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Enemy of the people

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The term enemy of the people or enemy of the nation, is a designation for the political or class opponents of the subgroup in power within a larger group. The term implies that by opposing the ruling subgroup, the "enemies" in question are acting against the larger group, for example against society as a whole. It is similar to the notion of "enemy of the state". The term originated in Roman times as Latin: hostis publicus, typically translated into English as the "public enemy". The term in its "enemy of the people" form has been used for centuries in literature (see An Enemy of the People, the play by Henrik Ibsen, 1882; or Coriolanus, the play by William Shakespeare, c. 1605).

The Soviet Union made extensive use of the term until 1956. Since early 2017 it has been used on multiple occasions by US President Donald Trump to refer to news organizations and journalists whom he considers to be biased.

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  • ✪ How Plays Work: An Enemy of the People by Henrik Ibsen
  • ✪ A Scene from An Enemy of the People | Goodman Theatre
  • ✪ An Enemy of the People - by Henrik Ibsen - Audiobook

Transcription

Welcome back to my series where I look at some of the world's greatest playwrights. Please do consider subscribing if you haven't yet and to give this video a thumbs up if you enjoy it. Today we're looking at the work of Henrik Ibsen. I tend to talk about the work of Ibsen quite a lot and so I thought it was worth me getting my Ibsen love-in out of the way quite early on in this series. There are many aspects of ibsen's work that we could focus on. We could look at his use of architecture and landscape as semiotic systems, we could look at his development from writing in poetry to writing in prose. But what I'd like to focus on today however is his development of the problem play. The problem play, typified by perhaps his most famous works A Doll's House and An Enemy of the People, takes as its subject a contemporary issues and explores it throughout the play. In the former example, Ibsen explores the differences in social consideration given to men and to women, in the latter example the collision of scientific fact and popular opinion. John McGrath rightly criticises this work, and that of Ibsen's European contemporaries, for being too focused on the ins and outs of middle-class life. This is a fair criticism but it is not a construction of Ibsen's or Strindberg's or Shaw's but is in fact something which they inherit from Western liberalism as a whole. Therefore I don't think we can place the blame for this entirely at their feet. So I'd like to bracket off that issue for today. What I'd like to focus on instead is Ibsen's ability to avoid resolution, to place the moral scales of his plays in such a balance that he leaves his audiences with nothing more than more questions rather than any fundamental, structured answers. It is a trait which many, many writers have tried to emulate but very few have managed to completely reproduce since. So I'd like to focus today on An Enemy of the People, a play which has very contemporary resonances. We've heard the phrase itself invoked on both sides of the Atlantic to refer to both the press and the legal system and therefore I think it's worth examining today. A quick overview then. Dr. Stockman is a medical doctor and scientist who, much like many other Ibsen characters, seems to also write for the local newspaper. At the opening of the play he has just discovered that the pipes which run water to the local baths have been contaminated and thus must be relaid. The local newspaper for which Dr. Stockmann occasionally writes is keen to use this particular expose as the starting point for a wider expose of corruption in the local government. The mayor, who also happens to be Dr. Stockman's brother, is, then, very keen to see this article doesn't see the light of day. The main problem is the fact that the economy of the town in which they live very much relies on these baths. To expose this contamination then would be to put the town's entire economy in jeopardy. At the midpoint of the play, the newspaper editors have a change of heart and turn the town against Dr. Stockman, thus setting up the central conceit of this play: the collision between what Dr. Stockman knows to be true and what the town wants to believe is true. The term dialectical theatre wouldn't come into use until Bertolt Brecht used it to describe his own work towards the end of his career. The concept of the dialectical method generally was developed by Hegel and it essentially means that you should first take one side of an argument, the thesis, before taking the antithesis, the opposing side of that argument, before finally resolving the two in some sort of synthesis, either a new direction that that argument could go in or something completely different altogether. This is not what Ibsen does. This synthesis is very much present in the work of Brecht but also in the State of the Nation plays of David Edgar and the like and essentially tends to mean the moral message that we go home with after having watched the play. However the problem plays of Ibsen emphatically refuse such a resolution. During Act Two, Dr. Stockman is extolling the virtues of liberal democracy. As his fellow citizens agree with him he is very much in favour of the idea of popular democracy. This very much represents the thesis of the play. The antithesis then comes when the newspaper editors turn the town against Dr. Stockman and suddenly his thoughts towards democracy and this anti fact populism which seems to be growing around him are less than positive. Now, the Brechtian or Hegelian response to this would be, at the end of the play, to synthesize these two arguments to perhaps present a different way of making decisions based neither on the science of experts nor on the popular decision making of the populace. What Ibsen does, however, is to present these two ideals as fundamentally irreconcilable. It is impossible for the idea of democracy and technocracy to live purely alongside each other. Ultimately, this leaves us, the audience, with a sense of irresolution at the end of the play, in doing so deferring the synthesis element of Hegel's method on to us. In doing so, Ibsen manages to throw open a debate whilst avoiding making any broad moralistic, propagandist arguments. I believe we can see a similar notion in A Doll's House. While in a contemporary reading it might be tempting to cast Torvald in the role of the villain of the piece, I believe that Torvald comes across, more often than not, as a weak man whose opinions and viewpoints particularly towards women are defined as much by the society which exists around him as from his own personal beliefs. Watching the play today, it seems like nothing more than common sense that Nora should leave at the end of it, yet I think with only applying a very minor bit of moral relativism we can see why the play might have been more controversial back in the late 19th century. In both these plays, then, Ibsen sheds light on a very contemporary issue of his time, both of which happened to be quite contemporary now too, without forcing the point of view of his own upon us. It's something that many writers of all forms have tried to replicate since but which very few have truly succeeded in and certainly something I think we could all take a slice of advice from in writing our own work. Thank you very much for watching this video, if you've enjoyed please give it a thumbs up or leave me a comment in the comments. It's always lovely to hear feedback either about stuff you really liked about this or perhaps some stuff that you thought could have been slightly better. And, if you haven't yet, then please do subscribe, that would be great, and then you'll get a little like notification through when I upload the next one. Have a great week, thank you very much!

Contents

Origins of the expression

The expression dates back to Roman times.[1] The Senate declared emperor Nero a hostis publicus in AD 68.[2] Its direct translation is "public enemy". Whereas "public" is currently used in English in order to describe something related to collectivity at large, with an implication towards government or the State, the Latin word "publicus" could, in addition to that meaning, also refer directly to people, making it the equivalent of the genitive of populus ("people"), populi ("popular" or "of the people"). Thus, "public enemy" and "enemy of the people" are, etymollogycally, near-synonyms.

The words "ennemi du peuple" were extensively used during the French revolution. On 25 December 1793 Robespierre stated: "The revolutionary government owes to the good citizen all the protection of the nation; it owes nothing to the Enemies of the People but death".[3] The Law of 22 Prairial in 1794 extended the remit of the Revolutionary Tribunal to punish "enemies of the people", with some political crimes punishable by death, including "spreading false news to divide or trouble the people".[4]

Marxist–Leninist states

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union made extensive use of the term (Russian: враг народа, vrag naroda), as it fit well with the idea that the people were in control. The term was used by Vladimir Lenin after coming to power, as early as in the decree of 28 November 1917:

all leaders of the Constitutional Democratic Party, a party filled with enemies of the people, are hereby to be considered outlaws, and are to be arrested immediately and brought before the revolutionary court.[5]

Other similar terms were in use as well:

  • enemy of the labourers (враг трудящихся, vrag trudyashchikhsya)
  • enemy of the proletariat (враг пролетариата, vrag proletariata)
  • class enemy (классовый враг, klassovyi vrag), etc.

In particular, the term "enemy of the workers" was formalized in the Article 58 (RSFSR Penal Code),[6] and similar articles in the codes of the other Soviet Republics.

At various times these terms were applied, in particular, to Tsar Nicholas II and the Imperial family, aristocrats, the bourgeoisie, clerics, business entrepreneurs, anarchists, kulaks, monarchists, Mensheviks, Esers, Bundists, Trotskyists, Bukharinists, the "old Bolsheviks", the army and police, emigrants, saboteurs, wreckers (вредители, "vrediteli"), "social parasites" (тунеядцы, "tuneyadtsy"), Kavezhedists (people who administered and serviced the KVZhD (China Far East Railway), particularly the Russian population of Harbin, China), those considered bourgeois nationalists (notably Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Armenian, Lithuanian, Latvian, Estonian nationalists, Zionists, Basmachi).[7]

An "enemy of the people" could be imprisoned, expelled or executed, and lose their property to confiscation. Close relatives of enemies of the people were labeled as "traitor of Motherland family members" and prosecuted. They could be sent to Gulag, punished by the involuntary settlement in unpopulated areas, or stripped of citizen's rights. Being a friend of an enemy of the people automatically placed the person under suspicion.

A majority of the enemies of the people were given this label not because of their hostile actions against the workers' and peasants' state, but simply because of their social origin or profession before the revolution[citation needed]: those who used hired labor, high-ranking clergy, former policemen, merchants, etc. Some of them were commonly known as lishentsy (лишенцы, derived from Russian word лишение, deprivation), because by the Soviet Constitution they were deprived of the right of voting. This automatically translated into a deprivation of various social benefits; some of them, e.g., rationing, were at times critical for survival.

Since 1927, Article 20 of the Common Part of the penal code that listed possible "measures of social defence" had the following item 20a: "declaration to be an enemy of the workers with deprivation of the union republic citizenship and hence of the USSR citizenship, with obligatory expulsion from its territory". Nevertheless, most "enemies of the people" suffered labor camps, rather than expulsion.

“Stalin originated the concept ‘enemy of the people.’ This term automatically made it unnecessary that the ideological errors of a man or men engaged in a controversy be proven. It made possible the use of the cruelest repression, violating all norms of [...] legality, against anyone who in any way disagreed with Stalin, against those who were only suspected of hostile intent, against those who had bad reputations ... The formula ‘enemy of the people’ was specifically introduced for the purpose of physically annihilating such individuals.” From “The cult of the individual”, a speech delivered to the 20th congress of the Communist Party of the USSR on February 25, 1956 by Nikita Khrushchev.

For decades afterwards, "It was so omnipresent, freighted and devastating in its use under Stalin that nobody [in Russia] wanted to touch it. ... except in reference to history and in jokes", according to an author of a biography of Khrushchev, William Taubman.[4]

The term returned to Russian public discourse in the late 2000s with a number of nationalist and pro-government politicians (most notably Ramzan Kadyrov) calling for restoration of the Soviet approach to the "enemies of the people" defined as all non-system opposition.[8][9][10]

China

In Mao Zedong's 1957 speech On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People, he comments that "At the present stage, the period of building socialism, the classes, strata and social groups which favour, support and work for the cause of socialist construction all come within the category of the people, while the social forces and groups which resist the socialist revolution and are hostile to or sabotage socialist construction are all enemies of the people."[11] (According to Philip Short, an author of biographies of Mao and Cambodia's Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot, in domestic political struggles Chinese and Cambodian communists rarely if ever used the phrase "enemy of the people" as they were very nationalistic, and saw it as an alien import.)[4]

Nazi Germany

Regarding the Nazi plan to relocate all Jews to Madagascar, the Nazi tabloid Der Stürmer wrote that "The Jews don't want to go to Madagascar – They cannot bear the climate. Jews are pests and disseminators of diseases. In whatever country they settle and spread themselves out, they produce the same effects as are produced in the human body by germs. ... In former times sane people and sane leaders of the peoples made short shrift of enemies of the people. They had them either expelled or killed."[12]

United States in the 1960s

In the United States during the 1960s, leftist organizations such as the Black Panther Party[13][14][15] and Students for a Democratic Society[16] were known to use the term. In one inter-party dispute in February 1971, for example, Black Panther leader Huey P. Newton denounced two other Panthers as "enemies of the people" for allegedly putting party leaders and members in jeopardy.[14]

Usage in the 2010s

United Kingdom

During the aftermath of the referendum on membership of the European Union, the Daily Mail was criticized for a headline describing the judges which ruled (in the Miller case) as "Enemies of the People" for ruling that the process for leaving the European Union (i.e. the triggering of Article 50) would require the consent of the British Parliament. The May administration had hoped to use the powers of the royal prerogative to bypass parliamentary approval.[17] The paper issued character assassinations of all the judges involved in the ruling (Lord Chief Justice Lord Thomas, Sir Terence Etherton, and Lord Justice Sales), and received more than 1,000 complaints to the Independent Press Standards Organisation.[18][19] The Secretary of State for Justice, Liz Truss issued a three line statement defending the independence and impartiality of the judiciary, which some saw as inadequate due to the delayed response and failure to condemn the attacks.[20][21]

United States

Donald J. Trump via Twitter
@realDonaldTrump

The FAKE NEWS media (failing @nytimes, @NBCNews, @ABC, @CBS, @CNN) is not my enemy, it is the enemy of the American People!

18 February 2017[22]

On February 17, 2017, President of the United States Donald Trump declared on Twitter that The New York Times, NBC News, ABC, CBS, and CNN were "fake news" and the "enemy of the people".[23] Trump repeated the assertion on February 24 at the Conservative Political Action Conference, saying, "A few days ago I called the fake news the enemy of the people and they are. They are the enemy of the people."[24][4] At a June 25, 2018 rally in South Carolina, Trump singled out journalists as "fake newsers" and again called them "the enemy of the people."[25][26] Some commentators linked these comments to a mass shooting at the offices of a newspaper publisher in Annapolis, Maryland, that took place only days later, on June 28.[27][28][29] On July 19, 2018, following the critical reaction to his meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin on July 15, 2018 in Helsinki, Finland, Trump tweeted "The Summit with Russia was a great success, except with the real enemy of the people, the Fake News Media."[30] The New York Times noted Trump's use of this phrase during his "moments of peak criticism" and use of the term by Nazi and Soviet propaganda.[31]

On August 2, 2018, after Trump tweeted "FAKE NEWS media... is the enemy of the American People",[32][33][34] multiple international institutions such as the United Nations and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights criticized Trump for his attacks on the free press.[35] On August 16, 2018, the United States Senate unanimously passed a resolution affirming that the media is not "the enemy of the people." This came several days after more than 350 media organizations editorialized in opposition to Trump's frequent attacks on the press. The resolution, which "Reaffirm[ed] the vital and indispensable role the free press serves," was seen as a symbolic rebuke to Trump. It passed by unanimous consent, in which the votes of individual Senators are not recorded.[36][37]

See also

References

Citations
  1. ^ see also Jal, Paul (1963) Hostis (publicus) dans la littérature latine de la fin de la République, footnotes 1 and 2
  2. ^ Garzetti, Albino (2014) From Tiberius to the Antonines: A History of the Roman Empire AD 14-192, Routledge. p.220 ISBN 9781317698432
  3. ^ Robespierre"Le but du gouvernement constitutionnel est de conserver la République ; celui du gouvernement révolutionnaire est de la fonder. […] Le gouvernement révolutionnaire doit au bon citoyen toute la protection nationale ; il ne doit aux Ennemis du Peuple que la mort" (speech at the National Convention
  4. ^ a b c d Higgins, Andrew (February 26, 2017) "Trump Embraces ‘Enemy of the People,’ a Phrase With a Fraught History" The New York Times
  5. ^ Werth, Nicolas; Bartošek, Karel; Panné, Jean-Louis; Margolin, Jean-Louis; Paczkowski, Andrzej; and Courtois, Stéphane (1999) The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-07608-7
  6. ^ "Article 58", an online excerpt
  7. ^ ""Seventeen Moments in Soviet History"".
  8. ^ Staff (2006). "Опубликован шорт-лист претендентов на звание "враг народа в левом движении"". Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  9. ^ Staff (2015). "Кадыров призвал относиться к внесистемной оппозиции как к врагам народа". Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  10. ^ Staff (2014). "На площадке путинского "Народного фронта" предложили вернуть в употребление статус "враг народа"". Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  11. ^ Mao Zedong (February 27, 1957) On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People pp.2–3
  12. ^ "The Germ". Der Stürmer (38). September 1938.
  13. ^ Hilliard, David (ed.). The Black Panther. Simon and Schuster. p. 48,. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  14. ^ a b Ashbury, Edith Evans (February 10, 1971). "Newton Denounces 2 Missing Panthers". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  15. ^ Faraj, Gaidi (2007). Unearthing the Underground: A Study of Radical Activism in the Black Panther ... Ann Arbor, Michigan: Proquest. p. 161. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  16. ^ Hogan, Doug (February 9, 1970). "In Search Of The 'Real S.D.S.' Favoring A Campus Worker-Student Alliance". Marxist.org. The Stanford Daily. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  17. ^ Phipps, Claire (November 4, 2016). "British newspapers react to judges' Brexit ruling: 'Enemies of the people'". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  18. ^ Pells, Rachael (November 10, 2016). "Daily Mail's 'Enemies of the People' front page receives more than 1,000 complaints to IPSO". The Independent. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  19. ^ Coe, Jonathan (January 27, 2017). "Is Donald Trump 'Mr. Brexit'?". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  20. ^ Worley, Will. "Liz Truss breaks her silence but fails to condemn backlash over Brexit ruling". The Independent. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  21. ^ Staff and Agencies (November 5, 2016). "Liz Truss defends judiciary after Brexit ruling criticism". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  22. ^ Donald J. Trump [@realDonaldTrump] (18 February 2017). "The FAKE NEWS media (failing @nytimes, @NBCNews, @ABC, @CBS, @CNN) is not my enemy, it is the enemy of the American People!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  23. ^ Erickson, Amanda (February 18, 2017)"Trump called the news media an ‘enemy of the American People.’ Here’s a history of the term" The Washington Post
  24. ^ Shuham, Matt (February 24, 2017). "Trump: 'Enemy Of The People' Media Makes Up Anonymous Sources". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  25. ^ Jonathan Chait (June 25, 2018). "Trump compares his propaganda to North Korea's at Bizarre South Carolina rally". New York Magazine. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
  26. ^ Baynes, Chris. "Maryland shooting: Trump ducks questions over Capital Gazette killings, as president's attacks on journalists come into focus". The Independent. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  27. ^ Pope, Kyle (June 29, 2018). "The war against the press comes to the local newsroom". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  28. ^ Mayfield, Mandy (June 28, 2018). "Journalists call out Trump for anti-press rhetoric following Annapolis newsroom shooting". Washington Examiner. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  29. ^ Kirell, Andrew; Arciga, Julia. "Trump Now Says Journalists Should Be 'Free From Fear' After Previously Calling Them 'Enemies of the People'". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  30. ^ "Donald J. Trump on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  31. ^ Davis, William P. (July 20, 2018). "'Enemy of the People': Trump Breaks Out This Phrase During Moments of Peak Criticism". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  32. ^ Trump, Donald J. (17 February 2017). "The FAKE NEWS media (failing @nytimes, @NBCNews, @ABC, @CBS, @CNN) is not my enemy, it is the enemy of the American People!".
  33. ^ "Trump declares 'fake news' media 'the enemy of the American people'". USA TODAY.
  34. ^ Katie Rogers (2018-08-02). "Are Journalists the Enemy of the People? Ivanka Trump Says They're Not". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  35. ^ Michael M. Grynbaum (2018-08-02). "CNN's Jim Acosta Challenges Sarah Huckabee Sanders, Then Makes a Quick Exit". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  36. ^ Reiss, Jaclyn (August 16, 2018) "US Senate unanimously passes resolution affirming the press ‘is not the enemy of the people’" The Boston Globe
  37. ^ 2018 Congressional Record, Vol. 164, Page S5681 (August 16, 2018)
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