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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Einöd

Enhedd  (Palatine German)
District of Homburg
View of Einöd (Saar) as seen from the Abby Wörschweiler
View of Einöd (Saar) as seen from the Abby Wörschweiler
Coat of arms of Einöd
Coat of arms
Location of Einöd
Einöd is located in Germany
Einöd
Einöd
Einöd is located in Saarland
Einöd
Einöd
Coordinates: 49°16′10.6″N 7°19′8.0″E / 49.269611°N 7.318889°E / 49.269611; 7.318889
CountryGermany
StateSaarland
DistrictSaarpfalz-Kreis  
MunicipalityHomburg
Government
 • Local representativeDr.med. Karl Schuberth (SPD)
Area
 • Total3.21 km2 (1.24 sq mi)
Elevation
228 m (748 ft)
Population
 (May 14, 2019)
 • Total3,351
 • Density1,000/km2 (2,700/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
66424
Dialling codes06848
Vehicle registrationHOM

The village of Einöd (German: [ˈaɪnœt]; in the local dialect [de]: Ehnedd [ˈɛːhnet]) is a municipal district of the town Homburg. It is part of the Saarpfalz-Kreis[1] and located in the State of Saarland. It includes three municipal fractions: Einöd, Ingweiler and Schwarzenacker.[2] The first documented mention of Einöd was made in 1290 CE.[3] In 2019, the centrally located village had 3.351 inhabitants.[4]

Geography, Climate, and Population

Geography

Rivermouth Blies Schwarzbach Einöd (Saar)
Rivermouth Blies Schwarzbach Einöd (Saar)

Einöd sits north-east of the cross point of the Blies and the left side tributary to it, the Schwarzbach. The village is located at the southern border of Saar-Palatinate County at the south-eastern border of the State of Saarland in the south-west of Germany. To the southeast, Einöd borders with the town Zweibrücken which is located in the State of Rhineland-Palatinate. To the south-west sits the town Blieskastel, which like Einöd, is located in the County of Saar-Palatinate.[1]

Climate

The weather patterns in the region are embedded within the Central European climate. According to the Köppen climate classification,[5] the climate in the area around Einöd can be classified as CFB.[6] These climates are often found on the western coasts of continents.

They are characterized by a humid climate with short dry summers. Heavy precipitation occurs during the mild winters because of continuous presence of mid-latitude cyclones. In Einöd the climate is warm and temperate. Even in the driest months, there is a significant amount of precipitation. The average annual temperature is 9.2 °C and approx. 699 mm of precipitation falls annually.

Einöd-Ingweiler, Saarland
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
55
 
 
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−1
 
 
46
 
 
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1
 
 
47
 
 
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62
 
 
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [1]

During the winter months, temperatures below 0° Celsius can be reached and the summer months can be rather hot reaching up to 40° Celsius.[7] The Bliesgau, to which Einöd belongs, is thus considered one of the warmest areas in Germany and is only bested by Oberrheingraben and Breisgau in southern Germany.

Population

According to statistics provided by the city of Homburg (May 14, 2019),[4] the district Einöd has a total of 3.351 inhabitants. The three fractions Einöd, Ingweiler, and Schwarzenacker have 2.565, 160, and 626 inhabitants respectively. After Erbach and Homburg, Einöd is currently the third largest district in the city of Homburg contributing 7.8% out of the overall population of 42.843 inhabitants.

History

Einöd has had a long and interesting history that can be traced back to Roman and Celtic times and might reach back to paleolithic times as artifacts and remains may indicate.[8][9]

Fraction Ingweiler

Street in Einöd-Ingweiler
Street in Einöd-Ingweiler

The fraction Ingweiler was mentioned as early as 1180 CE in a deed of donation of the Abby "Werschweiler".[10] It is believed that there could be traces of Roman remains at the Ingweiler cemetery, where a chapel may have been built on top of a former Roman building. Until 1603 CE Ingweiler belonged to the county of Nassau-Saarbrücken. In an exchange agreement in 1603 CE Ingweiler came under the administration of the Duchy of Palatine Zweibrücken, of which also Einöd was part.

Cemetery of Einöd-Ingweiler
Cemetery of Einöd-Ingweiler

Fraction Schwarzenacker

Roman Vicus in Einöd Schwarzenacker
Römerausgrabungen in Einöd Schwarzenacker
Einöd (Saar)
Roman Ruins in Einöd Schwarzenacker.jpg
Roman Ruins in Einöd Schwarzenacker
Roman Vicus in Einöd Schwarzenacker is located in Germany
Roman Vicus in Einöd Schwarzenacker
Roman Vicus in Einöd Schwarzenacker
Coordinates49°16′58.3″N 7°19′04.4″E / 49.282861°N 7.317889°E / 49.282861; 7.317889
TypeVicus, Archaeological site
CodeDE-SL
Height231 m above sea level (NN)
Site information
ConditionRuins (Aprrox. 8% uncovered)
Site history
Built1 CE, during the reign of Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus

There is strong historic evidence that the area of Schwarzenacker was populated since the Bronze Age (approx. 1100 BCE) and from the late La Tène period 450 BCE to the Roman conquest in the 1st century BCE.[8] During the reign of Augustus a Gallo-Roman Vicus was founded in 1 CE at the site of a more ancient Celtic settlement in the Celtic tribal area of the Mediomatrici.[8] The Vicus was built in the area of today's Schwarzenacker[11] and was situated approximately two kilometers south of the intersection of the Roman long-distance routes between Trier-Strasbourg and Metz-Worms. Remains of other Roman habitations can be found close to the Vicus such as the Roman Villa in Bierbach, Temple District on the Rödersberg, and the Roman Sanctuary in the snake caves in Einöd.

Epina - Celtic Patron Goddess of Travelers in Einöd Schwarzenacker
Epina - Celtic Patron Goddess of Travelers in Einöd Schwarzenacker

Roman Settlement (Vicus)

The Vicus, whose name has not been determined at this point in time, prospered for nearly three centuries[12] during the long era of peace, the Pax Romana.[12] However, at the end of that period, the ancient town was destroyed by Alemanni and Frank tribes in the spring of 276 CE.[8] In the first half of the 4th century CE, the Gallo-Roman site was again inhabited, but the villas and houses were only temporarily rebuilt and the settlement was abandoned.

In the Middle Ages, Monks from the Abby of Wörschweiler[13] found evidence of an ancient town below the fields that they used as farmland. They observed a black layer of earth that was interpreted as evidence of an ancient fire, and stone foundations under the earth that damaged the plows. They interpreted the findings as the remains of an ancient Roman settlement.[13] However, it was not until the 1950s that systematic excavations were conducted.[13] Incidentally the layer of black earth became eponymous of Schwarzenacker (black field).

Edelhaus in Einöd Schwarzenacker
Edelhaus in Einöd Schwarzenacker

Only small parts of the former Vicus have been uncovered, however, the ruins and artifacts found at the archaeological site are of regional and national importance.[14] The ancient ruins can be visited and are part of an open air museum. Some of the discovered artifact are on display at the Edelhaus,[15] a noble house that is adjacent to the excavations. Excavated buildings, basements, streets and water channels can be seen and inspected. Some of the buildings such as the Taberna Capitolinus and the house of the Gallo-Roman ophthalmologist Sextus Ajacius Launus have been partially reconstructed in order to provide a deeper insight of the everyday life of that historic era.

Museum at the site of the Roman Settlement

The Edelhaus hosts the museum, where a number of artifacts are on display. These artifacts come from the settlement itself or from the nearby environment. Replicas of life-sized Roman equestrian statues that were discovered in 1887 in nearby Breitfurt and represent the largest of their kind north of the Alps, were erected in front of the entrance staircase of the noble house. The original statues stood for many years in front of the entrance of the Historical Museum of the Palatinate in Speyer. However, they were moved and placed under a roof in the courtyard of the museum of Speyer as they were sustaining damage due to environmental influences.

Roman equestrian statues of Tetricus I and Tetricus II at the Römermuseum Einöd Schwarzenacker
Roman equestrian statues of Tetricus I and Tetricus II at the Römermuseum Einöd Schwarzenacker

These statutes are of particular historical interest, as they may illustrate an important historical event of the last usurper emperor of the Gallic Empire Gaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus I (271 CE to 274 CE) and his son Gaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus II whom he had declared Caesar in 273 CE. The horses with the riders were probably sculptured in honor of Tetricus I and his son, Tetricus II,[16] however, they were never completed. Tetricus I and his son were defeated in 274 CE by the rightful Emperor Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus in the Battle of Châlons, near modern-day Châlons.[17][18] However, notwithstanding their defeat, Tetricus I was given the post of senator and corrector (governor) of either Lucania and Bruttii, in southern Italy,[19][20][21] or all of Italy and his son Tetricus II was gifted with an important administrative post.[22] Thus the unfinished statues may be an ancient witness of the events that let to the defeat of the usurper emperor.

Fraction Einöd

Bürgerhaus Einöd (Saar)
Bürgerhaus Einöd (Saar)
Salien Castle
Salier Burg in Einöd (Saar)
Homburg (Saar)-Einöd
Alte Burg Einoed.png
Floor plan of the Salien Tower House in Einöd (Saar) from 1928.[9]
Salien Castle is located in Germany
Salien Castle
Salien Castle
Coordinates49°15′56″N 7°18′55″E / 49.26556°N 7.31528°E / 49.26556; 7.31528
TypeLowland Castle, Motte
CodeDE-SL
Height217 m above sea level (NN)
Site information
ConditionBurgstall (No above-ground ruins discovered)
Site history
Built900 CE - 1000 CE
Site of Burgstall, Salien Castle in Einöd (Saar)
Site of Burgstall, Salien Castle in Einöd (Saar)

Close to where the river Schwarzbach merges with the smaller Blies, foundations of a Salien[23] castle[24] were uncovered that may be dated to the 10th or 11th century CE.[25] In 1928[9] excavations under the leadership of the conservator Karl Klein brought to light the foundations of a rectangular, tripartite tower house.

Cushion capitals of the Salien tower house in Einöd (Saar)
Cushion capitals of the Salien tower house in Einöd (Saar)

On the south side was a rectangular extension, that could have functioned as a cesspool, similar to the one found at the castle Schlössel in Klingenmünster. Fragments of Roman reliefs were found between the bricks of the destroyed castle walls. Two of these reliefs are exhibited in the neighboring Römermuseum Schwarzenacker. The spolia probably belonged to an ancient Roman cemetery or sanctuary that had been on site or in its vicinity and could have been associated with the Roman Vicus in Schwarzenacker. There were also found Romanesque column shafts with cushion capitals and imposts that may have been part of double windows at the upper floor of the tower. Unfortunately, no above ground structures are visible and the ruins have been reduced over time to a Burgstall. In addition to these finds, even earlier remains of human habitation have been discovered, that may date back to the paleolithic period.[9]

The first documented mention of Einöd (Eynot) was recorded in a contract between Count Walram I. of Zweibrücken[3] and Ludwig of Homburg that was signed on June 3, 1290 CE.[26]

In 1760 CE Einöd became its own Schultheißerei, which meant that it had its own Schultheiß, a position that was similar to that of a mayor. It included the villages Einöd, Bierbach, Ingweiler, Nieder- and Obereschweiler, Audenkellerhof, Gutenbrunnen and Schwarzenacker.

Sonnenuhr am Einöder Bürgerhaus
Sundial at the Citizen House in Einöd (Saar)

In 1849 CE, Einöd-Ingweiler and Schwarzenacker got their own administration. The first mayor of Einöd was Joseph Schwarz. As a consequence of the territorial and administrative reform of 1974, Einöd ceased to be an independent municipality and became a municipal district of the city of Homburg[27] and incorporated within Saar-Palatinate County[1] (Saarpfalz-Kreis) of which Homburg is the administrative seat. The former town hall which was the administrative seat with a local mayor became later the "Bürgerhaus or citizen hall.[28] The Bürgerhaus has still an important cultural function in Einöd. It is the home of several local associations and institutions. These include the local district council, the district archive, the choir association Einöd-Ingweiler with the mixed choir, the Young Voices and the Young Foxes, as well as the Red Cross, the pensioners' association and the local associations of the political parties SPD and the CDU.

Natural Environment

Bliesgau

The district Einöd is part of the biosphere reserve Bliesgau with the Pfänderbachtal[29] in Einöd forming a core zone of 45 hectares. The region is a sanctuary for many rare animal and plant species such as the little owl, beaver, red kite, lizard orchid, and the yellow rattle. Almost half of all types of orchids that occur in Germany can be found here, on the vast, semi-dry grasslands that cover formations of limestone. Over the years the area has become a breeding ground for storks and nests[30] with young birds can be observed.[31] At certain periods dozens of storks can be observed in the air or on the ground.

Storknest in Einöd (Saar), Biosphere Reserve Bliesgau,
Storknest in Einöd (Saar), Biosphere Reserve Bliesgau,

The Bliesgau is located at the south-eastern corner of Saarland, bordering France and Rhineland-Palatinate. It is an area of outstanding natural beauty and cultural richness. The area is characterized by wide meadow orchards, beech groves and the impressive meadow landscape of the Blies river. Because of its picturesque landscape it is often referred to as the "Tuscany of Saarland".[32] On May 26, 2009, the Bliesgau was recognized by the UNESCO as a German Biosphere Reserve.[33][34]

Guldenschlucht

The Guldenschlucht (Gulden Canyon) named after Alfred Gulden,[35][36] is an impressive ravine with a small creek flowing at the bottom, and surrounded by looming boulders made of red sandstone. From top to bottom it is approximately 460m long and has an elevation differential of 80m.[37]

The canyon was forged post glacially and is thus of relatively recent geological origins. Immersed in a forest and enshrined by beech trees, the high humidity in the gorge has led to a unique vegetation. The rare lunar ivy (Lunaria rediviva),[38][39] can be found in Saarland only at the Guldenschlucht.[40]

Protected species such as the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) have their habitat in the Guldenschlucht.[41] The rare Fauna and Flora make it thus an area of particular ecological interest.

A popular path leads through the canyon. It crosses over numerous small bridges and stairs[42] from the State of Saarland to Rhineland-Palatinate with two thirds of the canyon belonging to the territory of Einöd and one third belonging to Zweibrücken.[43]

The path is part of the Saar-Mosel hiking trail[44][45] and often traversed by pilgrims as it is also a part of the Peregrinatio Compostellana (Jakobsweg or Way of Saint James), an international network of Pilgrimage routes that led to the shrine of the apostle Saint James the Great in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in northwestern Spain.

The Schlangenhöhlen (Snake Caves)

Snake Caves Exit - Einöd (Saar)
Snake Caves Exit - Einöd (Saar)

An area of geographic and natural interest are the snake caves. The designation of the area as snake caves can be traced back at least 500 years.[46] The snake caves are a network of sandstone caves that are of natural and man made origins. A central cave was rediscovered during the first World War. Its creation is still debated. It is believed that it served as a sacred Roman burial ground and was associated to the Roman Vicus in Einöd Schwarzenacker.[46] The cave shows traces of artificial building activity and has dozens of cavities branching off from the main cavity into all directions. A number of caves were used as a source of building material.[47][46][48]

Erhard Well in Einöd (Saar)
Erhard Well in Einöd (Saar)

The snake caves serve as a natural shelter for wild animals, such as foxes, badgers, and bats. In the war years 1944/55, however, they also served as a shelter for humans. In the 1950s, the snake caves became a tourist attraction and an electrical light system was installed. However, because of continued vandalism the caves were closed.

Kneipp Water Health Treatment Installation at the Snake Caves in Einöd (Saar)
Kneipp Water Health Treatment Installation at the Snake Caves in Einöd (Saar)

The Schlangenhöhler Weg passes through this area and some of the cave exits are visible when hiking on the path. The trail is part of a hiking network and quite popular as it passes a ski and hiking cabin and a Kneipp water health treatment installment, that can be freely used by the public. The Ehrhard Brunnen which was an important well and water reservoir in the early 20th century is on the left side of the path close to the Kneipp installation. The trail follows the Pfänderbach and rises 110 m from the bottom to the top. After reaching the top of the path and exiting the forest, it is only a short distance to the Berghof farm.

Churches

Apostelkirche Einöd (Saar)
Apostelkirche Einöd (Saar)

Currently there are two church buildings in the fraction Einöd, the Protestant Apostelkirche[49] and a church building of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church.[50][51] The Apostelkirche belongs to the Protestant Palatinate Deanery of Zweibrücken.[52] The church was built between 1752 CE and 1753 CE as an extension of an earlier chapel. In 1808 CE, there was a further extension of the church which was followed by a reconstruction 1868. In the course of this reconstruction, the present church tower was built. After the Second World War, the church was restored from 1949 to 1950. Currently the church building is listed as a cultural monument.[53]

In the fraction Schwarzenacker there are also two church buildings, the Roman Catholic Church Maria Geburt and the Protestant Christuskirche.[54] Maria Geburt[55] was built between 1960 and 1962. Canon Otto Wokart laid the foundation stone on June 25, 1961. The church was consecrated on August 12, 1962 by bishop Dr. Isidore Markus Emanuel. Since January 1, 2016, Maria Geburt is a parish church of the Holy Cross in Homburg[56] and includes the fractions and districts of Schwarzenacker, Schwarzenbach, Einöd, Wörschweiler and Ingweiler. The Patronal Feast of the church, is the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, on the 8th of September. The Protestant Christuskirche[57] is the parish church of Schwarzenbach, Schwarzenacker and Wörschweiler and is part of the Protestant Palatinate Deanery of Homburg.[58] The foundation stone was laid in June 1958 and the inauguration took place on November 27, 1960.[54]

Politics

Election Results Local District Council 2019 Einöd (Saar)
Election Results Local District Council 2019 Einöd (Saar)

Einöd has the status of a municipal district with its own district head and local council. The district council supports the city council in an advisory function but does not have voting rights. Similar to the elections in previous cycles the SPD won the elections in 2019 with an absolute majority.[59] In the city council elections the CDU became the majority party[60] whereas the SPD maintained its majority in Einöd.[61] Dr.med. Karl Schuberth (SPD) has been the council head[62] of the district of Einöd since 2004.

Election Results of Homburg (Saar) City Council
Election Results of Homburg (Saar) City Council

Transportation

Einöd is easily accessible by car, bus and train. A highway ramp at the exit of the village connects to the motor-highway autobahn A8. A train-station provides easy and efficient access to nearby towns such as Pirmasens and the capital city of the State Saarbrücken. Unfortunately there is currently no direct train connection to Homburg. However, there are discussions and possible plans to reactivate the railway to Homburg and thus extend the commuter train rail S1 from Rhein Neckar to Zweibrücken, passing through Homburg and Einöd. Two bus lines connect Einöd, Saar-Mobil with a half hour frequency, and DB Regio Mitte with an hourly frequency.

Personalities

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "Saarpfalz-Kreis".
  2. ^ "Districts of Homburg". Ortsteile. 15 December 2015.
  3. ^ a b "Graf Walram I. von und zu Zweibrücken". Deutsche Biographie.
  4. ^ a b "Daten und Fakten". www.homburg.de. Retrieved 2019-06-30.
  5. ^ "Köppen climate classification".
  6. ^ "Climate in Einöd-Ingweiler".
  7. ^ "Weather in Saarland".
  8. ^ a b c d "Anker der Identität – Vorrömische und römische Geschichte".
  9. ^ a b c d Emil Hoffmann (30 July 2013). Altpaläolithische Fundplätze im Bliesgau (Saarpfalz-Kreis). BoD – Books on Demand. ISBN 978-3-7322-2823-2.
  10. ^ "Wo einst die alten Römer lebten".
  11. ^ "Roman Archaeological Site".
  12. ^ a b Norbert M. Seel; Ulrike Hanke (11 November 2014). Erziehungswissenschaft: Lehrbuch für Bachelor-, Master- und Lehramtsstudierende. Springer-Verlag. pp. 182–186. ISBN 978-3-642-55206-9.
  13. ^ a b c Wolfram Letzner (16 March 2016). 50 weitere archäologische Stätten in Deutschland - die man kennen sollte. Nünnerich Asmus Verlag & Media GmbH. pp. 186–189. ISBN 978-3-945751-65-7.
  14. ^ "Römermuseum Homburg-Schwarzenacker".
  15. ^ "Römermuseum".
  16. ^ "Reiterstatue".
  17. ^ Polfer 2000.
  18. ^ Southern 2015, p. 175.
  19. ^ Southern 2015, p. 176.
  20. ^ Sayles 2007, p. 138.
  21. ^ Matyszak 2014, p. 134.
  22. ^ "Reiterstatue - Römermuseum Schwarzenacker".
  23. ^ Egon Boshof (2008). Die Salier. Kohlhammer Verlag. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-3-17-020183-5.
  24. ^ "Burgen der Salierzeit in Hessen, in Rheinland-Pfalz und im Saarland".
  25. ^ Burgen der Salierzeit: In den südlichen Landschaften des Reiches. Jan Thorbecke Verlag Sigmaringen. 1991.
  26. ^ "Wo einst die alten Römer lebten".
  27. ^ "Stadtgeschichte".
  28. ^ "Bürgermeisteramt in Einöd heißt jetzt Bürgerhaus".
  29. ^ "Pfänderbachtal".
  30. ^ "Storchenpaar im Europäischen Kulturpark eingezogen".
  31. ^ "Die Störche sind zurück im Bliestal".
  32. ^ Kerstin Joost-Schäfe: Durch die „Toskana des Saarlandes“ In: Saarbrücker Zeitung vom 18. Mai 2010, Seite B3, aufgerufen am 28. Februar 2011
  33. ^ "Biosphere Reserve Information".
  34. ^ "Biosphere Bliesgau".
  35. ^ "Guldenschlucht".
  36. ^ "Guldenschlucht".
  37. ^ "Guldenschlucht".
  38. ^ "Guldenschlucht".
  39. ^ "Lunaria rediviva".
  40. ^ "LAND OF ORCHIDS AND SAVOIR-VIVRE".
  41. ^ "Guldenschlucht" Check |url= value (help).
  42. ^ "Guldenschlucht - Zweibrücken".
  43. ^ "Guldenschlucht".
  44. ^ "Wanderwege des Saarwaldvereins".
  45. ^ "Zweibrücken: Beliebte Guldenschlucht wegen Hangrutsch gesperrt".
  46. ^ a b c Häberle, Daniel (1917). "Über Höhlen in der Rheinpfalz". Pfälzische Heimatkunde: 129–189.
  47. ^ Loth, Peter (1926). Schwarzenacker und die Schlangenhöhle. Aus heimatliche Gauen (in German). Zweibrücken.
  48. ^ Berrang, Ernst (1951). Die unterirdischen Sandgruben bei Schwarzenacker (Schlangenhöhle). Saarbrücken: Bergschule.
  49. ^ "Protestantisches Kirchendekanat Zweibrücken".
  50. ^ "Catholic Answers".
  51. ^ "World Council of Churches".
  52. ^ "Protestantisches Dekanat Zweibrücken".
  53. ^ "Denkmalliste des Saarlandes" (PDF).
  54. ^ a b "Protestantische Kirchengemeinde Schwarzenbach".
  55. ^ "Maria Geburt, Schwarzenacker".
  56. ^ "Pfarrei Heilig Kreuz".
  57. ^ "Christuskirche".
  58. ^ "Protestantisches Dekanat Homburg".
  59. ^ "Ortsratswahl Einöd 2019".
  60. ^ "Stadtratswahlen 2019".
  61. ^ "Stadtratswahlen Homburg".
  62. ^ "District Councils".

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