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Emergency Alert System

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Emergency Alert System
TypeEmergency warning system
United States
Radio transmitters77 designated Primary Entry Point (PEP) stations, and all broadcast stations and cable systems
Broadcast area
Varies; nationwide for national activation, up to 32 counties or states otherwise.
Launch date
January 1, 1997
ReplacedEmergency Broadcast System

The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is a national warning system in the United States designed to allow authorized officials to coordinate and disseminate emergency alerts and warning messages to the public via terrestrial and satellite radio and television (including broadcast and multichannel television).

The EAS became operational on January 1, 1997 (after being approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in November 1994),[1] replacing the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS). Like the EBS, the system is primarily designed to allow the president to address the country via all radio and television stations, in the event of a national emergency. Despite this, neither the system nor its predecessors have been used in this manner, due to the ubiquity of news coverage in these situations. In practice, it is more commonly used at a regional scale to distribute information regarding imminent threats to public safety, such as severe weather situations (including flash floods and tornadoes), AMBER Alerts, and other civil emergencies.

It is jointly coordinated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The EAS regulations and standards are governed by the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau of the FCC. All broadcast and satellite television and radio stations, as well as cable television systems, are required to participate in the system.[2]

The EAS is a front-end to the Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS), which coordinates the distribution of alert information via multiple channels including the EAS, such as Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA), using the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP).[3]

Technical concept

Messages in the EAS are composed of four parts: a digitally encoded Specific Area Message Encoding (SAME) header, an attention signal, an audio announcement, and a digitally encoded end-of-message marker.

A Sage EAS ENDEC unit
A Sage EAS ENDEC unit

The About this soundSAME header  is the most critical part of the EAS design. It contains information about who originated the alert (the president, state or local authorities, the National Weather Service (NOAA/NWS), or the broadcaster), a short, general description of the event (tornado, flood, severe thunderstorm), the areas affected (up to 32 counties or states), the expected duration of the event (in minutes), the date and time it was issued (in UTC), and an identification of the originating station (see SAME for a complete breakdown of the header).

There are 77 radio stations designated as National Primary Stations in the Primary Entry Point (PEP) System to distribute presidential messages to other broadcast stations and cable systems.[4]

The Emergency Action Notification is the notice to broadcasters that the president of the United States or their designee will deliver a message over the EAS via the PEP system.[5] The government has stated that the system would allow a president to speak during a national emergency within 10 minutes.[6][7]

Primary Entry Point stations

The National Public Warning System, also known as the Primary Entry Point (PEP) stations, are a network of 77 radio stations that are, in coordination with FEMA, used to originate emergency alert and warning information to the public before, during, and after incidents and disasters. PEP stations are equipped with additional and backup communications equipment and power generators designed to enable them to continue broadcasting information to the public during and after an event. Beginning with WJR/Detroit and WLW/Cincinnati in 2016, FEMA began the process of constructing transportable studio shelters at the transmitters of 33 PEP stations, which feature broadcasting equipment, emergency provisions, a rest area, and an air filtration system. NPWS project manager Manny Centeno explained that these shelters were designed to "[expand] the survivability of these stations to include an all hazards platform, which means chemical, biological, radiological air protection and protection from electromagnetic pulse."[8][9][10]

Communication links

The FEMA National Radio System (FNARS) "Provides Primary Entry Point service to the Emergency Alert System", and acts as an emergency presidential link into the EAS. The FNARS net control station is located at the Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center.[11]

Once an EAN is received by an EAS participant from a PEP station (or any other participant) the message then "daisy chains'" through the network of participants. "Daisy chains" form when one station receives a message from multiple other stations and the station then forwards that message to multiple other stations. This process creates many redundant paths through which the message may flow increasing the likelihood that the message will be received by all participants and adding to the survivability of the system.

Each EAS participant is required to monitor at least two other participants.

EAS header

Because the header lacks error detection codes, it is repeated three times for redundancy. EAS decoders compare the received headers against one another, looking for an exact match between any two, eliminating most errors which can cause an activation to fail. The decoder then decides whether to ignore the message or to relay it on the air if the message applies to the local area served by the station (following parameters set by the broadcaster).

The SAME header bursts are followed by an attention tone, which lasts between 8 and 25 seconds, depending on the originating station. The tone is About this sound1050 Hz  on a NOAA Weather Radio station. On commercial broadcast stations, a About this sound"two-tone"  attention signal of 853 Hz and 960 Hz sine waves is used instead, the same signal used by the older Emergency Broadcast System. These tones have become infamous, and can be considered both frightening and annoying by viewers; in fact, the two tones, which form approximately the interval of a just major second at an unusually high pitch, were chosen specifically for their ability to draw attention, due to their unpleasantness on the human ear. The SAME header is equally known for its shrillness, which many have found to be startling. The "two-tone" system is no longer required as of 1998, and is to be used only for audio alerts before EAS messages.[12][full citation needed] Like the EBS, the attention signal is followed by a voice message describing the details of the alert.

The message ends with 3 bursts of the AFSK "EOM", or End of Message, which is the text NNNN, preceded each time by the binary 10101011 calibration.


A Gorman-Redlich rack mounted CAP-to-EAS converter which translates CAP formatted alerts into SAME headers.
A Gorman-Redlich rack mounted CAP-to-EAS converter which translates CAP formatted alerts into SAME headers.

Under a 2006 executive order issued by George W. Bush, the U.S. government was instructed to create "an effective, reliable, integrated, flexible, and comprehensive" public warning system. This was accomplished via expansions to the aforementioned PEP network, and the development of the Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS)—a national aggregator and distributor of alert information using the XML-based Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and an internet network. IPAWS can be used to distribute alert information to EAS participants, supported mobile phones (Wireless Emergency Alerts), and other platforms.[13]

Under an FCC report and order issued in 2007, EAS participants would be required to migrate to digital equipment supporting CAP within 180 days of the specification's adoption by FEMA. This officially occurred September 30, 2010, but the deadline was later delayed to June 30, 2012 at the request of broadcasters.[14]

The FCC has established that IPAWS is not a full substitute for the existing SAME protocol, as it is vulnerable to situations that may make internet connectivity unavailable. Therefore, broadcasters must convert CAP messages to legacy SAME headers to enable backwards compatibility with the existing "daisy chain" method of EAS distribution, providing a backup distribution path.[14][15]

Station requirements

The FCC requires all broadcast stations and multichannel video programming distributors (MVPD), hereafter "EAS participants", to install and maintain FCC-certified EAS decoders and encoders at their control points or headends. These decoders continuously monitor the signals from other nearby broadcast stations for EAS messages. For reliability, at least two source stations must be monitored, one of which must be a designated local primary. Participants are to retain the latest version of the EAS handbook.

EAS participants are required by federal law to relay Emergency Action Notification (EAN) messages immediately (47 CFR Part 11.54).[16] Broadcasters traditionally have been allowed to opt out of relaying other alerts such as severe weather, and child abduction emergencies (AMBER Alerts) if they so choose (in practice, severe weather coverage is usually handled by a station's local news operation and on-air meteorologists, rather than processed through EAS).[17]

EAS participants are required to keep logs of all received messages. Logs may be kept by hand but are usually kept automatically by a small receipt printer in the encoder/decoder unit. Logs may also be kept electronically inside the unit as long as there is access to an external printer or method to transfer them to a computer.

In addition to the audio messages transmitted by radio stations, television stations must broadcast a visual display containing the originator, event, location, and time period of the alert,[18] as well as any extended text that is contained within the associated CAP message.[14][15]

System tests

All EAS equipment must be tested on a weekly basis. The required weekly test (RWT) consists, at a minimum, of the header and end-of-message tones. Though an RWT does not need an audio or graphic message announcing the test, many stations provide them as a courtesy to the public. In addition, television stations are not required to transmit a video message for weekly tests. RWTs are scheduled by the station on random days and times, (though quite often during late night or early afternoon hours), and are generally not relayed.[12][full citation needed]

A Required Monthly Test (RMT) transmitted in New Jersey on April 15, 2014 as shown on a television set
A Required Monthly Test (RMT) transmitted in New Jersey on April 15, 2014 as shown on a television set

Required monthly tests (RMTs) are generally originated by the local or state primary station, a state emergency management agency, or by the National Weather Service and are then relayed by broadcast stations and cable channels. RMTs must be performed between 8:30 a.m. and local sunset during odd numbered months, and between local sunset and 8:30 a.m. during even numbered months. Received monthly tests must be retransmitted within 60 minutes of receipt.[12][19] Additionally, an RMT should not be scheduled or conducted during an event of great importance such as a pre-announced presidential speech, coverage of a national/local election, major local or national news coverage outside regularly scheduled newscast hours or a major national sporting event such as the Super Bowl or World Series, with other events such as the Indianapolis 500 and Olympic Games mentioned in individual EAS state plans.

An RWT is not required during a calendar week in which an RMT is scheduled. No testing has to be done during a calendar week in which all parts of the EAS (header burst, attention signal, audio message, and end of message burst) have been legitimately activated.

In July 2018, in response to the aftermath of the false missile alert in Hawaii earlier in the year (which was caused by operator error during an internal drill protocol), the FCC announced that it would take steps to promote public awareness and improve efficiency of the system, including requiring safeguards to prevent distribution of false alarms, the ability to authorize "live code" tests—which would simulate the process and response to an actual emergency, and authorizations to use the EAS tones in public service announcements that promote awareness of the system.[20][21]

National periodic tests

On February 3, 2011, the FCC announced plans and procedures for national EAS tests, which involve all television and radio stations connected to the EAS, as well as all cable and satellite services in the United States. They are not relayed on the NOAA Weather Radio (NOAA/NWS) network as it is an initiation-only network and does not receive messages from the PEP network.[22][23] The national test would transmit and relay an Emergency Action Notification on November 9, 2011 at 2:00 p.m. EST.[24][25]

The FCC found that only half of participants received the message via IPAWS, and some "failed to receive or retransmit alerts due to erroneous equipment configuration, equipment readiness and upkeep issues, and confusion regarding EAS rules and technical requirements", and that participation among low-power broadcasters was low. To reduce viewer confusion, the FCC stated that future national tests would be delivered under the new event code "National Periodic Test" ("NPT"), and list "United States" as its location.[26][27] A second national test, now classified as an NPT, occurred on September 28, 2016 as part of National Preparedness Month.[28][29] A third national periodic test occurred on September 27, 2017.[30]

The fourth NPT occurred on October 3, 2018 (delayed from September 20, 2018 due to Hurricane Florence). It was preceded by the first mandatory wireless emergency alert test.[31][32][33]

The fifth NPT occurred on August 7, 2019, moved up from past years to prevent it from occurring during the heart of the Atlantic hurricane season. The test focused exclusively on distribution to broadcast outlets and television providers via the primary entry point network, in order to gauge the efficiency of alert distribution in the event that the internet cannot be used.[34][35]

The sixth NPT was postponed to 2021 amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic "out of consideration for the unusual circumstances and working conditions for those in the broadcast and cable industry."[36] The sixth test is set to occur on August 11, 2021 at 2:20 PM EDT with August 25 as a backup date.[37] This test will involve the WEA system alongside television and radio.

Additions and proposals

The number of event types in the national system has grown to eighty. At first, all but three of the events (civil emergency message, immediate evacuation, and emergency action notification [national emergency]) were weather-related (such as a tornado warning). Since then, several classes of non-weather emergencies have been added, including, in most states, the AMBER Alert System for child abduction emergencies. In 2016, three additional weather alert codes were authorized for use in relation to hurricane events, including Extreme Wind Warning (EWW), Storm Surge Warning (SSW) and Storm Surge Watch (SSA).

In 2004, the FCC issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPR) seeking comment on whether EAS in its present form is the most effective mechanism for warning the American public of an emergency and, if not, on how EAS can be improved, such as mandatory text messages to cellphones, regardless of subscription. As noted above, rules implemented by the FCC on July 12, 2007 provisionally endorse incorporating CAP with the SAME protocol.

In November 2020, Congress passed the Reliable Emergency Alert Distribution Improvement (READI) Act.[38] First sponsored by Hawaii Senator Brian Schatz in response to the Hawaii false missile alert, it amends the Warning, Alert, and Response Network (WARN) Act to require distribution of wireless alerts issued by the administrator of FEMA, and commands the FCC to establish a means of reporting false alerts, encourage the establishment of State Emergency Communications Committees (SECC) that would meet annually to evaluate their EAS plans, require the repetition of alerts surrounding "emergencies of national significance", and open an inquiry into the feasibility of implementing the EAS on internet-related services.[39][40][41][42][43][44]

EAS for consumers

The EAS is designed to be useful for the entire public, not just those with SAME-capable equipment. However, several consumer-level radios do exist, especially weather radio receivers, which are available to the public through both mail-order and retailers. Other specialty receivers for AM/FM/ACSSB (LM) are available only through mail-order, or in some places from federal, state, or local governments, especially where there is a potential hazard nearby such as a chemical factory. These radios come pre-tuned to a station in each area that has agreed to provide this service to local emergency management officials and agencies, often with a direct link back to the plant's safety system or control room for instant activation should an evacuation or other emergency arise.

The ability to narrow messages down so that only the actual area in danger is alerted is extremely helpful in preventing false warnings, which was previously a major tune-out factor. Instead of sounding for all warnings within a station's area, SAME-decoder radios now sound only for the counties for which they are programmed. When the alarm sounds, anyone with the radio knows that the danger is nearby and protective action should be taken. For this reason, the goal of the National Weather Service is that each home should have both a smoke detector and a SAME weather radio.


The EAS can only be used to relay audio messages that preempt all programming; as the intent of an Emergency Action Notification is to serve as a "last-ditch effort to get a message out if the [p]resident cannot get to the media", it can easily be made redundant by the immediate and constant coverage that major weather events and other newsworthy situations—such as, most prominently, the September 11 attacks in 2001—receive from television broadcasters and news channels. Following the attacks, then-FCC chairman Michael K. Powell cited "the ubiquitous media environment" as justification for not using the EAS in their immediate aftermath. Glenn Collins of The New York Times acknowledged these limitations, noting that "no president has ever used the current [EAS] system or its technical predecessors in the last 50 years, despite the Soviet missile crisis, a presidential assassination, the Oklahoma City bombing, major earthquakes and three recent high-alert terrorist warnings", and that using it would have actually hindered the availability of live coverage from media outlets.[45][46]

Following the tornado outbreak of March 3, 2019, Birmingham, Alabama NWS meteorologist Kevin Laws told CNN that he, personally, wished that alerts could be updated in real-time in order to reflect the unpredictable nature of weather events, noting that the storm system's unexpected change in trajectory towards Lee County resulted in only a nine-minute warning (the resulting tornado would kill 23 people).[39]

The trend of cord cutting has led to concerns that viewers' lessened use of broadcast media in favor of streaming video services would inhibit their ability to receive emergency information (notwithstanding availability of alerts on mobile phones).[39][40]


False alarms

  • On February 1, 2005 in Connecticut, an alert was mistakenly issued calling for the immediate evacuation of the entire state. The alert contained no specific detail on why it had been issued. The message was broadcast due to operator error while conducting an unannounced, but scheduled statewide test. A study conducted following the incident reported that at least 11% of residents actually saw the warning live, and that 63% of those surveyed were "a little or not at all concerned"—citing a suspicious lack of detail in the message, which a legitimate alert would include. Only 1% of those surveyed actually attempted to leave the state. Connecticut State Police did not receive any calls related to the incident.[47][48][49]
  • On June 26, 2007 at 7:35 a.m. CDT, an Emergency Action Notification was accidentally issued in the state of Illinois, when a new satellite receiver at the state's EOC was accidentally connected to a live system before final internal testing of the new delivery path had been completed. The alert was followed by dead air, and then audio from designated station 720 WGN in Chicago being simulcast across almost every television and radio station in the Chicago area and throughout much of Illinois. A confused Spike O'Dell, host of the station's morning show at the time, was heard on-air wondering "what that beeping was all about".[50][51]
  • On May 19, 2010, NOAA Weather Radio and CSEPP tone alert radios in the Hermiston, Oregon area, near the Umatilla Chemical Depot, were activated with an EAS alert shortly after 5 p.m. The message transmitted was for a severe thunderstorm warning, issued by the National Weather Service in Pendleton, but the transmission broadcast instead was a long period of silence, followed by a few words in Spanish. Umatilla County Emergency Management has stressed there was no emergency at the depot.[52]
  • On September 3, 2016, in the wake of Tropical Storm Hermine, an alert was displayed on television calling for the immediate evacuation of the entirety of Suffolk County, abruptly ending with the incomplete sentence "This is an emergency message from". About 15 minutes after the original message was sent, the alert was re-issued with an addendum clarifying that the alert was actually calling for a voluntary evacuation of Fire Island—a barrier island of Long Island. Officials cited an error in the county's Code Red system; while the correct message was entered into the system, an error processing an abbreviated message for television resulted in the error.[53][54]
  • On August 15, 2017 at approximately 12:25 a.m. ChST, Guam stations KTWG and KSTO transmitted a civil danger warning for the island; Guam Homeland Security described the message, which interrupted programming on the stations, and was received on television by some viewers, as being an "unauthorized test" of the EAS. The incident's impact was strengthened, as North Korea had threatened the launch of ballistic missiles towards Guam only a few days beforehand. Numerous calls to 911 operators and the Department of Homeland Security were made following the broadcast.[55][56]
On January 13, 2018, a false alarm was issued warning of a missile threat to Hawaii.
On January 13, 2018, a false alarm was issued warning of a missile threat to Hawaii.

Cybersecurity breaches

On several notable occasions, EAS equipment became the subject of hacks by outside entities due to poor security measures, including poor firewalls, and use of insecure or unchanged default passwords on encoder hardware.

  • In February 2013, several stations in Great Falls, Montana and Marquette, Michigan were breached in such a manner, relaying a hoax message warning that "dead bodies" were "rising from their graves". It was determined that the stations' equipment was poorly protected, and that the broadcasters had further neglected to change default factory logins or passwords, opting to use factory presets instead. Because of this, the FCC, FEMA, equipment manufacturers, as well as trade groups, including the Michigan Association of Broadcasters, urged broadcasters to change their passwords and to recheck their security measures.[61][62][63][64][65]
    • In a related incident, WIZM-FM in La Crosse, Wisconsin accidentally triggered the EAS on television station WKBT-DT by airing a recording of the false message during its morning show. The relayed audio included the hosts' laughter and reactions to the clip.[66]
  • On February 28, 2017, WZZY in Winchester, Indiana was hacked in a nearly-identical manner, playing the same "dead bodies" audio from the February 2013 incidents. The incident prompted a public response from the Randolph County Sheriff's Department clarifying that there was no actual emergency.[67][68]
  • In January 2020, Security Ledger published an investigation finding that at least 50 EAS decoders by Digital Alert Systems had not been patched for a security vulnerability (use of a shared SSH key) found by IOActive in 2013.[69]
  • On February 20, 2020, the EAS equipment of Washington-based provider Wave Broadband was hacked, causing approximately 3,000 customers in Jefferson County to receive several false alerts (including a "Radiological Hazard Warning"), which contained irrelevant messages and alert audio referencing internet memes and websites (including one suggesting that the provider change its passwords).[70][71] On March 2 and 3, 2020, a legitimate Required Monthly Test was displayed with a message ("AIGHT IM DONE U CAN REST NOW. MR GERDE WAS HERE") that had also appeared in the hack: a company official stated that this was a remnant of the hack that would be addressed.[72][73]

Tone usage outside of alerts

To protect the integrity of the system, and prevent false activations, the FCC prohibits the use of actual or simulated EAS/WEA tones and attention signals outside of genuine alerts, tests, or authorized public service announcements, especially when they are used "to capture audience attention during advertisements; dramatic, entertainment, and educational programs". Broadcasters who misuse the tones may be sanctioned (including being required to partake in compliance measures) and fined.[74]

  • Tones from the EAS were used in the trailer for the 2013 film Olympus Has Fallen; cable providers were fined $1.9 million by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) on March 3, 2014 for misuse of EAS tones.[75] An event similar to this previously occurred in November 2013, when TBS was fined $25,000 for the use of EAS tones in a Conan advertisement.[76]
  • During the October 24, 2014 episode of the syndicated radio show The Bobby Bones Show, host Bobby Bones played audio from the 2011 national test as part of a rant about a genuine test from Nashville's Fox affiliate, WZTV, that interrupted Game 2 of the 2014 World Series on October 22. The errant Emergency Action Notification was relayed to some broadcasters and cable systems—particularly those not configured to reject EAN messages that did not match the current date. On May 19, 2015, iHeartMedia, who distributes the show and owns its flagship station WSIX-FM, was fined $1 million for the incident. The company was also ordered to implement a three-year compliance plan to avoid any further incidents, including removing all EAS tones or similar-sounding noises from its audio production libraries.[77][78]
  • From August 4 to 6, 2016, Tegna, Inc.-owned NBC affiliate WTLV in Jacksonville, Florida aired an ad several times during NBC's primetime coverage of the 2016 Summer Olympics produced by the marketing department of the National Football League's Jacksonville Jaguars featuring out-of-sequence EAS tones over Jaguars training camp footage and a voiceover noting "this is not a test, this is an emergency broadcast shelter immediately", along with the on-screen text "the storm is coming". The ad aired four times before station compliance authorities pulled the advertisement after the local news industry blog FTVLive criticized the station for carrying it, especially during the peak of the Atlantic hurricane season. FTVLive's piece would be noted by the FCC in their decision against WTLV rendered on May 30, 2017, when it was given a $55,000 fine for carrying the offending Jaguars ad.[79][80]
  • The FCC issued several fines relating to EAS tone usage in August 2019, including ABC being fined $395,000 for using wireless emergency alert tones multiple times during a Jimmy Kimmel Live sketch, AMC Networks being fined $104,000 for using the tones in The Walking Dead episode "Omega", Discovery Inc. being fined $68,000 for including footage of an actual WEA activation during a Lone Star Law episode filmed during Hurricane Harvey, and Meruelo Group was fined $61,000 for including an EAS-like tone during a radio advertisement for KDAY and KDEY-FM's morning show.[74]
  • On September 9, 2019, the FCC proposed a $272,000 fine against CBS for using simulated EAS tones in the Young Sheldon episode, "A Mother, A Child, and a Blue Man's Backside".[81] CBS defended the statement, saying that the tones' usage was a "dramatic portrayal", and that it was an "integral part of the storyline about a family's visceral reaction to a life-threatening emergency". The show's sound editors achieved the effect by downloading EAS tones from YouTube and modifying the volume of the tone. CBS passed the edited tone through three quality rooms equipped with EAS decoders and prescreened the episode to make sure it didn't trigger an actual alert. Also, the show's dialogue was used to obscure some elements of the alert. However, the FCC insisted that the modified tone still sounded like a normal EAS tone, despite the volume being lowered and the tone being cut short in duration. It also said that the prescreening process didn't excuse an unauthorized usage of the EAS tones.[82]
  • On April 7, 2020, the FCC proposed a $20,000 fine against New York City radio station WNEW-FM, for using the attention signal during its morning show on October 3, 2018 as part of a skit discussing the National Periodic Test held later that day.[83]

Testing errors

  • On October 19, 2008, KWVE-FM in San Clemente, California accidentally initiated a Required Monthly Test when it meant to conduct a Required Weekly Test. Furthermore, an operator aborted the test mid-way through the broadcast (failing to broadcast the end-of-message tone), causing all area outlets to broadcast KWVE-FM's programming until those stations took their equipment offline.[84] On September 15, 2009, the FCC fined the station's owner, Calvary Chapel Costa Mesa, $5,000. After the fine was levied, various state broadcast associations in the United States submitted joint letters to the FCC, protesting against the fine, saying that the commission could have handled the matter better.[85] On November 13, 2009, the FCC rescinded its fine against KWVE-FM, but had still admonished the station for broadcasting an unauthorized RMT, as well as omitting the code to end the test.[86]
  • On September 21, 2017, a technical glitch in another scheduled test by KWVE caused the end-of-message tone to be omitted, causing regional participants (particularly Charter and Cox Cable systems in Orange County) to simulcast a portion of Chuck Swindoll's Insight for Living program. Some viewers speculated that the system had been hacked, as the portion of the program relayed (where Swindoll was discussing the Bible verse 2 Timothy 3:1, and stated, "Realize this, extremely violent times will come.") could be insinuated out of context as discussing an impending apocalypse.[87][88][89]

See also


  1. ^ "What is Conelrad? EBS? EAS?". Archived from the original on April 5, 2015. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  2. ^ "Federal Register 76220" (PDF). Federal Communications Commission. United States Government Printing Office. December 20, 2006.
  3. ^ "Integrated Public Alert & Warning System". Federal Emergency Management Agency. September 18, 2018. Retrieved September 22, 2018. IPAWS provides public safety officials with an effective way to alert and warn the public about serious emergencies using the Emergency Alert System (EAS), Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Weather Radio, and other public alerting systems from a single interface.
  4. ^ "The National Public Warning System". May 12, 2017. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  5. ^ "Emergency Alert System 2001 AM & FM Handbook". Emergency Alert System 2001 AM & FM Handbook. United States: United States Federal Communications Commission. 2001. p. 4.
  6. ^ "Emergency broadcasts can be hacked, US researchers say". BBC News. July 9, 2013. Archived from the original on December 22, 2018. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  7. ^ "'Hello, This Is Your President'". Radio World. February 2, 2010. Archived from the original on July 31, 2019. Retrieved July 31, 2019.
  8. ^ "WLW PEP Station to Test New Studio Shelter". Radio World. October 22, 2018. Archived from the original on April 1, 2019. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  9. ^ "FEMA Upgrading WLW". Radio Ink. October 22, 2018. Archived from the original on July 30, 2019. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  10. ^ "In Hardening EAS Lynchpins, FEMA Puts Confidence In Radio". Archived from the original on July 29, 2019. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  11. ^ Merlin, Ross Z. (2004). "Communications Systems for Public Health Contingencies" (PDF). DHS/FEMA Wireless Program Management Team. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 25, 2008.
  12. ^ a b c "United States Code of Federal Regulations - 47 CFR 11.61 - Tests of EAS procedures" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on July 26, 2014. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
  13. ^ "The Impact of IPAWS on Public Alerts and Warnings". Archived from the original on August 24, 2019. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  14. ^ a b c Oxenford, Davis Wright Tremaine LLP-David D.; Tol, Jennifer; Frewer. "FCC revises emergency alert system rules; reminds participants of June 30, 2012 CAP compliance deadline". Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  15. ^ a b "FEMA Adopts Digital Message Format for EAS CAP Standard, Triggering 180-Day Clock for Compliance". Broadcast Law Blog. September 30, 2010. Archived from the original on August 24, 2019. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  16. ^ "Electronic Code of Federal Regulations". National Archives. Archived from the original on May 29, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  17. ^ "Ohio Weatherman Fires Back at 'Bachelorette' Fans After Tornado Warning Interrupts Broadcast". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 14, 2019. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
  18. ^ 47 C.F.R. § 11.51(D)
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