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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Electrolaryngeal speech
И
Encoding
Entity (decimal)И
Unicode (hex)U+0418

An electrolarynx, sometimes referred to as a "throat back", is a medical device about the size of a small electric razor used to produce clearer speech by those people who have lost their voicebox, usually due to cancer of the larynx. The most common device is a handheld, battery-operated device pressed against the skin under the mandible which produces vibrations to allow speech;[1] other variations include a device similar to the "talk box" electronic music device, which delivers the basis of the speech sound via a tube placed in the mouth.[2] Earlier non-electric devices were called mechanical larynxes. Along with developing esophageal voice, using a speech synthesizer, or undergoing a surgical procedure, the electrolarynx serves as a mode of speech recovery for laryngectomy patients.[2][3]

The Voice Quality Symbol for electrolaryngeal phonation in speech is И, approximating the symbol for electricity.

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  • ✪ TruTone™ Artificial Larynx Speech Aid for a Laryngectomee
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  • ✪ How to use an Artificial Larynx Device for laryngectomees

Transcription

Contents

Overview

Initially, the pneumatic mechanical larynx was developed in the 1920s by Western Electric. It did not run on electricity, and was flawed in that it produced a strong voice. Electrolarynxes were introduced in the 1940s, at a time when esophageal speech was being promoted as the best course in speech recovery; however, since that technique is difficult to master, the electrolarynx became quite popular. Since then, medical procedures, such as the tracheo-oesophageal puncture, and the rarely performed laryngeal transplantation surgery, have been created to enable speech without continued dependence on a handheld device.[2][3]

External media
Audio
Using A New Voice To Enjoy Life After Cancer (2:54), StoryCorps[4]
Video
Communication after laryngectomy (8:58), South East Coast Laryngectomy Support Groups (UK)[5]

The use of an electrolarynx can cause social issues, for instance difficulty ordering food, drinks, or other items in noisy environments;[5] or, when answering a telephone, having the caller respond, "Am I talking to a computer?"[4]

However, quality-of-life improvements due to electrolarynx usage are generally significant. One user states:

People are really very kind once they realize what the situation is. I may go into a restaurant once, and if I go back there a year later, and it's the same woman at the front desk, she'll say, "Where have you been? We haven't seen you for a while." So, I feel like a movie star...

I'm really very blessed in my life. I am happier now, without my voice, than I've ever been with my voice. It's a small price to pay for being alive and enjoying life. So I am very happy where I am now.[4]

Traditional electrolarynxes produce a monotone buzz that the user articulates into speech sounds, resulting in the characteristic "robotlike" voice quality. However, in the 1990s, research and commercial multi-tone devices began to be developed, including discrete-tone devices using multiple-position switches[6] or multiple buttons;[7][8] as well as variable-tone devices controlled by single pressure-sensitive buttons,[9] trackballs,[10] gyroscopes,[11] touchpad-like input devices,[12] or even electrical detection of the movement of neck muscles.[13] In addition to allowing speakers of non-tonal languages such as English to have a more natural speaking voice,[6][7][9][13] some of these newer devices have allowed speakers of tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese to speak more intelligibly.[10][11]


Notable fictional users

Fictional characters notable for their use of an electrolarynx include:

See also

References

  1. ^ Department of Otolaryngology. "Electrolaryngeal Speech". Eastern Virginia Medical School. Archived from the original on 2012-08-24. Retrieved 2013-03-14.
  2. ^ a b c Only Human; Cineflix (2018-06-20). Speaking with a Dead Man's Voice by Organ Transplant Surgery | Only Human. YouTube. Retrieved 2019-08-06.
  3. ^ a b Krishnan, Giri; Du, Charles; Fishman, Jonathan M.; Foreman, Andrew; Lott, David G.; Farwell, Gregory; Belafsky, Peter; Krishnan, Suren; Birchall, Martin A. (August 2017). "The current status of human laryngeal transplantation in 2017: A state of the field review". The Laryngoscope. 127 (8): 1861–1868. doi:10.1002/lary.26503. ISSN 1531-4995. PMID 28224630.
  4. ^ a b c Forman, Rene; Reiman, Nadia; Esty-Kendall, Jud; radio station KCRW (2012). "Using A New Voice To Enjoy Life After Cancer". StoryCorps. National Public Radio. Retrieved February 13, 2012. Also hear the audio at NPR
  5. ^ a b Communication after laryngectomy. YouTube. South East Coast Laryngectomy Support Groups (UK). 2011-03-09. Retrieved 2013-03-14.
  6. ^ a b Helms, Dutch (December 2004). "Whispers on the Web - December 2004". Retrieved 2016-08-19.
  7. ^ a b "Servox Digital Electro Larynx Speech Aid". 2016. Retrieved 2016-08-10.
  8. ^ "Nu-Vois III Electro-Larynges". Retrieved 2016-08-19.
  9. ^ a b "The TruTone™ Electrolarynx". 2008. Retrieved 2016-08-10.
  10. ^ a b Wan, Congying; Wang, Erqiang; Wu, Liang; Wang, Supin (2012). "Design and evaluation of an electrolarynx with Mandarin tone-control function". Audio, Language and Image Processing (ICALIP), 2012 International Conference on. doi:10.1109/ICALIP.2012.6376692.
  11. ^ a b Shakya, Bicky; Bharam, Vishal; Merchen, Alexander (2014). "Development of an Electrolarynx Capable of Supporting Tonal Distinctions in Mandarin" (PDF). Trinity College (Connecticut). Retrieved 2016-08-10.
  12. ^ "Electrolarynx Speech Aid » by Labex". labextrade.com. Retrieved 2019-06-20.
  13. ^ a b Kubert, Heather L.; Stepp, Cara E.; Zeitels, Steven M.; Gooey, John E.; Walsh, Michael J.; Prakash, S. R.; Hillman, Robert E.; Heaton, James T. (2009-01-19). "Electromyographic control of a hands-free electrolarynx using neck strap muscles". Journal of Communication Disorders. 42 (3): 211–225. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2008.12.002. PMC 3748802. PMID 19233382.
This page was last edited on 16 January 2020, at 21:12
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