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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Els Segadors
English: The Reapers
Senyera (Pl. Octavià, S. Cugat del Vallès) 01.jpg

National anthem of  Catalonia
LyricsEmili Guanyavents, 1899
MusicFrancesc Alió, 1892
Adopted1993
Audio sample
Els Segadors

Els Segadors (Eastern Catalan: [əls səɣəˈðos]; "The Reapers") is the official national anthem[1] of Catalonia, nationality[2] and autonomous community of Spain.

History

The Reapers' War "Corpus de Sang" (1640). Painted in 1910
The Reapers' War "Corpus de Sang" (1640). Painted in 1910
Portrait of Francesc Alió
Portrait of Francesc Alió

The original song dates in the oral tradition to 1640, based on the events of June 1640 known as Corpus de Sang during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) between Spain, England, France and Austria, the event that started the Reapers' War or Guerra dels Segadors, also known as the Catalan Revolt,[3] where Catalans fought against the Count-Duke of Olivares, the chief minister of King Philip IV of Spain. The song describes the event, an uprising of peasants due to the large presence of the Royal army in the Principality of Catalonia, as they were required to lodge and provision the troops, creating a large tension and discomfort and leading to episodes such as religious sacrileges, destruction of personal properties, and rape of women by the soldiers. The second part of the song tells the arrival of the rebel reapers in Barcelona, who kill various guards, the royal officers and the viceroy of Catalonia, Dalmau de Queralt, ending with the exhortation to Catalans to take the arms, as they are at war.

In the 19th century, the text was compiled in the Romancillero Catalán, a book of folk traditions written by Manuel Milà i Fontanals. The music was standardized by Francesc Alió in 1892.[3] Its modern lyrics were written by Emili Guanyavents, who won a competition convened by the political party Unió Catalanista in 1899, simplifying the text to three verses. At the time, the change of lyrics caused some controversy among conservative elements, as Guanyavents, coming from sectors close to anarchism, gave them a revolutionary tone.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, Els Segadors became one of the most relevant symbols of catalanism and Catalonia itself, increasing its popularity during the Second Spanish Republic and the Civil War. Despite an attempt of the Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalan autonomous government) in 1931 to replace it with another song, El Cant del Poble, Els Segadors remained highly popular, treated by Catalan government and population as the national anthem. The dictatorship of Francisco Franco (1939-1975) banned the public use of Catalan national symbolism, among them Els Segadors. Tolerated songs, such as the Virolai or La Santa Espina, were often played in its place to express Catalan identity.

After decades used de facto, sometimes alongside the Cant de la Senyera, the Catalan government officially adopted Els Segadors as the national anthem of Catalonia on 25 February 1993, by law of its parliament. The official version was made in 1994. The new Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 2006 confirms this decision by its article 8.4.[4]

Lyrics

Modern lyrics

Catalan original (official)[5][6] Catalan IPA[a] Poetic English translation Occitan translation Spanish translation

Catalunya triomfant,
tornarà a ser rica i plena.
Endarrera aquesta gent
tan ufana i tan superba.

Tornada:
Bon cop de falç!
Bon cop de falç, defensors de la terra!
Bon cop de falç!


Ara és hora, segadors.
Ara és hora d'estar alerta.
Per quan vingui un altre juny,
esmolem ben bé les eines.

Tornada

Que tremoli l'enemic,
en veient la nostra ensenya.
Com fem caure espigues d'or,
quan convé seguem cadenes.

Tornada

[kə.tə.ˈɫu.ɲə tɾi.uɱ.ˈfan]
[tur.nə.ˈra‿(ə) se ˈri.kə‿i ˈpɫɛ.nə]
[ən.ðə.ˈre.ɾ‿ə.ˈkɛs.tə ˈʒen]
[tan u.ˈfa.nə‿i tan su.ˈpɛɾ.bə]

[tur.ˈna.də]
[bɔn kɔp də faɫs]
[bɔn kɔp də faɫs ðə.fən.'soz ðə ɫə ˈtɛ.rə]
[bɔn kɔp də faɫs]

[ˈa.ɾ(ə)‿ez ˈɔ.ɾə sə.ɣə.ˈdos]
[ˈa.ɾ(ə)‿ez ˈɔ.ɾə dəs.ˈta‿(ə).ˈɫɛr.tə]
[pəɾ kwam ˈβiŋ.ɡi‿un ˈaɫ.tɾə ʒuɲ]
[əz.mu.ˈɫɛm βen βe ɫəz ˈɛj.nəs]

[tur.ˈna.də]

[kə tɾə.ˈmɔ.ɫi ɫə.nə.ˈmik]
[ən βə.ˈjen ɫə ˈnɔs.tɾ‿ən.ˈsɛ.ɲə]
[kɔɱ fem ˈkaw.ɾ‿əs.ˈpi.ɣəz ðɔr]
[kwaŋ kum.ˈβe sə.ˈɣɛm kə.ˈðɛ.nəs]

[tur.ˈna.də]

Catalonia triumphant
Shall again be rich and abundant.
Drive away these folks
Who are so gall and arrogant.

Chorus:
Strike with Thy sickle!
Strike with Thy sickle, Defenders of the Land!
Strike with Thy sickle!

Now is the time, Reapers.
Now is the time to stand wise.
Let us sharpen well our means,
For when another June cometh.

Chorus

May the enemy tremble
Upon seeing our symbol.
Just as we cut the wheat’s golden ears,
When time calleth, we sever chains.

Chorus

Catalonha triomfant,
tornarà èsser rica e plena.
Endarrièra aquelas gents
amb tan d'ufan e supèrba.

Arrepic:
Bon còp de fauç!
Bon còp de fauç, Defensors de la tèrra!
Bon còp de fauç!


Ara es l'ora, segadors.
Ara es l'ora sètz a l'espèra.
Per quand vendrà un autre junh
amolam plan ben las asinas.

Arrepic

Que tremòle l'enemic
en vesent la nòstra ensenha.
Coma dalham espigas d'aur,
quand nos cal segam cadenas.

Arrepic

Cataluña, triunfante,
¡volverá a ser rica y plena!
¡Atrás esta gente
tan ufana y tan soberbia!

Estribillo:
¡Buen golpe de hoz!
¡Buen golpe de hoz, defensores de la tierra!
¡Buen golpe de hoz!


¡Ahora es hora, segadores!
¡Ahora es hora de estar alerta!
Para cuando venga otro junio
¡afilemos bien las herramientas!

Estribillo

Que tiemble el enemigo
al ver nuestra enseña:
como hacemos caer espigas de oro,
cuando conviene segamos cadenas.

Estribillo

Original lyrics: pre-1899

Catalan[7] English translation Spanish translation[8]

Ai ditxosa Catalunya[b]
qui t'ha vista rica i plena!
Ara el rei nostre senyor
declarada ens té la guerra.

Lo gran comte d'Olivar
sempre li burxa l'aurella:
“Ara és hora, nostre rei,
ara és hora que fem guerra”.

Contra de los catalans
ja ho vegeu quina n'han feta:
seguiren viles i llocs
fins al lloc de Riudarenes,

n'han cremada una església
que Santa Coloma es deia,
cremen albes i casulles
los calzes i les patenes.

I el Santíssim Sagrament
alabat sigui per sempre.
Mataren un sacerdot
mentres que la missa deia.

Mataren un cavaller
a la porta de l'iglésia,
Don Lluís de Furrià
i els àngels li fan gran festa.

El pa que no era blanc
deien que era massa negre,
lo daven an els cavalls
sols per assolar la terra.

Lo vi que no era bo
etgegaven les aixetes,
lo tiraven pels carrers
sols per a regar la terra.

A presència dels seus pares
deshonraven les donzelles.
En daven part al virrei
del mal que aquells soldats feien:

“Llicència els he donat io
molta més se'n poden pendre”.

A vista de tot això
s'és esvalotat la terra.
Entraren a Barcelona
mil persones forasteres,

entren com a segadors
com érem a temps de sega.
De tres guàrdies que n'hi ha
ja n'han morta la primera.

En mataren el virrei
a l'entrant de la galera.
Mataren els diputats
i els jutges de l'Audiència.

Anaren a la presó
donen llibertat als presos.
Lo bisbe els va beneir
amb la mà dreta i esquerra:

“Ont és vostre capità,
a ont és la vostra bandera?”
Varen treure el bon Jesús
tot cobert amb un vel negre:

“Aquí és nostre capità
aquí és nostra bandera.
A les armes catalans
que us han declarat la guerra”.

Ah, happy Catalonia
who has seen you rich and plentiful!
Now the king our lord
has declared war on us.

The great count of Olivar
is always pestering his ear:
"Now is the time, our king.
now is the time to make war."

Against the Catalans
see what they have done already:
villages and places followed
up to the place of Riudarenes,

they have burned a church
that was called Santa Coloma,
they are burning white habits and chasubles
the chalices and the patens.

And the Blessed Sacrament
praise be to you forever.
They killed a priest
while Mass was being held.

They killed a knight
at the door of the church,
Don Lluís de Furrià
and the angels are making him a big feast.

The bread that was not white
they said was too black,
they gave it to the horses
only to ravage the earth.

The wine that was not good
they turned on the taps,
they threw it in the streets
only to irrigate the land.

In the presence of their parents
they dishonoured the maidens.
They gave part to the viceroy
of the harm that those soldiers were doing:

"I gave them a license
many more can be taken.”

In view of all this
the earth has shaken.
They entered Barcelona
a thousand strangers,

they come in as reapers
as we were in harvest time.
Of three guards there
the first has already died.

The viceroy was killed
at the entrance to the galley.
They killed the deputies
and the judges of the Court.

They went to prison
they are releasing the prisoners.
The bishop blessed them
with the right and left hand:

"Where is your captain,
where is your flag?"
They took out the good Jesus
all covered with a black veil:

"Here is our captain
here is our flag.
In the Catalan arms
that have declared war on you."

Ay, dichosa Cataluña
quién te ha visto rica y llena.
Ahora el rey nuestro señor
declarada nos tiene la guerra.

El gran Conde de Olivares
siempre le hurga la oreja:
"Ahora es la hora, rey nuestro
ahora es hora que hagamos guerra".

Contra de los catalanes
ya véis la que han hecho:
Siguieron villas y lugares
hasta el lugar del Riu d'Arenas,

han quemado una iglesia
que Santa Coloma se llamaba,
queman albas y casullas
los cálices y las patenas.

Y el Santísimo Sacramento
alabado sea por siempre.
Mataron a un sacerdote
mientras decía la misa.

Mataron a un caballero
a la puerta de la iglesia,
Don Luis de Furrià
y los ángeles le hacen gran fiesta.

El pan que no era blanco
decían que era demasiado negro,
se lo daban a los caballos
solo por asolar la tierra.

El vino que no era bueno
abrían los grifos [o espitas],
lo tiraban por las calles
solo por regar la tierra.

En presencia de sus padres
deshonraban a las doncellas.
De ello daban parte al Virrey,
del mal que esos soldados hacían:

"Licencia les he dado yo
mucha más se pueden tomar".

A la vista de todo esto
se ha alborotado la tierra.
Entraron en Barcelona
mil personas forasteras,

entran como segadores
ya que estaban en tiempos de siega.
De tres guardias que hay
ya han matado a la primera.

Mataron al Virrey
a la entrada de la galera.
Mataron a los diputados
y a los jueces de la Audiencia.

Fueron a la prisión
dan libertad a los presos.
El obispo los bendijo
con la mano derecha e izquierda:

"¿dónde está vuestro capitán?
¿dónde está vuestra bandera?"
Sacaron al buen Jesús
todo cubierto con un velo negro:

"Aquí está nuestro capitán
aquí está nuestra bandera.
A las armas catalanes
que os han declarado la guerra".

Recordings and variations

Contemporary Catalan composer Jordi Savall made a version of the folk song,[11] using the original narrative (which dates back to the 17th century) combined with the modern lyrics and refrain, which were added later. The song has also been recorded and interpreted by major artists, included on albums such as Traditional Catalan Songs (Victoria de los Ángeles).

In October 2017, in the aftermath of the Catalan independence referendum, the American band A Sound of Thunder released a heavy metal variation of the anthem, using a mix of English and Catalan lyrics.[12]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ See Help:IPA/Catalan and Catalan phonology.
  2. ^ Sometimes written Catalunya, comtat gran ([kə.tə.ˈɫu.ɲə kum.ˈtat ɡɾan]; English: Catalonia, large county; Spanish: Cataluña, condado grande).[9][10]

References

  1. ^ "Law 1/1993, 25 February, of the national anthem". dogc.vlex.es. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  2. ^ "First article of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia. 'Catalonia, as a nationality, exercises its self-government constituted as an autonomous community...'". gencat.cat. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Generalitat de Catalunya: National symbols". Archived from the original on 2013-10-16.
  4. ^ "Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, Article 8.1: "The flag, the holiday and the anthem are the national symbols of Catalonia, defined as a nationality by Article 1"" (PDF). parlament.cat. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  5. ^ "Todo sobre 'Els Segadors': la letra y su significado". El Plural. 2017-09-20.
  6. ^ "National anthem". Gencat.cat.
  7. ^ Muntaner, Josep Massot i; Pueyo, Salvador; Martorell, Oriol (1993). Els segadors: himne nacional de Catalunya (in Catalan). L'Abadia de Montserrat. ISBN 978-84-7826-464-3.
  8. ^ Oliver y Castañer, Jaime (May 1900). Los Segadors: Estudio histórico-político de literatura popular catalana (in Spanish). La España Moderna. p. 108.
  9. ^ Vergés, Oriol; Cruañas, Josep (1982). La Generalitat en la història de Catalunya (in Catalan). Departament de Cultura de la Generalitat de Catalunya. p. 34. ISBN 978-84-500-8153-4.
  10. ^ Schädel, Bernhard (1908). Manual de fonètica catalana (in Catalan). O. Schulze Verlag. p. 80.
  11. ^ "CANÇONS DE LA CATALUNYA MIL·LENÀRIA. Planys & Llegendes – Alia Vox". www.alia-vox.com. Retrieved 2022-01-09.
  12. ^ https://www.asoundofthunderband.com/single-post/2017/10/05/Hola-Catalunya

External links

This page was last edited on 23 January 2022, at 19:12
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