeline for the first arrivals of indigenous Australians to the continent of Australia places this human migration to at least 65,000 years ago,[44] most probably from the islands of Indonesia and New Guinea.[7]

Captain James Cook claimed the east coast for Great Britain in 1770, the west coast was later settled by Britain also. At that time, the indigenous population was estimated to have been between 315,000 and 750,000,[8] divided into as many as 500 tribes speaking many different languages.

For generations, the vast majority of both colonial-era settlers and post-Federation immigrants came from the British Isles, although the gold rushes also drew migrants from other countries, notably from China. Since the end of World War II, Australia's population more than doubled, spurred by large-scale European immigration during the immediate post-war decades. At this time, the White Australia policy discouraged non-European immigration.

Abolition of the White Australia Policy in the mid-1970s led to a significant increase in non-European immigration, mostly from Asia.

Until the Second World War, the vast majority of settlers and immigrants came from the British Isles, and a majority of Australians have some British or Irish ancestry. These Australians form an ethnic group known as Anglo-Celtic Australians. In the 2016 Australian census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were:[45]

At the 2016 census, 47.3% of people had both parents born in Australia and 34.4% of people had both parents born overseas.[47]

Religion

Australia was, historically, a majority Protestant nation.[48][49] This is no longer the case. Australia has become a religiously diverse country with 22% being Catholic, 30% having no religion and there are significant numbers of Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus and others. While Australia has no official religion, the various governments of Australia refer to the Christian God in their ceremonies, as do the various Australian Courts.

In an optional question on the 2016 Census, 52.1% of the Australian population declared some variety of Christianity. Historically the percentage has been far higher and the religious landscape of Australia is changing and diversifying.[50] Also in 2016, 30.1% of Australians stated "no religion" and a further 9.6% chose not to answer the question.[50] The remaining population is a diverse group which includes Muslims (2.6%), Buddhists (2.4%), Hindus (1.9%), Sikhs (0.5%), and Jews (0.4%).[50][51]

The Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001 Census Dictionary statement on religious affiliation states the purpose for gathering such information:

Data on religious affiliation are used for such purposes as planning educational facilities, aged persons' care and other social services provided by religion-based organisations; the location of church buildings; the assigning of chaplains to hospitals, prisons, armed services and universities; the allocation of time on public radio and other media; and sociological research.

As in many Western countries, the level of active participation in religious services is lower than would be indicated by the proportion of the population identifying themselves as affiliated with a religion; weekly attendance at Christian church services is about 1.5 million, or about 7.5% of the population.[52] Christian charitable organisations, hospitals and schools play a prominent role in welfare and education services. The Catholic education system is the second biggest sector after government schools, with more than 650,000 students (and around 21 per cent of all secondary school enrolments).

Languages

Although Australia has no official language, English has always been entrenched as the de facto national language.[53] Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon,[54] and differs slightly from other varieties of English in grammar and spelling.[55] General Australian serves as the standard dialect.

According to the 2016 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for close to 72.7% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are:[56]

A considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are bilingual.

Over 250 Indigenous Australian languages are thought to have existed at the time of first European contact, of which less than 20 are still in daily use by all age groups.[57][58] About 110 others are spoken exclusively by older people.[58] At the time of the 2006 census, 52,000 Indigenous Australians, representing 12% of the Indigenous population, reported that they spoke an Indigenous language at home.[59] Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 5,500 deaf people.[60]

Literacy

Definition: aged 15 years and over can read and write
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 99% (2003 est.)

Education expenditure

4.9% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 55

Nationality

Australian nationality law determines who is and who is not an Australian citizen. The status of Australian nationality or Australian citizenship was created by the Nationality and Citizenship Act 1948 (in 1973 renamed the Australian Citizenship Act 1948) which came into force on 26 January 1949. The 1948 Act was amended many times, notably in 1973, 1984, 1986 and 2002. The Australian Citizenship Act 2007 replaced the 1948 Act, commencing on 1 July 2007. Australian citizenship law is administered by the Department of Immigration and Border Protection which can issue certificates of citizenship on naturalisation or on request provide other proof or evidence of Australian citizenship. Australian passports are issued to Australian citizens by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

In Australia, the terms "nationality" and "citizenship" can be used interchangeably, but the term "citizenship" (or citizen) is more commonly used, while "nationality" is more commonly used on official documents and forms. A person may acquire citizenship automatically, "by operation of law", or by application after a period of residence in Australia. The process of acquiring citizenship by application is referred to as "naturalisation".

Historical population

Note that population estimates in the table below do not include the Aboriginal population before 1961. Estimates of Aboriginal population prior to European settlement range from 300,000 to one million, with archaeological finds indicating a sustainable population of around 750,000.[61] Where available, actual population figures from census years are included.

Historic population (estimated)
Pre-1788
YearIndigenous population±%
pre 1788300,000 to 1,000,000—    
Source: [62]
Settlement – Federation
YearNon-indigenous population±% p.a.
1788 859—    
1798 4,588+18.24%
1808 10,263+8.38%
1818 25,859+9.68%
1828 58,197+8.45%
1838 151,868+10.07%
1848 332,328+8.15%
1858 1,050,828+12.20%
1868 1,539,552+3.89%
1878 2,092,164+3.11%
1888 2,981,677+3.61%
1898 3,664,715+2.08%
Source: [63]
Post-Federation
YearTotal population±%
1901 3,788,123—    
1906 4,059,083+7.2%
1911 4,489,545+10.6%
1916 4,943,173+10.1%
1921 5,455,136+10.4%
1926 6,056,360+11.0%
1931 6,526,485+7.8%
1936 6,778,372+3.9%
1941 7,109,898+4.9%
1946 7,465,157+5.0%
1951 8,421,775+12.8%
1956 9,425,563+11.9%
1961 10,548,267+11.9%
1966 11,599,498+10.0%
1971 13,067,265+12.7%
1976 14,033,083+7.4%
1981 14,923,260+6.3%
1986 16,018,350+7.3%
1991 17,284,036+7.9%
1996 18,224,767+5.4%
2001 18,769,249+3.0%
2006 19,855,288+5.8%
2011 21,507,717+8.3%
2016 23,401,892+8.8%
Note: Estimated populations prior to 1961 do not include the Indigenous population.
Source: [64][65][66][67][68]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and have been marked blue, 2 and below leads an aging population and the result is that the population reduces.

References

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General references

Further reading

  • Jupp, James. The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, its People and their Origins (2002)
  • O'Farrell, Patrick. The Irish in Australia: 1798 to the Present Day (3rd ed. Cork University Press, 2001)
  • Wells, Andrew, and Theresa Martinez, eds. Australia's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook (ABC-CLIO, 2004)

External links

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