To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Epistle to Titus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Epistle of Paul to Titus, usually referred to simply as Titus, is one of the three Pastoral Epistles (along with 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy) in the New Testament, historically attributed to Paul the Apostle. It is addressed to Saint Titus and describes the requirements and duties of elders and bishops.[1]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    272 115
    11 465
    16 076
    3 265
    3 158
  • ✪ Read Scripture: Titus
  • ✪ Titus 1:1a
  • ✪ Chuck Missler - Timothy, Titus & Philemon - Session 1
  • ✪ Titus 1:5 to 11
  • ✪ Titus 3:1 to 6




Not mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles, Saint Titus was noted in Galatians (cf. Gal. 2:1, 3) where Paul wrote of journeying to Jerusalem with Barnabas, accompanied by Titus. He was then dispatched to Corinth, Greece, where he successfully reconciled the Christian community there with Paul, its founder. Titus was later left on the island of Crete to help organize the Church, and later met back with the Apostle Paul in Nicopolis. He soon went to Dalmatia (now Croatia). According to Eusebius of Caesarea in the Ecclesiastical History, he served as the first bishop of Crete and remained there in his old years.[citation needed] He was buried in Cortyna (Gortyna), Crete; his head was later removed to Venice during the invasion of Crete by the Saracens in 832 and was enshrined in St Mark's Basilica, Venice, Italy.[citation needed]


Scholars are not unanimous about the authenticity of the pastoral epistles,[1][page needed] but it is considered pseudepigraphic by about 80% of scholars.[2] Titus is usually one of the three Pastoral epistles attributed to Paul. Titus has a very close affinity with 1 Timothy, sharing similar phrases and expressions and similar subject matter.[3][4]

Pauline authenticity

The author of Titus identifies himself as "Paul, a servant of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ." According to Easton's Bible Dictionary (1893), The Epistle was probably written about the same time as the First Epistle to Timothy, with which it has many affinities."[5]

Scholars who believe Paul wrote Titus date its composition from the circumstance that it was written after Paul's visit to Crete (Titus 1:5). That visit could not be the one referred to in the Acts of the Apostles 27:7, when Paul was on his voyage to Rome as a prisoner, and where he continued a prisoner for two years. Thus traditional exegesis supposes that after his release Paul sailed from Rome into Asia, passing Crete by the way, and that there he left Titus "to set in order the things that were wanting." Thence he would have gone to Ephesus, where he left Timothy, and from Ephesus to Macedonia, where he wrote the First Epistle to Timothy, and thence, according to the subscription of this epistle, to "Nicopolis of Macedonia",[6] from which place he wrote to Titus, about 66 or 67.

The first page of the epistle in Minuscule 699 gives its title as 'προς τιτον, "To Titus."
The first page of the epistle in Minuscule 699 gives its title as 'προς τιτον, "To Titus."

Recent scholarship has revived the theory that Paul used an amanuensis, or secretaries, in writing his letters (e.g. Rom 16:22), but possibly Luke for the pastorals[7][8] This was a common practice in ancient letter writing, even for the biblical writers.[9][10]

Opposed to Pauline authenticity

The Pastoral epistles are regarded by a majority of scholars as being pseudepigraphical.[2] On the basis of the language and content of the pastoral epistles, these scholars today doubt that they were written by Paul and believe that they were written after his death. Critics claim the vocabulary and style of the Pauline letters could not have been written by Paul according to available biographical information and reflect the views of the emerging Church rather than the apostle's. These scholars date the epistle from the 80s AD up to the end of the 2nd century.[11] The Church of England's Common Worship Lectionary Scripture Commentary concurs with this view: "the proportioning of the theological and practical themes is one factor that leads us to think of these writings as coming from the post-Pauline church world of the late first or early second century".[12]

Epimenides paradox

One of the secular peculiarities of the Epistle to Titus is the reference to the Epimenides paradox: "One of the Cretans, a prophet of their own, said, 'Cretans are always liars'."[13] The statement by a member of a group that all members are liars is a famous logic problem, applicable also to Psalms 116:11.[citation needed]

False teachers

In Titus 1:9 Paul describes some among the Jewish Christians as false teachers.[14][15] Paul describes the false teachers as rebellious, empty talkers who claim to teach the law "without understanding"[16] and deceivers who deliberately lead the faithful astray.[17] Calvin wrote that vain talking (Greek: mataiologia) is contrasted here with useful doctrine, including any trivial and frivolous doctrines that contribute nothing to piety and fear of God.[18]

See also


  1. ^ a b Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  2. ^ a b S.J., Felix Just,. "Deutero-Pauline Letters".
  3. ^ William Paley Horae Paulinae (1785)
  4. ^ Bart D. Ehrman. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. pp. 385ff
  5. ^ "Titus, Epistle to".
  6. ^ "It was written to Titus, ordained the first bishop of the church of the Cretians, from Nicopolis of Macedonia." —Authorized Version subscription after Titus 3:15
    • Note: Sources that say Nicopolis was in Epirus are technically correct, but Epirus had become part of Macedonia (Roman province) in 146 BCE. In 110 CE under Trajan it became a province in its own right, separate from Macedonia and Achaia. The expression "Nicopolis of Macedonia" in Paul's timeframe is valid.
  7. ^ George W. Knight, The Pastoral Epistles: A Commentary on the Greek Text, New International Greek Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI; Carlisle, England: W.B. Eerdmans; Paternoster Press, 1992), 48.
  8. ^ William D. Mounce, Pastoral Epistles, vol. 46, Word Biblical Commentary (Dallas: Word, Incorporated, 2000), cxxix.
  9. ^ Richards, E. Randolph. Paul and First-Century Letter Writing: Secretaries, Composition and Collection. Downers Grove, IL; Leicester, England: InterVarsity Press; Apollos, 2004.
  10. ^ Harry Y. Gamble, “Amanuensis,” ed. David Noel Freedman, The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (New York: Doubleday, 1992), 172.
  11. ^ Raymond E. Brown. An Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Anchor Bible, p. 662
  12. ^ Houlden and Rogerson (2001). Common Worship Lectionary: a Scriptures Commentary. London: SPCK. p. 18.
  13. ^ Titus 1:12–13
  14. ^ Titus 1:9–16
  15. ^ Arichea, Daniel Castillo; Hatton, Howard (1995). A handbook on Paul's letters to Timothy and to Titus. New York: United Bible Societies. ISBN 978-0-8267-0168-8.
  16. ^ 1 Timothy 1:6
  17. ^ Towner, Philip H (1994). 1–2 Timothy [and] Titus. Downers Grove (Ill.): InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0-8308-1814-3.
  18. ^ Calvin, Jean; Calvin Translation Society (1844). Calvin's commentaries ... Edinburgh: Printed for the Calvin Translation Society.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainEaston, Matthew George (1897). "Titus, Epistle to" . Easton's Bible Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons.

External links

Online translations of the Epistle to Titus:

Exegetical papers on Titus:

Epistle to Titus
Preceded by
Second Timothy
New Testament
Books of the Bible
Succeeded by
This page was last edited on 21 January 2019, at 06:08
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.