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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Eredivisie
Organising bodyKNVB
Founded1956; 68 years ago (1956)
CountryNetherlands
ConfederationUEFA
Number of teams18 (since 1966–67)
Level on pyramid1
Relegation toEerste Divisie
Domestic cup(s)
International cup(s)
Current championsPSV (25th title)
(2023–24)
Most championshipsAjax (36 titles)
Most appearancesPim Doesburg (687)
Top goalscorerWilly van der Kuijlen (311)
TV partnersList of broadcasters
Websiteeredivisie.eu
Current: 2024–25 Eredivisie

The Eredivisie (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈeːrədivizi]; "Honour Division" or "Premier Division") is the highest level of professional football in the Netherlands. The league was founded in 1956, two years after the start of professional football in the Netherlands. As of the 2023–24 season, it is ranked the 6th-best league in Europe by UEFA.[1]

The Eredivisie consists of 18 clubs. Each club meets every other club twice during the season, once at home and once away. At the end of each season, the two clubs at the bottom are relegated to the second level of the Dutch league system, the Eerste Divisie (First Division), while the champion and runner-up of the Eerste Divisie are automatically promoted to the Eredivisie. The club finishing third from the bottom of the Eredivisie goes to separate promotion/relegation play-offs with six high-placed clubs from the Eerste Divisie.[2]

The winner of the Eredivisie claims the Dutch national championship. Ajax have won the most titles with 36. PSV Eindhoven are next with 25, and Feyenoord follow with 16. Since 1965, these three clubs have won all but three Eredivisie titles (the 1981 and 2009 titles went to AZ and FC Twente won in 2010). Ajax, PSV, and Feyenoord are known as the "Big Three" or "Traditional Top Three" of Dutch football. They are the only clubs in their current form to have never been relegated out of the Eredivisie. A fourth club, FC Utrecht, is the product of a 1970 merger between three of that city's clubs, one of which, VV DOS, had also never been relegated out of the Eredivisie.

From 1990 to 1999, the official name of the league was PTT Telecompetitie (after the sponsor, PTT Telecom), which was changed to KPN Telecompetitie (because PTT Telecom changed its name to KPN Telecom) in 1999 and to KPN Eredivisie in 2000. From 2002 to 2005, the league was called the Holland Casino Eredivisie. Since the 2005–06 season, the league has been sponsored by the Vriendenloterij (lottery), but for legal reasons its name could not be attached to the league (the Dutch government was against the name, because the Eredivisie would, after Holland Casino's sponsorship, yet again be sponsored by a company providing games of chance).

In August 2012, it was made public that tycoon Rupert Murdoch had secured the rights to the Eredivisie for 12 years at the expense of one billion euros, beginning in the 2013–14 season.[3] Within this deal, the five largest Eredivisie clubs were to receive five million euros per year.[4] In 2020, the Eredivisie was abandoned due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Transcription

History

From the foundation of the Dutch national football championship in 1898 until 1954, the title was decided through play-offs by a handful of clubs who had previously won their regional league.[5] The competition was purely an amateur one; the Royal Dutch Football Association (KNVB) rejected any form of payment and suspended players who were caught receiving salary or transfer fees.[6] The call for professional football grew in the early fifties after many national team members left to play abroad in search for financial benefits.[7] The KNVB would usually suspend these players, preventing them from appearing for the Dutch national team. After the North Sea flood of 1953, the Dutch players abroad (mainly playing in the French league) organised a charity match against the France national team in Paris. The match was boycotted by the KNVB, but after the assembled Dutch players defeated the French (2–1), the Dutch public witnessed the heights that could be achieved through professional football.[8] To serve the growing interest, a dissident professional football association (the NBVB) and league were founded for the 1954–55 season.[9] On 3 July 1954, the KNVB met with a group of concerned amateur club chairmen, who feared the best players would join the professional teams. The meeting, dubbed the slaapkamerconferentie ('bedroom conference'), led to the Association reluctantly accepting semi-professionalism.[6]

Meanwhile, both the KNVB and the NBVB started their separate competition. The first professional football match was contested between Alkmaar and Venlo.[6] The leagues went on for eleven rounds, before a merger was negotiated between the two federations in November. Both leagues were cancelled and a new, combined competition emerged immediately. De Graafschap, Amsterdam, Alkmaar and Fortuna '54 from the NBVB were accepted to the new league. Other clubs merged, which led to new names like Rapid J.C., Holland Sport and Roda Sport. The first (semi-)professional league was won by Willem II.[10] For the 1956–57 season, the KNVB abandoned the regional league system. The Eredivisie was founded, in which the eighteen best clubs nationwide directly played for the league title without play-offs. The inaugural members of the Eredivisie in 1956 were Ajax, BVC, BVV, DOS, EVV, Elinkwijk, SC Enschede, Feijenoord, Fortuna '54, GVAV, MVV, NAC, NOAD, PSV, Rapid J.C., Sparta, VVV '03 and Willem II.[11] Ajax was the first team to claim the title that season.[11] Below is a complete record of how many teams played in each season throughout the league's history;

  • 18 clubs: 1956–1962
  • 16 clubs: 1962–1966
  • 18 clubs: 1966–present

Current teams (2023–24)

Club
City Capacity Position
in 2022–23
1st season
in Eredivisie
No. of seasons
in Eredivisie
1st season of
current spell
No. of seasons
of current spell
Eredivisie titles National titles Last title
Ajaxa b Amsterdam 55,865 3rd 1956–57 68 1956–57 68 26 36 2022
Almere City Almere 4,501 promoted* 2023–24 1 2023–24 1 0 0 -
AZ Alkmaar 19,500 4th 1968–69 46 1998–99 23 2 2 2009
Excelsior Rotterdam 4,500 15th 1970–71 24 2022–23 2 0 0 -
Feyenoorda b Rotterdam 51,137 1st 1956–57 68 1956–57 68 10 16 2023
Fortuna Sittard Sittard 12,500 13th 1968–69 25 2018–19 6 0 0 -
Go Ahead Eagles Deventer 10,000 11th 1963–64 34 2021–22 3 0 4 1933
SC Heerenveen Heerenveen 27,224 8th 1990–91 32 1993–94 31 0 0 -
Heracles Almelo Almelo 12,080 promoted* 1962–63 23 2023–24 1 0 2 1941
NEC Nijmegen 12,500 12th 1967–68 43 2021–22 3 0 0 -
PEC Zwolle Zwolle 13,250 promoted* 1978-79 23 2023–24 1 0 0 -
PSVa b Eindhoven 36,500 2nd 1956–57 68 1956–57 68 22 24 2024
RKC Waalwijk Waalwijk 7,508 9th 1988–89 28 2019–20 5 0 0 -
Sparta Rotterdama Rotterdam 11,026 6th 1956–57 58 2019–20 5 1 6 1959
FC Twentec Enschede 30,205 5th 1956–57 65 2019–20 5 1 1 2010
FC Utrechtb d Utrecht 23,750 7th 1970–71 54 1970–71 54 0 0 -
Vitesse Arnhem 21,248 10th 1971–72 39 1989–90 35 0 0 -
FC Volendam Volendam 7,384 14th 1959–60 27 2022–23 2 0 0 -

* Heracles Almelo finished first and PEC Zwolle finished second in the 2022–23 Eerste Divisie. Almere City finished 3rd and defeated FC Emmen in the playoff final.

a Founding member of the Eredivisie
b Never been relegated from the Eredivisie
c Founding member of the Eredivisie (as Sportclub Enschede)
d Founding member of the Eredivisie (as VV DOS and USV Elinkwijk)

Maps

Champions

Please note that the table below totals all winners of the Dutch top division, which included the Netherlands Football League Championship that preceded the Eredivisie. The Eredivisie was only founded in 1956 so many of these teams did not win the Eredivisie title.

Club Winner Runner-up Winning years
Ajax
36
23 1917–18, 1918–19, 1930–31, 1931–32, 1933–34, 1936–37, 1938–39, 1946–47, 1956–57, 1959–60, 1965–66, 1966–67, 1967–68, 1969–70, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1976–77, 1978–79, 1979–80, 1981–82, 1982–83, 1984–85, 1989–90, 1993–94, 1994–95, 1995–96, 1997–98, 2001–02, 2003–04, 2010–11, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14, 2018–19, 2020–21, 2021–22
PSV
25
16 1928–29, 1934–35, 1950–51, 1962–63, 1974–75, 1975–76, 1977–78, 1985–86, 1986–87, 1987–88, 1988–89, 1990–91, 1991–92, 1996–97, 1999–00, 2000–01, 2002–03, 2004–05, 2005–06, 2006–07, 2007–08, 2014–15, 2015–16, 2017–18, 2023–24
Feyenoord
16
22 1923–24, 1927–28, 1935–36, 1937–38, 1939–40, 1960–61, 1961–62, 1964–65, 1968–69, 1970–71, 1973–74, 1983–84, 1992–93, 1998–99, 2016–17, 2022–23
HVV Den Haag
10
1 1890–91, 1895–96, 1899–1900, 1900–01, 1901–02, 1902–03, 1904–05, 1906–07, 1909–10, 1913–14
Sparta Rotterdam 6 1908–09, 1910–11, 1911–12, 1912–13, 1914–15, 1958–59
RAP 5 3 1891–92, 1893–94, 1896–97, 1897–98, 1898–99
Go Ahead Eagles 4 5 1916–17, 1921–22, 1929–30, 1932–33
Koninklijke HFC 3 3 1889–90, 1892–93, 1894–95
Willem II 3 1 1915–16, 1951–52, 1954–55
HBS Craeyenhout 3 1903–04, 1905–06, 1924–25
AZ 2 3 1980–81, 2008–09
Heracles Almelo 2 1 1926–27, 1940–41
ADO Den Haag 2 1941–42, 1942–43
RCH 2 1922–23, 1952–53
NAC Breda 1 4 1920–21
FC Twente 1 3 2009–10
DWS 1 3 1963–64
Roda JC Kerkrade* 1 2 1955–56
Be Quick 1 2 1919–20
FC Eindhoven 1 2 1953–54
SC Enschede 1 1 1925–26
DOS 1 1 1957–58
FC Den Bosch 1 1 1947–48
De Volewijckers 1 1943–44
HFC Haarlem 1 1945–46
Limburgia 1 1949–50
SVV 1 1948–49
Quick Den Haag 1 1907–08
VV Concordia 1 1888–89

* As Rapid JC.

Playoffs

European competition

Position Playoff Qualification to
1st  – Champions League group stage
2nd  – Champions League third qualifying round of the League Path.
3rd  – Europa League play-off round
4th  – Europa Conference League third qualifying round
5th–8th/6th-9th European competition play-offs 4th vs 7th and 5th vs 6th or 5th vs 8th and 6th vs 7th; the two winners play each other to qualify for:
Europa Conference League second qualifying round
KNVB Cup winners  – Europa League play-off round (group stage if the Europa Conference League winners have already qualified for the UCL through their domestic league)

Relegation

Position Playoff What happens next
16th Nacompetitie The 3rd to 8th placed teams in the Keuken Kampioen Divisie compete against each other for a spot in the semi finals. The remaining 3 teams and the 16th placed team from the Eredivisie then face off in a double legged knock out system for the final place in the Eredivisie.
17th-18th Direct relegation to the Keuken Kampioen Divisie

Attendance

2018–19 Attendance
Club Attendance
Ajax 52,987
Feyenoord 42,065
PSV 34,071
FC Utrecht 18,846
SC Heerenveen 18,743
NAC Breda 18,262
FC Groningen 18,025
Vitesse 15,422
AZ 15,027
PEC Zwolle 13,478
Willem II 12,998
ADO Den Haag 12,561
De Graafschap 12,321
Heracles Almelo 10,993
Fortuna Sittard 9,100
FC Emmen 8,238
VVV Venlo 6,828
Excelsior 4,223
Average 18,010

Since the beginning of the league, there have been three clubs with an attendance much higher than the others: Ajax, PSV and Feyenoord. Clubs like Heerenveen, FC Utrecht and FC Groningen also have fairly large fanbases. The regular season average league attendance was just over 7,000 in 1990, but this figure has risen sharply over the years thanks to the opening of new stadiums and the expansion of existing ones nationwide. Average attendance for the 2018–19 season was 18,010, with Ajax having the largest (52,987) and Excelsior having the smallest (4,223). Ajax's figures however differ from those provided by the Johan Cruyff Arena since the club counts all tickets sold instead of the number of people going through the turnstiles.

All-time ranking (since 1956)

Last updated following the 2018–19 season
Playing in the Eredivisie
Playing in the Eerste Divisie
Playing in the amateur leagues
Club has been disestablished or merged into another club
Rank Club Seasons Played Won Drawn Lost Points Avg.
Points
Goals
for
Goals
against
Goal
difference
1. Ajax 63 2126 1413 381 329 4620 2,17 5386 2167 +3219
2. PSV 63 2126 1298 453 375 4347 2,04 4912 2234 +2678
3. Feyenoord 63 2126 1208 489 429 4113 1,93 4540 2440 +2100
4. FC Twente 52 1764 771 475 518 2788 1,58 2806 2247 +559
5. Sparta Rotterdam 53 1764 619 498 669 2355 1,32 2676 2801 -125
6. FC Utrecht 49 1666 618 427 621 2281 1,37 2385 2505 -120
7. AZ 41 1394 598 346 450 2140 1,54 2330 1917 +413
8. Roda JC Kerkrade 44 1496 563 391 542 2080 1,39 2260 2208 +52
9. NAC Breda 50 1688 529 440 719 2027 1,20 2239 2812 -573
10. ADO Den Haag 45 1514 501 387 626 1890 1,25 2172 2486 -314
11. FC Groningen 40 1360 464 375 521 1767 1,30 1925 2098 -173
12. Vitesse 34 1156 445 329 382 1664 1,44 1757 1605 +152
13. Willem II 43 1455 443 331 680 1660 1,14 2027 2608 -581
14. NEC 40 1360 379 382 599 1519 1,12 1565 2132 -567
15. MVV Maastricht 36 1208 350 356 502 1406 1,16 1527 1992 -465
16. SC Heerenveen 27 918 373 233 312 1352 1,47 1546 1429 +117
17. Go Ahead Eagles 31 1042 325 268 449 1243 1,19 1399 1701 -302
18. RKC Waalwijk 23 782 240 197 345 917 1,17 1014 1269 -255
19. FC Volendam 25 842 228 215 399 899 1,07 994 1513 -519
20. VVV-Venlo 22 748 207 197 344 818 1,09 968 1367 -399
21. Fortuna Sittard 20 680 188 200 292 764 1,12 806 1085 -279
22. Heracles Almelo 19 630 193 143 294 722 1,15 860 1173 -313
23. PEC Zwolle 19 646 180 175 291 715 1,11 825 1124 -299
24. HFC Haarlem 18 612 172 178 262 694 1,13 695 978 -283
25. Excelsior 22 748 168 186 394 690 0,92 830 1399 -569
26. De Graafschap 21 714 157 175 382 646 0,90 773 1373 -600
27. DOS 14 460 168 109 183 613 1,33 790 848 -58
28. AFC DWS 13 430 147 117 166 558 1,30 588 644 -56
29. Fortuna '54 12 392 141 99 152 522 1,33 635 700 -65
30. Telstar 14 468 118 140 210 494 1,06 530 754 -224
31. GVAV 13 392 123 115 154 484 1,23 533 595 -62
32. FC Den Bosch 12 442 114 123 205 465 1,05 491 756 -265
33. SC Enschede 9 294 121 77 96 440 1,50 565 490 +75
34. Rapid JC 6 204 73 47 84 266 1,30 307 350 -43
35. USV Elinkwijk 7 234 65 50 119 245 1,05 306 483 -177
36. FC Amsterdam 6 204 61 56 87 239 1,17 263 321 -58
37. Blauw-Wit 6 196 65 42 89 237 1,21 334 401 -67
38. SC Cambuur 7 238 49 64 125 211 0,89 258 437 -179
39. Holland Sport 4 136 37 34 65 145 1,07 168 279 -111
40. FC Dordrecht 6 204 31 46 127 139 0,68 208 463 -255
41. RBC Roosendaal 5 170 35 26 109 131 0,77 164 358 -194
42. TSV NOAD 4 136 33 30 73 129 0,95 187 311 -124
43. Sittardia 4 132 32 29 71 125 0,95 148 256 -108
44. Xerxes/DHC 2 68 26 17 25 95 1,40 92 95 -3
45. EVV 3 102 23 25 54 94 0,92 107 209 -102
46. BVC Amsterdam 2 68 20 20 28 80 1,18 103 130 -27
47. BVV 2 68 18 10 40 64 0,94 126 172 -46
48. SC Veendam 2 68 12 23 33 59 0,87 74 127 -53
49. FC Wageningen 2 68 13 18 37 57 0,84 72 137 -65
50. De Volewijckers 2 64 15 10 39 55 0,86 99 189 -90
51. Helmond Sport 2 68 12 18 38 54 0,79 93 162 -69
52. SVV 2 68 13 13 42 52 0,76 62 142 -80
53. Emmen 1 34 10 8 16 38 1,12 41 72 -31
54. Almere City 1 34 7 13 14 34 1,00 33 59 -26

Player records

Appearances

Rank Name Games Playing position First match Last match
1 Netherlands Pim Doesburg 687 Goalkeeper 1962–63 1986–87
2 Netherlands Jan Jongbloed 684 Goalkeeper 1959–60 1985–86
3 Netherlands Piet Schrijvers 576 Goalkeeper 1963–64 1984–85

Goals

Rank Name Goals Games Goals per game Playing position First goal Last goal
1 Netherlands Willy van der Kuijlen 311 545 0.57 Forward 1964–65 1981–82
2 Netherlands Ruud Geels 266 392 0.68 Forward 1964–65 1983–84
3 Netherlands Johan Cruijff 216 309 0.70 Forward 1964–65 1983–84
4 Netherlands Kees Kist 212 372 0.57 Forward 1972–73 1983–84
5 Netherlands Tonny van der Linden 208 456 0.46 Forward 1956–57 1966–67

Top scorers

Last updated following the 2022–23 season.[12]
Season Top Scorer(s) Goals Club(s)
1956–57 Netherlands Coen Dillen 43 PSV
1957–58 Netherlands Leo Canjels 32 NAC
1958–59 Netherlands Leo Canjels (2) 34 NAC
1959–60 Netherlands Henk Groot[13] 37 Ajax
1960–61 Netherlands Henk Groot (2) 41 Ajax
1961–62 Netherlands Dick Tol 27 FC Volendam
1962–63 Netherlands Pierre Kerkhofs 22 PSV
1963–64 Netherlands Frans Geurtsen 28 DWS
1964–65 Netherlands Frans Geurtsen (2) 23 DWS
1965–66 Netherlands Willy van der Kuijlen
Netherlands Piet Kruiver
23 PSV
Feyenoord
1966–67 Netherlands Johan Cruyff 33 Ajax
1967–68 Sweden Ove Kindvall 28 Feyenoord
1968–69 Netherlands Dick van Dijk
Sweden Ove Kindvall (2)
30 FC Twente
Feyenoord
1969–70 Netherlands Willy van der Kuijlen (2) 26 PSV
1970–71 Sweden Ove Kindvall (3) 24 Feyenoord
1971–72 Netherlands Johan Cruyff (2) 25 Ajax
1972–73 Netherlands Cas Janssens
Netherlands Willy Brokamp
18 NEC
MVV
1973–74 Netherlands Willy van der Kuijlen (3) 27 PSV
1974–75 Netherlands Ruud Geels 30 Ajax
1975–76 Netherlands Ruud Geels (2) 29 Ajax
1976–77 Netherlands Ruud Geels (3) 34 Ajax
1977–78 Netherlands Ruud Geels (4) 30 Ajax
1978–79 Netherlands Kees Kist 34 AZ Alkmaar
1979–80 Netherlands Kees Kist (2) 27 AZ Alkmaar
1980–81 Netherlands Ruud Geels (5) 22 Sparta
1981–82 Netherlands Wim Kieft 32 Ajax
1982–83 Netherlands Peter Houtman 30 Feyenoord
1983–84 Netherlands Marco van Basten 28 Ajax
1984–85 Netherlands Marco van Basten (2) 22 Ajax
1985–86 Netherlands Marco van Basten (3) 37 Ajax
1986–87 Netherlands Marco van Basten (4) 31 Ajax
1987–88 Netherlands Wim Kieft (2) 29 PSV
1988–89 Brazil Romário 19 PSV
1989–90 Brazil Romário (2) 23 PSV
1990–91 Brazil Romário (3)[14]
Netherlands Dennis Bergkamp[14]
25 PSV
Ajax
1991–92 Netherlands Dennis Bergkamp (2)[15] 24 Ajax
1992–93 Netherlands Dennis Bergkamp (3)[16] 26 Ajax
1993–94 Finland Jari Litmanen 26 Ajax
1994–95 Brazil Ronaldo 30 PSV
1995–96 Belgium Luc Nilis 21 PSV
1996–97 Belgium Luc Nilis (2) 21 PSV
1997–98 Greece Nikos Machlas 34 Vitesse
1998–99 Netherlands Ruud van Nistelrooy 31 PSV
1999–2000 Netherlands Ruud van Nistelrooy (2) 29 PSV
2000–01 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Mateja Kežman 24 PSV
2001–02 Netherlands Pierre van Hooijdonk 24 Feyenoord
2002–03 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Mateja Kežman (2) 35 PSV
2003–04 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Mateja Kežman (3) 31 PSV
2004–05 Netherlands Dirk Kuyt 29 Feyenoord
2005–06 Netherlands Klaas-Jan Huntelaar 33 SC Heerenveen/Ajax
2006–07 Brazil Afonso Alves 34 SC Heerenveen
2007–08 Netherlands Klaas-Jan Huntelaar (2) 33 Ajax
2008–09 Morocco Mounir El Hamdaoui 23 AZ
2009–10 Uruguay Luis Suárez 35 Ajax
2010–11 Belgium Björn Vleminckx 23 NEC
2011–12 Netherlands Bas Dost 32 SC Heerenveen
2012–13 Ivory Coast Wilfried Bony 31 Vitesse
2013–14 Iceland Alfreð Finnbogason 29 SC Heerenveen
2014–15 Netherlands Memphis Depay 22 PSV
2015–16 Netherlands Vincent Janssen 27 AZ
2016–17 Denmark Nicolai Jørgensen 21 Feyenoord
2017–18 Iran Alireza Jahanbakhsh 21 AZ
2018–19 Netherlands Luuk de Jong
Serbia Dušan Tadić
28 PSV
Ajax
2019–20 Netherlands Steven Berghuis
Belgium Cyriel Dessers
15 Feyenoord
Heracles Almelo
2020–21 Greece Giorgos Giakoumakis 26 VVV-Venlo
2021–22 Ivory Coast Sébastien Haller 21 Ajax
2022–23 Greece Anastasios Douvikas
Netherlands Xavi Simons
19 FC Utrecht
PSV

Eredivisie teams and major UEFA and FIFA competitions

The following sixteen international tournaments were won by Eredivisie teams:

The UEFA Super Cup was founded by a Dutch reporter named Anton Witkamp and Ajax's 1973 win was the first time the tournament was contested officially.[17]

Sponsorship names for seasons

  • Eredivisie (1956–1990)
  • PTT-Telecompetitie (1990–1999)
  • KPN-Telecompetitie (1999–2000)
  • KPN Eredivisie (2000–2002)
  • Holland Casino Eredivisie (2002–2005)
  • Eredivisie (2005–present)

See also

References

  1. ^ "Country coefficients | UEFA Coefficients". UEFA.com. July 2018. Archived from the original on 4 December 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  2. ^ "Reglement play-off promotie/degradatie betaald voetbal seizoen 2021/'22". Archived from the original on 1 May 2022. Retrieved 1 May 2022.
  3. ^ van der Kraan, Marcel (8 August 2012). "Murdoch koopt tv-rechten eredivisie". De Telegraaf. TMG Landelijke Media B.V. Archived from the original on 2 October 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  4. ^ Seegers, Jules (8 August 2012). "5 vragen over wat de deal Murdoch-Eredivisie betekent voor de kijker". nrc.nl. NRC Media. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  5. ^ "Netherlands – Regional Analysis". RSSSF. Archived from the original on 8 August 2022. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  6. ^ a b c "Eredivisie – ontstaan" (in Dutch). Vak Q. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  7. ^ "Professionalism and European Games". TimeRime. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  8. ^ "De Watersnoodwedstrijd van Cor van der Hart" (in Dutch). Sportgeschiedenis. Archived from the original on 21 October 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  9. ^ "Netherlands Final Tables 1950–1954". RSSSF. Archived from the original on 19 August 2022. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  10. ^ "Netherlands 1954/55". RSSSF. Archived from the original on 26 July 2022. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  11. ^ a b "Netherlands 1956/57". RSSSF. Archived from the original on 26 July 2022. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  12. ^ Eredivisie Top Scorers Archived 27 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine - rsssf
  13. ^ Topscorers Eredivisie 1959–1960[permanent dead link], Eredivisielive.nl (Dutch)
  14. ^ a b Topscorers Eredivisie 1990–1991[permanent dead link], Eredivisielive.nl (Dutch)
  15. ^ Topscorers Eredivisie 1991–1992[permanent dead link], Eredivisielive.nl (Dutch)
  16. ^ Topscorers Eredivisie 1992–1993[permanent dead link], Eredivisielive.nl (Dutch)
  17. ^ UEFA.com (16 August 2023). "UEFA Super Cup history | UEFA Super Cup". UEFA.com. Retrieved 18 May 2024.

External links

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