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El Coyote (character)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

El Coyote
Cover illustrated by Francisco Batet
Spanish Ediciones Cliper, Barcelona
El Coyote pulp novel #2, October 1944
First appearanceNovelas del Oeste, novel N° 9,
late 1943, El Coyote
(Editorial Molino, Barcelona)[1]
Created byJosé Mallorquí[2]
In-universe information
AliasCésar de Echagüe
(El Coyote)
aka José Martinez (Lopez) and Commander Delharty
NationalityA Spanish pulp novel series 1944–1953,
with 192 stories from
California 1846–1876,
published by Ediciones Cliper

El Coyote (the Coyote or prairie wolf)[3] is the name of a fictional character very similar to Zorro (El Zorro), the Fox, although acting several years later (when California had transformed to be a part of the United States' "Wild West"). He first appeared in a Spanish Novelas del Oeste ("Stories of the West") Number 9 pulp novel in 1943, written by Carter Mulford, later as J. Mallorquí.[4] Mulford was one of several pseudonyms of the successful Spanish author José Mallorquí y Figuerola (1913–1972).[5] The novel was issued by the Spanish publishing house Editorial Molino. Mallorquí now started writing a series of extremely popular novels, with the character "El Coyote" in the head role, for Ediciones Cliper. Between September 1944 and late 1953 the hero appeared in a series of 192 pulp-like EL COYOTE novels,[6] with several revival editions throughout the years.[7] They covered 30 years of chronological adventures from 1851 (and earlier) until around 1876, or possibly later (the original Cliper novels were not published in strict chronological order). Cover illustrators were not always identical to inside illustrators. The novels (a Cliper edition already in 1947)[8] – and the comics – were also glued in nice collections and sold in hardbound "limited bookform" (Forum had one with all its novels,[9] and also one with the comics).

The Spanish Editions

  • Cliper (1944–1953)[10] – the original editions (which also featured the very first novel, El Coyote)[11] – 192 novels (originally 2.50 pesetas each – later 3 and 4), covers and insides illustrated by Francisco Batet (Pellejero).[12] The first 120 "El Coyote" started with La vuelta del Coyote ("The return of El Coyote"),[13] in September 1944. There also were 10 Numero Extra (often 6 pesetas – see below – including one Extra-Especial) – and finally 62 (4 and later 5 pesetas) "Nuevo Coyote" were published.[14]
  • Cid (1961–1964)[15] with reeditions of above in one series (18,4x10,8 cm) illustrated by Jano (Francisco Fernández Zarza-Pérez) and possibly others.[16]
  • Bruguera (1968–1971)[17] with 110 of the early novels (including nine Extras, but not the Especial) – with El proscrito de las lomas as the last (17,5x10,5 cm) illustrated by Antonio Bernal (Romero).
  • Favencia (1973–1977)[18] with the 192 novels (18x11 cm) illustrated by Jano, Carlos Prunés, Pedro Alferes Gonzales and others.
  • Forum (1983–1984)[19] with 96 reedited double volumes (19x14 cm)[20] – covers illustrated by Salvador Fabá; insides by Julio Bosch and José María Bellalta.[21]
  • Planeta DeAgostini (2003–2004)[22] with the above 96 (21x15 cm) illustrated by Tony Fejzula & R.M. Gera.[23]

The hero and the novels

California was incorporated into the US in 1848 as a result of the Mexican–American War 1846–1848 (after some turbulent years as part of Mexico and even twice as a short-lived independent republic), and registered as the 31st State of the United States in 1850.[24]

El Coyote's identity

El Coyote (from Ediciones Cliper)illustrated by Francisco Batet, 1946
El Coyote (from Ediciones Cliper)
illustrated by Francisco Batet, 1946

César de Echagüe (the III – with Mexican and Spanish roots) was a wealthy, elegant Californio nobleman, resident at the large 40,000 hectare (100,000 acres) ranch, Rancho San Antonio,[25] just north-east of Los Angeles.[26] He had an affable, charming appearance – lazy, comfortable, cynical and sceptic, and with false superficiality.[27] He was educated and refined, a master of expression, and a practical, pragmatic man. Behind his facade he doubled as El Coyote, a masked vigilante hero and defender of the weak – fighting for freedom, honesty and justice.[28] Coyote protected the original Hispanics (and the native Indians) of California from the Anglo Americans, and certainly from all "bad ones". Mallorquí did address the Afro-American question only briefly.[29]

The stories continued the mythical traditions of Robin Hood, Dick Turpin, and The Scarlet Pimpernel – published in 1905, which was the very first popular novel with the "double identity" plot. Dime novel detective Nick Carter debuted in 1886. Tarzan was introduced in 1912, and Zorro found its way to the public in 1919, but El Coyote became even bigger – in Spain. Among other early famous, often masked American novel and/or radio heroes, were The Shadow, debuting 1930 (and 1931), plus The Phantom Detective, Doc Savage, The Spider and Lone Ranger in 1933, and Green Hornet in 1936. Some of the very early comic strip superheroes (or costumed crime-fighters) were Buck Rogers introduced in 1928, Dick Tracy 1931, and Flash Gordon in 1934. The most famous comic book (or strip) hero is Superman originated in 1933 (and commercially published in 1938). In 1934 Mandrake debuted, and the Phantom comic strip (The Phantom) in 1936. Batman and the original Captain Marvel entered in 1939. Captain America and the originals of The Flash, Green Lantern and Daredevil made their debuts in 1940. Wonder Woman, Blackhawk and Green Arrow debuted in 1941, and in 1947 Black Canary entered the scene.[30]

Coyote's appearance

Coyote wore a black (mostly illustrated as dark blue, also in the comics – and sometimes brown) Mexican, decorated charro costume.[31] He had high black boots (mostly outside the trousers) and a decorated sombrero, a black shirt – neither blue nor red – although most drawings show a white shirt (on the Scandinavian covers blue), with a black (sometimes shown as red or blue) silk scarf or a red tie. He also had a broad black silk belt (sometimes illustrated as a red silk one – although mostly as an American brown belt), plus two holstered revolvers hanging low on a "double" ammunition belt. Some illustrations show only one revolver with ammunition belt and holster – others two revolvers on one holster. He also had a knife – and a rifle, a lasso and a Mexican sarape on his horse – and he wore gloves. The mask covered more of his upper face than shown on most of the fine drawings by Francisco Batet (and especially by several others). The Scandinavian covers presented a relatively large mask (illustrated by Harald Damsleth). In at least one of the early pulps Mallorquí wrote he wore "Mexican peasant clothes" (black – shown brown on some of the very early illustrations by Batet). The Spanish (and Aztec) word "coyote" was also used describing a racial category. El Coyote had two "marks" – one was shooting at an ear lobe of his villains, one was a drawing of a wolf's head on messages.[32]

The original Spanish novels

The novel series mostly comprised the years from December 1851 (and with Cliper number 6 from early 1865) to around 1875. Published in Spain, they originally consisted of 120 volumes 1944–1951 – the last titled Alias el Coyote in March 1951. The novels were not always strictly chronological.[33] One example was the 1851/1853 (extended, 6 pesetas) story El diablo, Murrieta y el Coyote (where César and Guadalupe in 1972 take us back to fascinating events happening in the two years of Coyote "quasi-retirement", with César marrying Leonor and César's father still alive),[34] Cliper novel number 100 and its sequel. In these novels Joaquin Murrieta, who was a "real life" Sonora, Mexico – and later California – famous bandit, is presented in the Mallorqui way. The California Rangers killed him in 1853 in Fresno County, but in the novels here he marries César's cousin Maria Elena (and is not killed). The original novel number 115, El hogar de los valientes, and its sequel, takes us back to around 1855, before Jr. was born. There was also the very late La gloria de don Goyo (which told a story of April 1865 – late civil war era soon after César's "second arrival" in Los Angeles, where the Bella Union and Fort Moore were two frequently featured establishments in the novels). A late original Cliper novel, the six-year-celebration novel La casa de los Valdez and its sequel, told a story César picked up in Spain in 1857 about César I (his grandfather arriving in California in 1767 – the story begins and ends in 1872 at home at the San Antonio ranch). Simultaneously published were 10 Numero Extra (1945–1946), including a reedited version of the original 1943 pulp El Coyote (issued as Edicion Cliper Extra #0 in 1945) and the Especial of 1946 noted below (no numbering at all). The Extras told stories of pre-1851, early (and also late) 1850s and mid/late 1860s. Later came 62 "reformed" Nuevo Coyote (still on Cliper 1951–1953)[35] – the first published in mid 1951 (Vuelve el Coyote) and telling later, new stories – some intervening in the old chronology (some relating to 1872) – and with a pocket size, turning from 19,7x14,7 cm and 64 pages to 15,5x10,7 cm and 128 pages.[36] The last Nuevo Coyote was titled Los asesinos llegan a Monterrey,[37] aka El Coyote Los asesinos van a Monterrey.[38]

International publishing

The early "Coyote" novels were published in 16 countries in nine different languages.[39] Italy published all 192, often with the same covers as Cliper and with the later ones (with non-Cliper covers) illustrated by Emilio Uberti (and especially Sergio Tarquinio inside).[40] Germany published 84 novels,[41] mostly with Batet's original Cliper illustrations – including reeditions (with different publishers) and new illustrators. Finland had 78 volumes, mostly with Batet illustrations.[42] The original editions in Norway, Denmark and Sweden (with no illustration inside) often had identical covers (special unique ones made for these three countries 18x12 cm). The illustrations on the Scandinavian editions, by Harald Damsleth,[43] are by many ranked as the finest. Only one of the Cliper cover illustrations was "recycled" in Scandinavia – the original Cliper cover of Huracán sobre Monterrey was "covered" by Damsleth in the Swedish (and Norwegian) versions of Plomo en una estrella, which actually was a circa 1874 story, featuring the father and his grown-up son in San Lorenzo Valley (fictional Farish City), not fitting chronologically with the other later Swedish novels. Brazil, often Batet and Bernal covers (but also several others),[44] published all novels in different editions, except for the high-ranked (extended, 6 pesetas) Extra-Especial on the elder Don César de Echagüe.[45]

The ten Numero Extra

  • El Coyote (Extra N° 0) – the reedition of the Carter Mulford 1943 pulp – in most of the new editions the original/first story – but on Cliper published in circa mid 1945, probably directly after #12 (now with Mallorquí as official writer), covering César's arrival in Los Angeles in December 1851, synopsis
  • La justicia del Coyote (Extra N° 1, published in 1945) – a story in San Francisco of the mid 1860s, when the railway between East and West was established (First Transcontinental Railroad). Coyote works with Captain Farrell, synopsis
  • La primera aventura del Coyote (Extra N° 2, the last two issued after the original novel #9) – César in around 1869/70, remembering Coyote's debut 23 years earlier, synopsis
  • La mano del Coyote (issued after the original novel #11) – a late 1860s story featuring Ricardo Yesares and Teodomiro Mateos, synopsis
  • El precio del Coyote (issued after the original novel #12) – a story in San Francisco around the mid/late 1860s, featuring Guadalupe and Matias Alberes, synopsis
  • Vieja California (published around mid 1946) – an extended story of turbulent California in 1846 and 20 years later, based on actual historic events with César in the head role, synopsis
  • El jinete enmascarado (published in September 1946) – a story of goldfinding in 1850, where José Martínez – alias El Coyote – alias César de Echagüe actually meets Edmond Greene before Greene was engaged to Beatriz, synopsis
  • Trueno negro (published in late 1946, the last three after the original novel #35) – a story of the secret "Coyote" of 1859 before César's second official arrival in L.A., synopsis
  • Una sombra en Capistrano (Extra N° 8, published in December 1946 – issued directly after original novel #38) – Coyote of 1869 looks back on another story of 1859, featuring Fray Jacinto, synopsis
  • and Extra-Especial Don César de Echagüe (published in May 1946, soon after the original novel #31) – about César's father and his death – featuring Leonor, Guadalupe, Julian, Adelia and los Lugones,[46] where the story jumps from around 1870 back to the early 1850s, soon after César's first marriage, and then to "real time" again, synopsis

Although the Extras, numbered 0–8, and the Extra-Especial (no number at all – 6 pesetas) on Ediciones Cliper – all issued during the very first years (1945–46) – did not have any of the other first 120 novels' issue numbers, they have later "entered" the 192 numbering – just like the "Nuevo Coyote" series (which was originally numbered 1–62 on Cliper).[47]

Main plot and characters

César was born in Los Angeles (originally called "el Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles"), which he left around late 1843 for Mexico and later Havana (Cuba) to study and "become a man". He "officially" returned in December 1851, described in the very first novel, El Coyote, although operating as El Coyote in California several times before that, secretly leaving Mexico during his years abroad.

César de Echagüe alias "El Coyote"

In Mallorquí's first novel, El Coyote, one can trace that César must have been born around 1827 (the novel says he was 25 by his arrival in Los Angeles in late 1851, probably via el Rio Porciuncúla.[48] One can read about Coyote's debut in La primera aventura del Coyote.[49] an early Extra novel,[50] where César was inspired by a masked female actress and by the Zorro legend when he started operating as El Coyote.[51] Coyote later told his son, "El Cuervo", in the stories on César Jr's adventures of late 1872 (when Jr was around 17 years old), that "El Coyote" debuted even younger than his son, long before aged 20.[52]

Coyote's original family

Coyote's father, who had experienced the turbulent years of Spanish and Mexican California, was Don César de Echagüe (II), who found out Coyote's true identity just prior to his death soon after César's first marriage.[53] César's sister Beatriz (aka Beatrice) was born in 1833 – she married Washington resident, political employee and member of the U.S. government, Edmond Greene (aka Edmonds or Edmons, nicknamed Edmondo), who spoke fluent Spanish. Edmond found out Coyote's true identity in late 1851 – and Beatriz probably a bit later. They settled in Washington in 1853 (although later often visiting California).[54] César's first wife Leonor de Acevedo (aka Leonora/Leonore) was born around 1830 (on yet another big ranch near San Antonio – and was betrothed to César already as a child). She became aware of Coyote's double identity by the end of the very first written novel. They married in 1852 during an almost two years period of Coyote retirement. She died around 1856/57, when César Jr was born.[55] Jr called himself El Cuervo (no mask), the Raven, from around late 1872 – although he later abandoned it. César (Coyote) left Los Angeles again directly after his wife's death (even travelling to Europe and Spain) for several years (handing over the child-care to maiden Guadalupe Martinez).

Coyote's second wife

César was abroad again (Europe this time) during 1857-early 1865. Long before his official return in the spring of 1865 César secretly worked as Coyote, and outside California as unmasked José Martinez, after only a few years abroad – one adventure was specifically dated 1859, La sombra del Coyote (with a preface of 1849). At least for a while during the civil war (1861–65) César secretly worked as a neutral Union (northern) Commander at a San Carlos, San Diego fortress under the alias of "Delharty" (shortly before his second return to L.A. in early 1865 – encouraged by Edmond Greene to return home), working to keep California out of the war, helping both northerners and southerners in El Capataz del Ocaso and its sequels (where César looks back from the mid 1870s to the last year of the war). César Jr was reported eight years of age in 1865. Guadalupe was nicknamed Lupe/Lupita (aka Guadelupe).[56] She was the daughter of Julian (aka Julián) Martinez, Coyote's very first close allied (from 1851) and chief servant (and foreman) at César's father Don César's ranch. Julian died just prior to Guadalupe's marriage. Lupe was born in 1835 and married César around late 1870 – in El Diablo en Los Angeles. She and Julian had known of César's double identity from very early on – Julian was told by Coyote (probably even before 1851 – and Lupe found out by "accidental coincidence" in 1853 – La vuelta del "Coyote"). César's and Lupe's child Leonorin was born in 1871 – and fosterchild Eduardito (Gómez de la Mata) that same year (in Rapto). Guadalupe later became de Torres (Julian's real name) and suddenly – in early/mid 1872 (El código del Coyote and its sequels) – was even much richer than César, inheriting a huge ranch (Rancho del Todo) in Coahuila in north Mexico, where she had to spend several months each year with her daughter (the formal heiress) to claim her rights.[57] Around 1874 she gave birth to a son (Apostando su vida, original novel N° 87).

Coyote's allies

Coyote had some interesting early allies (friends). Among the first (besides Julian) were the Lugones brothers – los Lugones – Juan, Timoteo, Evilio, and Leocadio (originally four, but Leo died early) and the old Indian woman Adelia (aka Adela). They helped Coyote from the very first beginning through all the years, and did not know about Coyote's real identity. Two other characters, though, knew – Ricardo Yesares and Matias Alberes. Yesares (from Paso Robles in San Luis Obispo), Coyote's sub/double throughout the years from 1865 (who Coyote had saved from "unfair" hanging that year) debuted in El otro "Coyote",[58] ediciones Cliper number 6 – the first adventure of Coyote's "second arrival". Ricardo was born around 1839/40, and married Serena Morales in Los Angeles in 1866, where he had become the owner of Posada (hotel) del Rey Don Carlos III (Coyote's new and "secret headquarters").[59] Coyote's closest allied from 1865 was César's servant (and "bodyguard"), the dumb Indian Matias Alberes (who even sometimes acted as a third Coyote, and was a Coyote allied at least up to around 1874 – he even was featured with Pedro Bienvenido in Los apuros de don César and later novels).[60] Gunman Mario Lujan (who initially was an enemy of Coyote in Al servicio del Coyote) helped him several times in later novels (and ended up as foreman at the San Antonio ranch). César Jr (the heir of the Acevedo farm) had two good friends in Joao da Silveira and César de Guzmán.[61] He met them in around late 1872 (El Cuervo en la pradera). The skilled Indian Pedro Bienvenido (who was some kind of mind-reader) became an important allied of Coyote and his son César de Echagüe y Acevedo soon after (debuting in La reina del valle and its earlier and later sequels, also featuring Analupe de Monreal).[62]

Other early Coyote characters

Several of the novels' characters appeared throughout the series. Among them, Fray Jacinto at the mission station San Juan de Capistrano, who knew of Coyote's identity (and tried to get César to marry Lupe – he was the only one knowing Julian's true background). He was murdered in late 1872. Later there was Fray Anselmo at San Benito de Palermo. Don Goyo Paz fought in the Mexican–American War and was a ranch owner not too far from San Antonio – los Lugones were hired bodyguards at Don Goyo's, whose son Gregorio Paz was to marry Guadalupe, but "El Diablo" forced César to marry her instead. There were solicitor José Covarrubias, doctor Garcia Oviedo, and Los Angeles sheriff Teodomiro Mateos – sheriff twice (1860s and 1870s), and in later years one of César's best friends. Former civil war spy Ginevra St. Clair appeared in 1869 (El exterminio de la Calavera, where César fell in love with her, but she died). There also were three more adventurers who appeared in several novels – Chris Wardell, "El Diablo" (Juan Nepomuceno Mariñas), and "Princess Irina" (Odile Garson – she debuted in Otra lucha in early 1870, and soon tried to charm César, but ended up as the partner of "El Diablo" after César's marriage). All three started out as some kind of enemies of Coyote. Anita was Guadalupe's maiden, and San Francisco chief vigilante Captain Farrell became a good friend of Coyote.[63] Another noble ranch owner was Don Rómulo Hidalgo (with his son Justo – his father was murdered around 1871). In the novels there were of course also a lot of villains – Coyote's worst and toughest enemy probably was Robert Toombs (featured in Guadalupe and its sequels around 1872).[64] Several novels were adventures in sequels (one special long one was Coyote's adventures with Analupe De Monreal around 1873).


Comics and radio

El Coyote had a comic series adaptation in Spain, Cliper comics, – 113 in the first series by Jose Mallorquí and Francisco Batet,[72] with lots of adventures from 1947 up into 1953,[73] and 2a Epoca in 1954–1955[74] – with a late revival 1983 on Comics Forum,[75] and even later Batet's originals on Agualarga hard-bound.[76] There was also a long-running Spanish radio series on SER with many episodes,[77] featuring Vicente Mullor.[78] Cliper also published four calendars (1946 and three more years), and 490 Coyote picture cards in 1946.[79]

References and notes

  1. ^ El Coyote, the first novel was published by Editorial Molino, but all the novels in the "El Coyote" series (starting a year later – including a reissue of the "debut novel") were published by Ediciones Cliper (Germán Plaza, editor)
  2. ^ Josë Mallorquí Biografía with short presentation and rare images at El Bibliófilo Enmascarado
  3. ^ "el" is Spanish for "the" (in Italy and Brazil "o"), the German and Scandinavian novels mostly were published without prefix
  4. ^ El Coyote in Novelas del Oeste at, with images of many Mallorquĭ novels (including his pseudonyms) by different publishers (note the "Batlle" signature for Batet)
  5. ^ from p.239, López, Enrique Ávila MODERN SPAIN – Understanding modern nations, ABC-CLIO, USA Dec 2015, 978-1-61069-600-5:
    "José Mallorquí Figuerola (1913–1972) was the best selling writer of Spain's 20th century. Although relatively unknown among Spanish academia, Mallorquí was the pioneer of Spanish pulp fiction. He started as a translator of Agatha Christie and Earl Derr Bigger's works for Molino Publisher. Mallorquí also created a series of novels inspired by the Wild West, including Tres hombres buenos, Jibaro, and Miss Moniker. He brought to Spain the American pulp magazine "Weird Tales" and was a pioneer on radio shows with series such as Los Bustamante, Dos Hombres Buenos, and El Coyote. The latter derived from his short novel El Coyote (1943) written under the pseudonym Carter Mulford. The figure of El Coyote would become the main character of more than 190 novels and (ed: as much) comics, and several movie adaptions. Mallorquí was a great aficionado of North American history as well as the role of Spain in the conquest of America. Like many great storytellers of his caliber, Mallorquí put emphasis on the adventure, making his writing educational while also entertaining."
  6. ^ Coyote Bibliography reviewed at web.archive
  7. ^ p.314 Stephan, Alexander The Americanization of Europe: Culture, Diplomacy, and Anti-Americanism after 1945 Berghahn Books, 2006
  8. ^ Cliper hardbound early novels
  9. ^ Forum hardbound
  10. ^ the Ediciones Cliper novels the original pulps presented by Miguel Angel Muñoz Rodriguez on the Novelas Coyote web site
  11. ^ First Coyote novel the very first written novel, El Coyote – full novel on an "easy-read" pdf-file (Forum version)
  12. ^ Comiclopedia index of illustrators
  13. ^ which tells a story of Anglo-American tries of cheating a small farm out of an innocent native Californian (in 1853 after César's marriage to Leonor), featuring Leonor, Julian Martinez, the young Guadalupe (Julian's daughter, who plays a key role in the novel) and at this time inexperienced solicitor Josė Covarrubias, plus Adelia and los Lugones
  14. ^ Ediciones Cátedra In September 2013 Cátedra published a 432 page (with six inside images) 20x13 cm pocket book, El Coyote, which featured El Diablo en Los Ángeles and Don César de Echagüe (both from the original Cliper novels). It was edited by expert Ramón Charlo (with introduction and special notes) plus prologues by César Mallorquí and Louis Alberto de Cuenca.
  15. ^ Ediciones Cid a complete collection imaged in one photo with a link to Coyote pulps and comics for sale
  16. ^ Editions and illustrators at La Nueva Web El Coyote
  17. ^ Editorial Bruguera complete collection
  18. ^ Favencia complete collection
  19. ^ Ediciones Forum complete collection
  20. ^ First novel El Coyote replica preview
  21. ^ For collectors: Forum and Planeta DeAgostini each had their "El Coyote: Numero 0" with differing short articles on the novels (some by Mallorquí himself) and complete listings of their novel series
  22. ^ Planeta DeAgostini complete collection
  23. ^ Coyote exhibition in Madrid in 2016
  24. ^ The very first capital of California was Monterey, in the old Alta California under Spain and Mexico. Soon after the U.S. take-over, San Jose was chosen, later Vallejo was a short-lived capital – and in 1854 Sacramento became the capital. Mallorquí spelt it Monterrey (as the city in Mexico). Baja California is the northern part of Mexico's Baja California Peninsula.
  25. ^ Fictive – not the San Antonio Valley outside San Francisco, but inspired from the San Antonio Heights in the Los Angeles and San Bernardino two counties
  26. ^ Los Angeles population and synopsis of the original "El Coyote" novel; L.A. population 1830: 770, 1850: 1.610, 1870: 5.730
  27. ^ "El Coyote" Personajes J. Mallorquí cited in Novelas Coyote Characters
  28. ^ "El Coyote" Ediciones Cliper Extra #0 (the chronicle-first Coyote-novel of 1945 – originally published in "Novelas Del Oeste" in 1943)
  29. ^ Novelas Coyote web site at La Nueva Web El Coyote
  30. ^ American Masked Heroes
  31. ^ Louis Alberto on Coyote with several clips of the 1998 Mario Camus and César Mallorquí (son of José) movie "La vuelta del Coyote" and links to two earlier films, "El Coyote" and "El vengador de California"
  32. ^ Novelas Coyote – Ed. Cliper (1944–1953) The 192 Spanish pulps on different editions at La Nueva Web El Coyote by Miguel Muñoz
  33. ^ Coyote expert Ramón Charlo tried to sort the novels chronological in one of his books on Mallorquí (on Planeta deAgostini) and Coyote (three on Padilla – characters, places, and facts) – reference books of 2000–2005
  34. ^ Cliper number 100 El diablo, Murrieta y el Coyote (diablo is not the later "El Diablo" – diablo here is Murrieta's bandit friend Jack "Tres Dedos" – three fingers Manuel Garcia)
  35. ^ Nuevo Coyote #35 El Hombre Tras La Máscara, a late novel featuring César, Guadalupe, Bienvenido (who had taken over Alberes' role at the San Antonio ranch, where the hosts held weekly poker playing events), César Jr, Leonorin, Anita, Yesares, Mateos, los Lugones and Adelia (mid 1870s), where César is accused having had love affairs, not only with Ginevra St. Clair, but also with Princess Irina, Analupe de Monreal, and Thalia Coppard (from an earlier Nuevo Coyote, El hijo de Thalia Coppard), and finds César Jr getting very upset about it
  36. ^ The first 130 novels had the text in two columns – the Nuevo Coyotes in one (with issue numbers 51 and 52 lacking the "Nuevo stamp")
  37. ^ Los asesinos llegan a Monterrey text
  38. ^ Los asesinos van a Monterrey cover and inside
  39. ^ After the first issues in Spain from 1944 followed Italy (1947), Argentina (1948), Austria and Germany (1949), England (1951, only o total of 11 novels were published), France (14 issues on Librairie Moderne) and Norway (1952), Denmark (probably around 1953), Finland (1953), Sweden (1954), Brazil (1956), and Portugal (1968, ten issues) – plus Mexico (Ediciones Cliper), Belgium (Librairie Moderne) and Switzerland (German publisher). Coyote international publishers
  40. ^ "Catalogo El Coyote" by Ernesto Vegetti at with 13 different countries' editions presented and the international publications. Actually only 47 of the 51 Swedish flagged novels were issued (so the flags at La hacienda tragica, La ley de los Vigilantes, Al servicio del Coyote, and De tal palo... should not be there)
  41. ^ The original first 74 German Coyote pulps (out of 84) at "Good Old West"
  42. ^ The novels of Finland at
  43. ^ Harald Damsleth at
  44. ^ Novels of Brazil at Gibi Raro
  45. ^ Italy, Austria, Finland (and possibly Mexico) were the only countries outside Spain, who published this unique extra novel (
  46. ^ Leocadio Lugones was featured frequently in the novel. This "Extra-Especial" also had Mallorquí presenting the main characters of the early novels in a supplement, not featured in all of the later Spanish editions
  47. ^ The order of the Extras' original publishings (in comparison to the regular issues) are approximative (with differing information given in later presentations).
  48. ^ No absolute year of birth is given in the novels, although different, conflicting, ages are mentioned several times throughout the stories (in El otro "Coyote", an around 30 year old César is mentioned, and that story takes place in early 1865). Mallorquǐ deliberately may have made Coyote a bit younger after 1865
  49. ^ In the novel César looks back 23 years from around 1869/1870. The date of the early happenings in the story is somewhat conflicting – it tells a story of 1846 and January 1847 (when California/Mexico was at war with the United States). Other novels tells us César was in Mexico or Cuba in 1846, leaving the San Antonio ranch in around 1843 (so it looks like one of César’s secret visits to California, even though the novel says he was at home here)
  50. ^ The ten Extras of the Novelas Coyote – Edition Cliper (1945–1946)
  51. ^ In the very early novel Huracán sobre Monterrey (a story of around 1855 – and in the first El Coyote) Mallorquí writes César "officially" was abroad for eight years up to December 1851, meaning he left his family around 1843 (maybe yet another try by Mallorquí to make Coyote a bit younger after the first novels)
  52. ^ Mathematics: 1827 plus 16 equals 1843 (and 1831 plus 16 equals 1847). His second absence, from 1857, also lasted for almost exactly eight years
  53. ^ in the Extra-Especial Cliper novel
  54. ^ Several novels in the series feature César, and later also Guadalupe, visiting Washington, and meeting President Grant (1869–77) – the first time already in 1869
  55. ^ Roberto Barreiro on César Jr in later years, and his connections to Nick Carter, where Barreiro states the birth of César Jr to 1855 – and refers to a story of César Jr after 1887. Jr marries Wallace (unknown first name) and they go to Spain for a honeymoon, where a son James is born, who becomes Jim Wallace ("subbing" for Nick Carter in Spanish Molino pulps). He also states that El Coyote more or less retired for good in around 1875 to concentrate on his ranch together with Jr
  56. ^ The Swedish Coyote novels and its original Spanish editions
  57. ^ Ramón Charlo El Coyote – Los Personajes, Padilla Libros, 2000
  58. ^ El otro Coyote E-book replica preview at – the novel of César's return to L.A. in 1865 (with several more preview replicas to find)
  59. ^ with secret passage from Yesares' office to at least one of the guest rooms (to which Yesares directed the villains staying in the hotel)
  60. ^ Characters in early Coyote pulps with illustrations of several characters (as presented in different editions of the novels)
  61. ^ A Portuguese and a Spaniard "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 23, 2016. Retrieved October 8, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), who had "ridden" with young Mexican Diego de Abriles in several early pulps, written by Mallorquí under the pseudonym of Amadeo Conde on Molino 1942–1947, 3 hombres buenos, and a movie in 1963. The two adventurers later "rode again" in further pulps in the long-running Dos hombres buenos Cid novel series (around 100 volumes) from 1955 for several years (also in a radio show).
  62. ^ Swedish Coyote novels, Lindqvists Förlag, Stockholm-Sweden, 46 volumes published 1954–1960
  63. ^ "Frisco" was much larger than L.A. in those days and had almost 25 times the population in 1870, with 30.000 in 1850
  64. ^ All the characters are picked from the original 130 pulps. The datings are either picked directly from the novels or approximately interpreted through the stories' chronology (dates are sometimes slightly conflicting in the various novels)
  65. ^ Il segno del Coyote film poster
  66. ^ A Marca do Coyote (The sign of Coyote) film on dvd
  67. ^ La vuelta del Coyote (La vuelta de El Coyote) film poster
  68. ^ 1998 film trailer
  69. ^ La Vuelte del Coyote clips at Filmotech
  70. ^ La vuelta de El Coyote the full film on
  71. ^ Release Guide at with José Coronado images
  72. ^ Francisco Batet
  73. ^ Studio Comics
  74. ^ The original Cliper comics with many cover images
  75. ^ Comic Vine 1983
  76. ^ Batet comics hardbound
  77. ^ Coyote Review by Armando Boix
  78. ^ Vicente Mullor
  79. ^ Coyote picture cards

External links

The links below are divided into three sections.

Complete audio files

  • Las Aventuras del CoyoteFull Audio files of all 192 novels at channels by kitsume, with short text intro for each novel and the audio files divided in short episodes – the first novel starting with a short annotation by Antonio Martin (Forum editions) – click on Descargar (choose channel ... and learn some Spanish – and possibly some Catalan)

El Coyote fan sites

  • "Web de El Coyote" (Spanish Coyote Site, created by Miguel Muñoz) – with much information on Los Angeles, examples of the early novels (including Cid), twitter feeds and links to his blog site
  • "La Nueva Web El Coyote" (Spanish Coyote Site, created by Miguel Muñoz) – with the first 130 novels in chrono order – not with their original issue numbers (107 with synopsis, and the total 192 listed) plus much information, including images of Spanish covers of all editions from 1944 to 2004 (a total of 686 novel covers), except for Cid
  • El Coyote Catalog (Italian Coyote Site) – including Ediciones Cid – and the novels from the whole world, imaged in order of the Italian pulp series
  • Coyote Bibliography – with Cliper in publ. order
  • Swedish Coyote Site – with images of all Swedish Coyote novels and the complete Cliper catalog (in order of original publishing)
  • Swedish Coyote Blog – with synopsis of the first 125 pulps in Swedish (same chronological numbering as the Spanish Coyote Site)
  • Archive Novels List of Finland's 78 novels at Makedonia & Moog (with covers of them all, but also some other countries' equivalents)

Other sites

This page was last edited on 28 August 2021, at 14:53
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