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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Sign at 8,000 feet (2,438 m) in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California (2009)
Sign at 8,000 feet (2,438 m) in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California (2009)

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Transcription

Contents

 Vertical distance comparison
Vertical distance comparison
 Elevation histogram of the Earth's surface, of which approximately 71% is covered with water
Elevation histogram of the Earth's surface, of which approximately 71% is covered with water

The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic datum § Vertical datum). The term elevation is mainly used when referring to points on the Earth's surface, while altitude or geopotential height is used for points above the surface, such as an aircraft in flight or a spacecraft in orbit, and depth is used for points below the surface.

Elevation is not to be confused with the distance from the center of the Earth. Due to the equatorial bulge, the summits of Mount Everest and Chimborazo have, respectively, the largest elevation and the largest geocentric distance.

Maps and GIS

 Part of a topographic map of Haleakala (Hawaii), showing elevation.
Part of a topographic map of Haleakala (Hawaii), showing elevation.
 Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation by NASA, showing the Cape Peninsula and Cape of Good Hope, South Africa in the foreground.[1]
Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation by NASA, showing the Cape Peninsula and Cape of Good Hope, South Africa in the foreground.[1]

GIS or geographic information system is a computer system that allows for visualizing, manipulating, capturing, and storage of data with associated attributes. GIS offers better understanding of patterns and relationships of the landscape at different scales. Tools inside the GIS allow for manipulation of data for spatial analysis or cartography.

 Heightmap of Earth's surface (including water and ice) in equirectangular projection, normalized as 8-bit grayscale, where lighter values indicate higher elevation.
Heightmap of Earth's surface (including water and ice) in equirectangular projection, normalized as 8-bit grayscale, where lighter values indicate higher elevation.

A topographical map is the main type of map used to depict elevation, often through use of contour lines. In a Geographic Information System (GIS), digital elevation models (DEM) are commonly used to represent the surface (topography) of a place, through a raster (grid) dataset of elevations. Digital terrain models are another way to represent terrain in GIS.

USGS (United States Geologic Survey) is developing a 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) to keep up with growing needs for high quality topographic data. 3DEP is a collection of enhanced elevation data in the form of high quality LiDAR data over the conterminous United States, Hawaii, and the U.S. territories. There are three bare earth DEM layers in 3DEP which are nationally seamless at the resolution of 1/3, 1, and 2 arcseconds.[1]

Global 1-kilometer map

This map is derived from GTOPO30 data that describes the elevation of Earth's terrain at intervals of 30 arcseconds (approximately 1 km). It uses color and shading instead of contour lines to indicate elevation.

N60-90, W150-180
N60-90, W120-150
N60-90, W90-120
N60-90, W60-90
N60-90, W30-60
N60-90, W0-30
N60-90, E0-30
N60-90, E30-60
N60-90, E60-90
N60-90, E90-120
N60-90, E120-150
N60-90, E150-180
N30-60, W150-180
N30-60, W120-150
N30-60, W90-120
N30-60, W60-90
N30-60, W30-60
N30-60, W0-30
N30-60, E0-30
N30-60, E30-60
N30-60, E60-90
N30-60, E90-120
N30-60, E120-150
N30-60, E150-180
N0-30, W150-180
N0-30, W120-150
N0-30, W90-120
N0-30, W60-90
N0-30, W30-60
N0-60, W0-30
N0-60, E0-30
N0-60, E30-60
N0-60, E60-90
N0-60, E90-120
N0-60, E120-150
N0-60, E150-180
S0-30, W150-180
S0-30, W120-150
S0-30, W90-120
S0-30, W60-90
S0-30, W30-60
S0-30, W0-30
S0-30, E0-30
S0-30, E30-60
S0-30, E60-90
S0-30, E90-120
S0-30, E120-150
S0-30, E150-180
S30-60, W150
S30-60, W120
S30-60, W90-120
S30-60, W60-90
S30-60, W30-60
S30-60, W0-30
S30-60, E0-30
S30-60, E30-60
S30-60, E60-90
S30-60, E90-120
S30-60, E120-150
S30-60, E150-180
S60-90, W150-180
S60-90, W120-150
S60-90, W90-120
S60-90, W60-90
S60-90, W30-60
S60-90, W0-30
S60-90, E0-30
S60-90, E30-60
S60-90, E60-90
S60-90, E90-120
S60-90, E120-150
S60-90, E150-180
Each tile is available at a resolution of 1800 × 1800 pixels (approximate file size 1 MB, 60 pixels = 1 degree, 1 pixel = 1 minute)
 Processed LiDAR point cloud showing not only elevation, but heights of features as well.
Processed LiDAR point cloud showing not only elevation, but heights of features as well.

Hypsography

Hypsography is the study of the distribution of elevations on the surface of the Earth, although the term is sometimes also applied to other rocky planets such as Mars or Venus. The term originates from the Greek word ὕψος "hypsos" meaning height. Most often it is used only in reference to elevation of land but a complete description of Earth's solid surface requires a description of the seafloor as well. Related to the term hypsometry, the measurement of these elevations of a planet's solid surface are taken relative to mean datum, except for Earth which is taken relative to the sea level.

 Hypsography of the Earth. Notice that Earth has two peaks in elevation, one for the continents, the other for the ocean floors.
Hypsography of the Earth. Notice that Earth has two peaks in elevation, one for the continents, the other for the ocean floors.

Temperature

In the troposphere, temperatures decrease with altitude. This lapse rate is approximately 6.5 °C/km.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ Survey, U.S. Geological. "The National Map: Elevation". nationalmap.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-24. 
  2. ^ Quantifying Elevation and Temperature

External links

This page was last edited on 11 May 2018, at 23:11.
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