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Emma of Paris, Duchess of Normandy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coat-of--arms of Capetids.
Coat-of--arms of Capetids.

Emma of Paris (943 – 19 March 968), was a duchess consort of Normandy, married to Richard I, Duke of Normandy. She was the daughter of Count Hugh the Great of Paris and Hedwiga de Sachsen and sister of Hugh Capet, king of France.

Emma was betrothed to Richard I in her childhood as a part of an alliance between Normandy and Paris against the French royal house. The marriage took place in 960. The union gave a permanent and useful status to Normandy, especially since the brother of Emma became king in 987. Emma has been pointed out as the mother of Emma of Normandy, but this is not chronologically possible. Emma died childless.

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  • S.S. Quanza: Journey of Refugees from Lisbon to Norfolk

Transcription

As you scan these walls you'll see several items related to Virginia and World War II. These items range from ration cards, war bonds, and even a uniform worn by Bedford Boy Ray Nance as they stormed the beaches of Normandy. These items show how Virginians made sacrifices both at home and abroad for the war effort. The item that I'll be discussing today tells the story of a ship's journey from Lisbon, Portugal, to the shores of Virginia. The ship the S.S. Quanza ferried more than three hundred refugees fleeing Nazi-occupied Europe. Shown here is a detailed model of the S.S. Quanza, equipped with lifeboats, anchors, and light fixtures. The actual ship weighed more than six thousand tons and had been in service since 1929. Its main route was from Lisbon, Portugal, to South Africa, but in August of 1940, it took a much different route: it would make its first transatlantic voyage. On August 8, 1940, the S.S. Quanza left Lisbon, Portugal, carrying 317 mostly Jewish refugees. Their destination was first New York City, and then on to Vera Cruz, Mexico, where with the appropriate documentation they would be allowed off the ship. They arrived in New York City on August 19, 1940, where just under two hundred refugees got off the ship. The remaining refugees hoped to find safety at their next stop in Vera Cruz, Mexico, but something went wrong. According to one passenger, "We arrived in Vera Cruz, Mexico, on August 30, 1940, and they began to let people to debark, and everything seemed to be going well, when the number reached around 36 people, something suddenly went wrong, and they stopped permitting people to leave the ship. Thus we are among the 81 who remained, and now it turns out we have to go back to hell." But before they headed back to Portugal, they had to make one more stop to take on coal. This stop was in Norfolk, Virginia, and it would save their lives. Once the refugees found out they would be making a stop in Norfolk, many began contacting lawyers in the United States to see if they could do anything to help them out. One of these lawyers answered the call. J. L. Morewitz, an admiralty lawyer from Newport News, Virginia had been contacted by a New York businessman to see if he could help out the Rand family aboard the Quanza. Morewitz, a graduate of Richmond College, believe the longer he kept the Quanza in Norfolk, the better chance he had of saving the refugees. On September 11, 1940, as the Quanza reached Coal Pier number two in Norfolk, one of the passengers was so desperate, he jumped off the ship and swam to shore. He was quickly found and taken back to the Quanza. The boat's captain kept armed guards to keep order. The refugees were not allowed to get off the boat, and no one could come on the boat. The ship's captain expected to refuel and then leave later that night. Morewitz knew he had to act quickly. He filed a $100,000 lawsuit against the ship's owner, claiming that they broke the contract agreeing to let the Rand family off in Vera Cruz. The lawsuit would give Morewitz the time he needed. As the ship continued its stay at Norfolk, it gained media coverage and support from refugee advocates. One of these refugee advocates was Eleanor Roosevelt. Mrs. Roosevelt, who was also head of the U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children, was deeply concerned for the well-being of the 86 refugees still left on the boat. She was able to pressure the president enough to get him to create a task force to look into the situation of these immigrants. They sent officials to Norfolk, Virginia, and found that these refugee should be allowed to enter U.S. soil. The president then issued an Executive Order to let the refugees enter America. These 86 refugees eventually became naturalized citizens and none were sent back to Nazi Germany.

References

Preceded by Duchess consort of Normandy
960–968
Succeeded by
This page was last edited on 24 August 2020, at 12:55
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