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Egyptian pyramids

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. From left to right, the three largest are: the Pyramid of Menkaure, the Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Pyramid of Khufu. The three smaller pyramids in the foreground are subsidiary structures associated with Menkaure's pyramid.
A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. From left to right, the three largest are: the Pyramid of Menkaure, the Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Pyramid of Khufu. The three smaller pyramids in the foreground are subsidiary structures associated with Menkaure's pyramid.
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Unicode: 𓍋𓅓𓂋𓉴
Pyramid
in hieroglyphs

The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt. As of November 2008, sources cite either 118 or 138 as the number of identified Egyptian pyramids.[1][2] Most were built as tombs for the country's pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods.[3][4][5]

The earliest known Egyptian pyramids are found at Saqqara, northwest of Memphis. The earliest among these is the Pyramid of Djoser, which was built c. 2630–2610 BC during the Third Dynasty.[6] This pyramid and its surrounding complex were designed by the architect Imhotep, and are generally considered to be the world's oldest monumental structures constructed of dressed masonry.[7]

The most famous Egyptian pyramids are those found at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo. Several of the Giza pyramids are counted among the largest structures ever built.[8] The Pyramid of Khufu at Giza is the largest Egyptian pyramid. It is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence.

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Transcription

Mainstream historians will tell you that the Great Pyramid of Giza was a glorified tomb for the Egyptian pharaohs The only monument left of the original seven wonders of the world This structure was created with impeccable Mathematical precision and is a unique mysterious feat of construction and of engineering There's only one problem the Great Pyramid has none of the characteristics of tunes including Extravagant artifacts Ornate wall art sealed entrances elaborate coffins Or even mummies themselves it was however built with unique materials the same materials that are used today for electrical conductivity These facts are leading more and more historians to believe the pyramids may have had a far more useful purpose The Pyramid of Giza was not at all a tomb but a power plant Generating and transmitting electricity to the civilization surrounding it impossible Join the universe inside you for a closer look You To start, it's important to comprehend the tremendous effort that went into creating these monuments The pyramids of giza are among no less than 118 of these structures in Egypt alone and that doesn't even include those pyramids in other parts of the world given our current understanding of how early civilizations built their monuments It would have taken no less than 20 years to build these so-called tombs, and that's if no less than 20,000 workers worked daily to this day Historians still can't prove exactly how or when they were built This leads us to ask what resting place for the dead could possibly be so important that it would warrant such phenomenal effort time and precise engineering Even without knowing that they have nothing in common with regular tombs You only need to stand before them to realize that's a lot of work for a cadaver Naturally, we make conclusions based on the assumption that ancient civilizations were more primitive than us but what if intellectual evolution isn't always linear can advanced technology be lost and Rediscovered centuries later is it possible that an ancient culture had knowledge of and used electrical power to Know for sure let's look at another case where technology of power generation Appears to have been used and then forgotten We know Edison and Tesla brought electricity into common use moving into the 20th century Yet in Iraq in 1934 three artifacts were found together a ceramic pot a tube of copper and a rod of iron which when combined with a liquid acid can be used to create chemical reactions that produce an electrical charge Known as the Baghdad or Parthian battery these materials date back 2,000 years ten years after their discovery Someone using grape juice with similar materials successfully generated a few volts of electricity this process has since been demonstrated on the Discovery Channel's program Mythbusters where lemon juice activated the electrochemical reaction between the copper and the iron producing 4 volts of electricity Nowadays you can simply search online to find instructions on how to create your own battery using these chemical principles But historians have long assumed that thousands of years ago. There was no knowledge of this technology That this archaeological find is mere coincidence Even though we've long marveled over artifacts with intricate gold plating which requires electricity to be created quite simply Energy generation happens as a result of simple chemical properties and can be done by anyone with four basic materials So here are some important facts about the structure and the materials of the pyramid For starters it contains angled tunnels which lead not only into the pyramid, but deep underground To areas claimed is still to be unexplored What too needs a shaft directed into the earth? We also know that centuries ago. There were enormous swivel doors that weighed no less than 20 tons But miraculously it was so well engineered. It could be moved to enter with a push of a hand Since no Egyptian tomb has ever been found to be deliberately accessible What was their interest in? continuing to visit the mummies or Could such a door have served the purpose of perhaps containing and insulating the space inside Though you'd almost never know it the Great Pyramids of Giza were once covered in white polished limestone Referred to as casing stones The cuts made in this reflective stone were angled perfectly so it would have a smooth flat appearance This would have made the giant structures brightly reflect the light of the Sun like a mirror it also would have made perfect insulation inside the structure a large earthquake in 1303 disrupted the casing stones And they were removed to use on other structures today all that remains is the inner core of the pyramid The image of the incredible amount of light that would have reflected from the monument Raises curiosity as does the reason for the insulation was there a desire to draw attention to their dead To keep mummies warm or cooler perhaps something else Next the material dolomite was used on the inner surfaces Dolomite is known to increase electrical conductivity Directly relative to the amount of pressure on it high pressure creates more electrical current Next lining the passageways and underground tunnels of the pyramids is granite, which is slightly radioactive Granite contains high amounts of quartz crystal with metal and it's a well known conductor of pzo electricity piezo electricity occurs as a result of stress or pressure on the quartz as Demonstrated by the wristwatches which can be charged simply by rapidly shaking them This granite actually ionizes the air inside the pyramid creating a chemical reaction which again increases the conductivity of electricity When such electrons are given the chance to bypass sections of rock via metal wire quite large currents can flow Another important material used to construct them is the mysterious mortar half a million tons of it Which holds the giant stones in place? Though it's been analyzed many times modern technology is yet to exactly recreate this gypsum Which comes from sediment? This chip some can withstand Tremendous pressure and astoundingly is even stronger than the stones themselves Clearly it's contributed to keeping the monument intact for thousands of years But could there be another reason why they used a material which could withstand such a high pressure So limestone dolomite granite Supposedly constructed for a tomb are in fact analogous to the exact materials we use to make electrical wires they also share a relationship with pressure which increases their electro conductivity Just northwest of the Great Pyramid is the syrup and Here there are 20 huge granite boxes each weighing 100 tons Classic Egyptologists say these are coffins Yet, the granite here came from 500 miles away and each box is so large and so heavy that there's no possible way it can fit through the existing tunnels and entrances These supposed sarcophagi were therefore Somehow built into the structure with such precision They're within a ten thousandth of an inch of being perfectly flat in the meantime Any electrical engineer will explain that a container serving as an energy capacitor or battery? Must be made entirely of the same substance, so there's no interruption in the magnetic field could these boxes be just that if So there's a centuries-old granite sarcophagus on Display in an Egyptian Museum, that's thought to be unfinished Unlike those in the pyramids this one's cracked Suggesting that perhaps it wasn't unfinished But simply abandoned because the crack which occurred would have interrupted the magnetic field Permitting it from successfully serving its purpose So there is clear evidence to support the possibility of an Electrical use Since the supposed Sarcophagi are clearly way too large for a human being the accepted theory is that they were Yes, believe this bull coffins for the pharaohs prized bulls Makes you wonder who came up with the bull coffin theory to add to the mystery in 1993 a mysterious and inaccessible room was discovered after remaining hidden for thousands of years appearing to have deliberately been concealed by the structures engineers the room came to be called the Queen's Chamber and was finally explored in 2011 with a small remote camera to reveal a long-lost mummy hardly it contained carefully crafted copper wire and More importantly there were instructions painted as symbols onto the floor which appeared to show a clear wiring diagram Look at any battery from those used in large power plants to the smallest pellet batteries in wristwatches and you'll see that they require a metal such as copper to create the chemical reaction known as potential difference You can run an electric current through copper wire and the coil will produce a short range magnetic field at a second coil and the power is transferred from one quill to the other a windowless room with copper wiring Could create a higher potential on one wall which transfers energy to the lower potential on the other wall consequentially releasing electromagnetic energy into the confined space of the so-called Queen's Chamber sadly these wires have since disappeared entirely and Mainstream Egyptologists claim there's no functionality whatsoever to this room as they also claim There's no functionality of anything in this structure beyond the ways it serves as a tomb good place to note however That the foremost Egyptologist Zahi Hawass was indicted for theft of Egyptian antiquities It could still be argued that the electrical materials used to construct the Great Pyramid are simply coincidental Because an energy generator still requires a catalyst from another source perhaps Then this explains why the pyramids are geographically located over a powerful natural generator underground rivers and aquifers physio electricity could be harnessed from the power of the current as the water flows and It has been proven that thousands of years ago the Nile River passed directly by where the structures now stand of Course this brings in a debate about the age of the pyramids themselves along with the weathering on the nearby Sphinx Indicating that the monuments are actually double the age. They're currently assumed to be Perhaps that would explain why there's no mention of the pyramids or their creation in any of the Egyptian writings So if water was a source of power it would have traveled up the limestone based on the principle of capillary action Which happens when a small area of a substance that gets wet? Absorbs into the entire area of that substance So water flowing near or underneath the pyramid could have been absorbed as it passed over the limestone even traveling upward to the top of the structure the Quartz and the tunnels of the pyramids would subject to the stress or vibration creating pzo electricity The high force speed of the rising water and the pressure would be analogous to filling a syringe generating electromagnetic energy within the structure by the materials within it and conducting it upwards to the now-missing capstone but why The geographical location of the pyramid may give us some clues It is located exactly at a point Which magnifies the electromagnetic forces on the planet where Talia recurrence are at their strongest? There's an electromagnetic field at the bottom of the pyramid which would rise to the upper layers with these chemical reactions We don't know for sure what capped the pyramid, but there is speculation that it may have been gold Explaining of course why it's long since been missing If it were gold this could have created a conductive path for energy to be directed upwards high into the ionosphere If Super conductive materials were used to create this monument for energy then the potential for something even more amazing Might have been possible Wireless electricity Sound far-fetched One bold and extraordinary man swore this was possible and he may have showed us. How we Know of Nikola Tesla as the solitary genius responsible for the electric engine radio laser radar and for creating a tremendous competitive spirit in Thomas Edison We know Tesla sought above all to serve mankind in fact despite his extraordinary Contributions, he's scarcely known or credited for his genius At the 1893 World's Fair Tesla transmitted electricity naturally to a light bulb He held in his hands, and he created the Tesla coil which is used more today for show than for the function It was intended to serve Most importantly we know that Tesla claimed Adamantly that he had perfected the method of harnessing and transmitting free wireless energy using the electromagnetic nature of the planet in a patent Tesla file in September of 1897 he Claimed that at 30,000 feet altitude There's a stratum of rarefied air that would conduct electric currents at high voltages In this proposed system was a transmitter, which would transmit millions of volts into the atmosphere Then he had something received the electricity and reduce the voltage to a convenient potential to be used by consumers in An experiment the last week of July in 1903 Nearby residents claimed to have witnessed Tesla successfully conduct his experiment at the warden safe tower while Tesla himself Sharing his new method of conductivity Said that it lit up the night sky as if it were a giant fluorescent tube It's even been said that he successfully wirelessly transmitted pictures and sounds though all of his work has been Mercilessly destroyed this cannot be proven Sadly Tesla's technology was confiscated shortly after his death he died in poverty and the US government destroyed his tower Claiming it was being used by German spies Had Tesla succeeded in his mission the distribution of power on this planet would have been very different today Compared Tesla's technology to the pyramids the location height and electromagnetic materials We've seen induction between copper wires work for short distances for a long distance Transfer the same principle can be applied when acoustic energy is converted to kinetic energy and the frequencies match The way an opera singer can shatter a glass when the sound wave he is singing matches the resonant frequency of the glass so if there's a magnetically oscillating current And you create a second possessing same frequency the wireless transmission can pass through solid materials and through long distances The frequency which would have been released from the pyramid would have to have been in the surrounding area Perhaps this would explain the obelisks the tall monuments, which could be acting as receivers Particularly if there's a quartz stone at the top of them This would also explain the ancient carvings in Egypt, which so clearly indicate light sources It's boggling to think anyone would even argue it in The Hathor temple the Dendera light is one such image it Perfectly resembles modern electrical technology showing a wire inside of a bulb like area and a box which appears to be a receiver Across from this carving is a similar image but the system appears to be falling into the hands of a reptilian-looking being as Though it's a warning of the potential to abuse as technology Mainstream historians scoff and make more primitive conclusions, but still the pyramids show no sign of sit from flame torches Instead there are multiple carvings, which show these antennae like objects that appear to be a transmitter Near another object shaped like the famous symbol the ankh which appears to be the receiver Given all this it seems so much more believable that the Great Pyramid functioned using the same principles and conditions as Tesla sought to demonstrate That they conducted and directed electromagnetic energy into the ionosphere where it generated and transmitted electricity wirelessly to receivers within the civilization We've long believed that the pyramids were just tombs, but this theory raises more questions than it answers Why do they have nothing in common with other tombs? Why do unique construction materials made to build it including the very materials required for conducting power? Why the oversized granite Boxes proven to have never contained any mummies or the ones that are clearly too large for humans Why the alignment with the North Pole that 20-ton swivel doors? Intricate tunnels and chambers shafts and areas still yet to be discovered Why is there no soot from fire torches anywhere inside the structure and why do the tunnels protrude deep into the earth These mysteries still elude our understanding But more and more people are accepting the possibility that the Great Pyramid of Giza had a more important function than we understand We know there is a heightened electromagnetic measurement around the pyramid. That's equivalent to that made in an electrical storm We also know that if you look at them from space you can see that They're actually eight sided not four sided and that there are strange heat spots observable only with special equipment They have unique electric materials Including copper and a design that suggests high pressure and water power They have a powerful magnetic structure and placement over the telev occurrence They're aligned with the stars and the unique art of the area shows clear depictions of wired light sources All these things suggest there's a lot more to this story than we've been told all these circumstances make the likelihood high that the pyramid was created to be a compact energy generator and a broadcasting system that transmitted electricity wirelessly The implications for this understanding of electrical power by an ancient culture is huge It would rewrite history as we know it Do you think that free energy could be transmitted wirelessly around the world and? Whether or not you do believe that do you think that if it really could do that we would actually know about it Thank you for watching And hit the like button if you enjoyed this video if you're new please hit subscribe And the bell next to it to be notified of future releases

Contents

Historical development

By the time of the Early Dynastic Period, those with sufficient means were buried in bench-like structures known as mastabas.[9][10]

The second historically-documented Egyptian pyramid is attributed to the architect Imhotep, who planned what Egyptologists believe to be a tomb for the pharaoh Djoser. Imhotep is credited with being the first to conceive the notion of stacking mastabas on top of each other, creating an edifice composed of a number of "steps" that decreased in size towards its apex. The result was the Pyramid of Djoser, which was designed to serve as a gigantic stairway by which the soul of the deceased pharaoh could ascend to the heavens. Such was the importance of Imhotep's achievement that he was deified by later Egyptians.[11]

The most prolific pyramid-building phase coincided with the greatest degree of absolutist rule. It was during this time of the Old Kingdom of Egypt that the most famous pyramids, the Giza pyramid complex, were built. Over time, as authority became less centralized, the ability and willingness to harness the resources required for construction on this massive scale decreased, and later pyramids were smaller, less well-built and often hastily constructed.

Long after the end of Egypt's own pyramid-building period, a burst of pyramid building occurred in what is present-day Sudan, after much of Egypt came under the rule of the Kingdom of Kush, which was then based at Napata. Napatan rule, known as the 25th Dynasty, lasted from 750 BCE to 664 BCE, and during that time Egyptian culture made an indelible impression on the Kushites. The Meroitic period of Kushite history, when the kingdom was centered on Meroë, (approximately in the period between 300 BCE and 300 CE), experienced a full-blown pyramid-building revival, which saw more than two hundred Egyptian-inspired indigenous royal pyramid-tombs constructed in the vicinity of the kingdom's capital cities.

Al-Aziz Uthman (1171–1198), the second Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt, tried to destroy the Giza pyramid complex. He gave up after only damaging the Pyramid of Menkaure because the task proved too large.[12]

Pyramid symbolism

Diagram of the interior structures of the Great Pyramid. The inner line indicates the pyramid's present profile, the outer line indicates the original profile.
Diagram of the interior structures of the Great Pyramid. The inner line indicates the pyramid's present profile, the outer line indicates the original profile.

The shape of Egyptian pyramids is thought to represent the primordial mound from which the Egyptians believed the earth was created. The shape of a pyramid is thought to be representative of the descending rays of the sun, and most pyramids were faced with polished, highly reflective white limestone, in order to give them a brilliant appearance when viewed from a distance. Pyramids were often also named in ways that referred to solar luminescence. For example, the formal name of the Bent Pyramid at Dahshur was The Southern Shining Pyramid, and that of Senwosret at el-Lahun was Senwosret is Shining.

While it is generally agreed that pyramids were burial monuments, there is continued disagreement on the particular theological principles that might have given rise to them. One suggestion is that they were designed as a type of "resurrection machine."[13]

The Egyptians believed the dark area of the night sky around which the stars appear to revolve was the physical gateway into the heavens. One of the narrow shafts that extend from the main burial chamber through the entire body of the Great Pyramid points directly towards the center of this part of the sky. This suggests the pyramid may have been designed to serve as a means to magically launch the deceased pharaoh's soul directly into the abode of the gods.[13]

All Egyptian pyramids were built on the west bank of the Nile, which, as the site of the setting sun, was associated with the realm of the dead in Egyptian mythology.[14]

Number and location of pyramids

In 1842, Karl Richard Lepsius produced the first modern list of pyramids – now known as the Lepsius list of pyramids – in which he counted 67. A great many more have since been discovered. As of November 2008, 118 Egyptian pyramids have been identified.[3]

The location of Pyramid 29, which Lepsius called the "Headless Pyramid", was lost for a second time when the structure was buried by desert sands after Lepsius's survey. It was found again only during an archaeological dig conducted in 2008.[15]

Many pyramids are in a poor state of preservation or buried by desert sands. If visible at all, they may appear as little more than mounds of rubble. As a consequence, archaeologists are continuing to identify and study previously unknown pyramid structures.

The most recent pyramid to be discovered was that of Sesheshet at Saqqara, mother of the Sixth Dynasty pharaoh Teti, announced on 11 November 2008.[4][16]

All of Egypt's pyramids, except the small Third Dynasty pyramid of Zawyet el-Amwat (or Zawyet el-Mayitin), are sited on the west bank of the Nile, and most are grouped together in a number of pyramid fields. The most important of these are listed geographically, from north to south, below.

Abu Rawash

The largely destroyed Pyramid of Djedefre
The largely destroyed Pyramid of Djedefre

Abu Rawash is the site of Egypt's most northerly pyramid (other than the ruins of Lepsius pyramid number one)[5]— the mostly ruined Pyramid of Djedefre, son and successor of Khufu. Originally it was thought that this pyramid had never been completed, but the current archaeological consensus is that not only was it completed, but that it was originally about the same size as the Pyramid of Menkaure, which would have placed it among the half-dozen or so largest pyramids in Egypt.

Its location adjacent to a major crossroads made it an easy source of stone. Quarrying, which began in Roman times, has left little apart from about 15 courses of stone superimposed upon the natural hillock that formed part of the pyramid's core. A small adjacent satellite pyramid is in a better state of preservation.

Giza

Aerial view of the Giza pyramid complex
Aerial view of the Giza pyramid complex

Giza is the location of the Pyramid of Khufu (also known as the "Great Pyramid" and the "Pyramid of Cheops"); the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Chephren); the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinus), along with a number of smaller satellite edifices known as "Queen's pyramids"; and the Great Sphinx of Giza.

Of the three, only Khafre's pyramid retains part of its original polished limestone casing, near its apex. This pyramid appears larger than the adjacent Khufu pyramid by virtue of its more elevated location, and the steeper angle of inclination of its construction – it is, in fact, smaller in both height and volume.

The Giza pyramid complex has been a popular tourist destination since antiquity and was popularized in Hellenistic times when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Today it is the only one of those wonders still in existence.

Zawyet el-Aryan

This site, halfway between Giza and Abusir, is the location for two unfinished Old Kingdom pyramids. The northern structure's owner is believed to be pharaoh Nebka, while the southern structure, known as the Layer Pyramid, may be attributable to the Third Dynasty pharaoh Khaba, a close successor of Sekhemkhet. If this attribution is correct, Khaba's short reign could explain the seemingly unfinished state of this step pyramid. Today it stands around 17 m (56 ft) high; had it been completed, it is likely to have exceeded 40 m (130 ft).

Abusir

The Pyramid of Sahure at Abusir, viewed from the pyramid's causeway
The Pyramid of Sahure at Abusir, viewed from the pyramid's causeway

There are a total of fourteen pyramids at this site, which served as the main royal necropolis during the Fifth Dynasty. The quality of construction of the Abusir pyramids is inferior to those of the Fourth Dynasty – perhaps signaling a decrease in royal power or a less vibrant economy. They are smaller than their predecessors, and are built of low-quality local limestone.

The three major pyramids are those of Niuserre, which is also the best preserved, Neferirkare Kakai and Sahure. The site is also home to the incomplete Pyramid of Neferefre. Most of the major pyramids at Abusir were built using similar construction techniques, comprising a rubble core surrounded by steps of mud bricks with a limestone outer casing. The largest of these Fifth Dynasty pyramids, the Pyramid of Neferirkare Kakai, is believed to have been built originally as a step pyramid some 70 m (230 ft) high and then later transformed into a "true" pyramid by having its steps filled in with loose masonry.

Saqqara

Major pyramids located here include the Pyramid of Djoser – generally identified as the world's oldest substantial monumental structure to be built of dressed stone – the Pyramid of Userkaf, the Pyramid of Teti and the Pyramid of Merikare, dating to the First Intermediate Period of Egypt. Also at Saqqara is the Pyramid of Unas, which retains a pyramid causeway that is one of the best-preserved in Egypt. Together with the pyramid of Userkaf, this pyramid was the subject of one of the earliest known restoration attempts, conducted by Khaemweset, a son of Ramesses II.[17] Saqqara is also the location of the incomplete step pyramid of Djoser's successor Sekhemkhet, known as the Buried Pyramid. Archaeologists believe that had this pyramid been completed, it would have been larger than Djoser's.

South of the main pyramid field at Saqqara is a second collection of later, smaller pyramids, including those of Pepi I, Djedkare Isesi, Merenre, Pepi II and Ibi. Most of these are in a poor state of preservation.

The Fourth Dynasty pharaoh Shepseskaf either did not share an interest in, or have the capacity to undertake pyramid construction like his predecessors. His tomb, which is also sited at south Saqqara, was instead built as an unusually large mastaba and offering temple complex. It is commonly known as the Mastabat al-Fir’aun.[18]

A previously unknown pyramid was discovered at north Saqqara in late 2008. Believed to be the tomb of Teti's mother, it currently stands approximately 5 m (16 ft) high, although the original height was closer to 14 m (46 ft).

Dahshur

This area is arguably the most important pyramid field in Egypt outside Giza and Saqqara, although until 1996 the site was inaccessible due to its location within a military base and was relatively unknown outside archaeological circles.

The southern Pyramid of Sneferu, commonly known as the Bent Pyramid, is believed to be the first Egyptian pyramid intended by its builders to be a "true" smooth-sided pyramid from the outset; the earlier pyramid at Meidum had smooth sides in its finished state – but it was conceived and built as a step pyramid, before having its steps filled in and concealed beneath a smooth outer casing of dressed stone. As a true smooth-sided structure, the Bent Pyramid was only a partial success – albeit a unique, visually imposing one; it is also the only major Egyptian pyramid to retain a significant proportion of its original smooth outer limestone casing intact. As such it serves as the best contemporary example of how the ancient Egyptians intended their pyramids to look. Several kilometres to the north of the Bent Pyramid is the last – and most successful – of the three pyramids constructed during the reign of Sneferu; the Red Pyramid is the world's first successfully completed smooth-sided pyramid. The structure is also the third largest pyramid in Egypt – after the pyramids of Khufu and Khafra at Giza.

Also at Dahshur is one of two pyramids built by Amenemhat III, known as the Black Pyramid, as well as a number of small, mostly ruined subsidiary pyramids.

Mazghuna

Located to the south of Dahshur, several mudbrick pyramids were built in this area in the late Middle Kingdom, perhaps for Amenemhat IV and Sobekneferu.

Lisht

Two major pyramids are known to have been built at Lisht – those of Amenemhat I and his son, Senusret I. The latter is surrounded by the ruins of ten smaller subsidiary pyramids. One of these subsidiary pyramids is known to be that of Amenemhat's cousin, Khaba II.[19] The site which is in the vicinity of the oasis of the Faiyum, midway between Dahshur and Meidum, and about 100 kilometres south of Cairo, is believed to be in the vicinity of the ancient city of Itjtawy (the precise location of which remains unknown), which served as the capital of Egypt during the Twelfth Dynasty.

Meidum

The pyramid at Meidum
The pyramid at Meidum

The pyramid at Meidum is one of three constructed during the reign of Sneferu, and is believed by some to have been started by that pharaoh's father and predecessor, Huni. However, that attribution is uncertain, as no record of Huni's name has been found at the site. It was constructed as a step pyramid, and then later converted into the first "true" smooth-sided pyramid when the steps were filled in, and an outer casing added. The pyramid suffered several catastrophic collapses in ancient and medieval times; medieval Arab writers described it as having seven steps – although today only the three uppermost of these remain, giving the structure its odd, tower-like appearance. The hill on which the pyramid is situated is not a natural landscape feature – it is the small mountain of debris created when the lower courses and outer casing of the pyramid gave way.

Hawara

The Pyramid of Amenemhet III at Hawara
The Pyramid of Amenemhet III at Hawara

Amenemhat III was the last powerful ruler of the Twelfth Dynasty, and the pyramid he built at Hawara, near the Faiyum, is believed to post-date the so-called "Black Pyramid" built by the same ruler at Dahshur. It is the Hawara pyramid that is believed to have been Amenemhet's final resting place.

el-Lahun

The Pyramid of Senusret II. The pyramid's natural limestone core is clearly visible as the yellow stratum at its base.
The Pyramid of Senusret II. The pyramid's natural limestone core is clearly visible as the yellow stratum at its base.

The pyramid of Senusret II at el-Lahun is the southernmost royal-tomb pyramid structure in Egypt. Its builders reduced the amount of work necessary to construct it by ingeniously using as its foundation and core a 12-meter-high natural limestone hill.

El-Kurru

Piye's pyramid at El-Kurru
Piye's pyramid at El-Kurru

Piye, the king of Kush who became the first ruler of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, built a pyramid at El-Kurru. He was the first Egyptian pharaoh to be buried in a pyramid in centuries.

Nuri

Taharqa's pyramid at Nuri
Taharqa's pyramid at Nuri

Taharqa, a Kushite ruler of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, built his pyramid at Nuri. It was the largest in the area (North Sudan).

Construction dates and heights

Drawing showing transportation of a colossus. The water poured in the path of the sledge, long dismissed by Egyptologists as ritual, but now confirmed as feasible, served to increase the stiffness of the sand, and likely reduced by 50% the force needed to move the statue.[20]
Drawing showing transportation of a colossus. The water poured in the path of the sledge, long dismissed by Egyptologists as ritual, but now confirmed as feasible, served to increase the stiffness of the sand, and likely reduced by 50% the force needed to move the statue.[20]

The following table lays out the chronology of the construction of most of the major pyramids mentioned here. Each pyramid is identified through the pharaoh who ordered it built, his approximate reign, and its location.

Pyramid / Pharaoh Reign Field Height
Djoser c. 2670 BC Saqqara 62 meters (203 feet)
Sneferu c. 2612–2589 BC Dashur 104 meters (341 feet)
Sneferu c. 2612–2589 BC Meidum 65 meters (213 feet) (ruined)

*Would have been 91.65 meters (301 feet) or 175 Egyptian Royal cubits.

Khufu c. 2589–2566 BC Giza 146.7 meters (481 feet) or 280 Egyptian Royal cubits
Djedefre c. 2566–2558 BC Abu Rawash 60 meters (197 feet)
Khafre c. 2558–2532 BC Giza 136.4 meters (448 feet)

*Originally: 143.5 m or 471 feet or 274 Egyptian Royal cubits

Menkaure c. 2532–2504 BC Giza 65 meters (213 feet) or 125 Egyptian Royal cubits
Userkaf c. 2494–2487 BC Saqqara 48 meters (161 feet)
Sahure c. 2487–2477 BC Abusir 47 meters (155 feet)
Neferirkare Kakai c. 2477–2467 BC Abusir 72.8 meters (239 feet)
Nyuserre Ini c. 2416–2392 BC Abusir 51.68 m (169.6 feet) or 99 Egyptian Royal cubits
Amenemhat I c. 1991–1962 BC Lisht 55 meters (181 feet)
Senusret I c. 1971–1926 BC Lisht 61.25 meters (201 feet)
Senusret II c. 1897–1878 BC el-Lahun 48.65 m (159.6 ft; 93 Egyptian Royal cubits) or

47.6 m (156 ft; 91 Egyptian Royal cubits)

Amenemhat III c. 1860–1814 BC Hawara 75 meters (246 feet)
Khendjer c. 1764–1759 BC Saqqara 37.35 m (122.5 feet), now 1 m (3.3 feet)
Piye c. 721 BC El-Kurru 20 meters (66 feet) or

30 meters (99 feet)

Taharqa c. 664 BC Nuri 40 meters (132 feet) or

50 meters (164 feet)

Construction techniques

Constructing the pyramids involved moving huge quantities of stone. Papyri discovered at the Egyptian desert near the Red Sea, in 2013 by archaeologist Pierre Tallet, revealed the journal of Merer, an official of Egypt involved in transporting limestone along the Nile River. These papyri reveal processes in the building of the Great Pyramid at Giza, the tomb of the Pharaoh Khufu, just outside modern Cairo.[21] Rather than overland transport of the limestone used in building the pyramid, there is evidence that limestone blocks were transported along the Nile River, in the journal of Merer, preserved remnants of ancient canals, and transport boats discovered.[22]

It is possible that quarried blocks were then transported to the construction site by wooden sleds, with sand in front of the sled wetted to reduce friction. Droplets of water created bridges between the grains of sand, helping them stick together.[23]

See also

List

References

  1. ^ Slackman, Michael (17 November 2008). "In the Shadow of a Long Past, Patiently Awaiting the Future". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  2. ^ Mark Lehner (2008). The Complete Pyramids: Solving the Ancient Mysteries. p. 34. Thames & Hudson. 25 March 2008. ISBN 978-0-500-28547-3.
  3. ^ a b "Egypt says has found pyramid built for ancient queen". Reuters. 11 November 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2017. The pyramid, which Hawass said was the 118th found in Egypt, was uncovered near the world's oldest pyramid at Saqqara, a burial ground for the rulers of ancient Egypt.
  4. ^ a b Slackman, Michael (16 November 2007). "In the Shadow of a Long Past, Patiently Awaiting the Future". New York Times. Retrieved 17 November 2008. Deep below the Egyptian desert, archaeologists have found evidence of yet another pyramid, this one constructed 4,300 years ago to store the remains of a pharaoh’s mother. That makes 138 pyramids discovered here so far, and officials say they expect to find more.
  5. ^ a b Michael Ritter (2003) "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Dating the Pyramids. Retrieved 13 April 2005
  6. ^ Gardner, Helen (1980) [1926]. De La Croix, Horst; Tansey, Richard G. (eds.). Art through the Ages (7th ed.). New York: Harcourt Brave Jovanovitch. p. 68. ISBN 0-15-503758-7.
  7. ^ Lehner, Mark (1997). The Complete Pyramids. New York: Thames and Hudson. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-500-05084-2.
  8. ^ Watkin, David (2005). A History of Western Architecture (4th ed.). Laurence King Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85669-459-9."The Great Pyramid...is still one of the largest structures ever raised by man, its plan twice the size of St. Peter's in Rome"
  9. ^ [1] Burial customs: mastabas. University College London (2001) Retrieved 14 April 2005
  10. ^ "Early Dynastic burial customs". Digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
  11. ^ Quirke, Stephen (2001). The Cult of Ra: Sun Worship in Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson, pp. 118–120.
  12. ^ Lehner, Mark. The Complete Pyramids, London: Thames and Hudson (1997), p.41. ISBN 0-500-05084-8
  13. ^ a b Wilkinson, Toby (2004). "Before the Pyramids". Egypt at its Origins. Studies in Memory of Barbara Adams Proceedings of the International Conference "Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt", Krakow, 28th August - 1st September 2002. Peeters. p. 1142. ISBN 978-90-429-1469-8. Retrieved 18 June 2015. A final echo of earlier practices is seen in the domain established by Djoser to supply his mortuary cult. He called it Hr-sb3-/mti-pt, “Horus, the foremost star in the sky”. We could not wish for a clearer statement of the belief underlying the Step Pyramid: that it was a resurrection machine designed to propel its royal owner, Horus, to the pre-eminent place among the undying stars.
  14. ^ "Discovery Channel Nederland". Discoverychannel.co.uk. Archived from the original on 5 December 2004. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
  15. ^ Kratovac, Katarina (5 June 2008). "Egypt uncovers 'missing' pyramid of a pharaoh". Yahoo News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
  16. ^ "New Pyramid Found in Egypt: 4,300-Year-Old Queen's Tomb". News.nationalgeographic.com. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
  17. ^ Kenneth Kitchen: Ramesside Inscriptions, Translated & Annotated, Translations, Volume II, Blackwell Publishers, ISBN 0-631-18435-X, 1996
  18. ^ [2] The Mastaba of Shepseskaf
  19. ^ Allen, James; Manuelian, Peter (2005). The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (Writings from the Ancient World, No. 23). Brill Academic. ISBN 978-90-04-13777-6.
  20. ^ Terrence McCoy (2 May 2014). "The surprisingly simple way Egyptians moved massive pyramid stones without modern technology". The Washington Post.
  21. ^ Stille, Alexander. "The World's Oldest Papyrus and What It Can Tell Us About the Great Pyramids". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
  22. ^ Holloway, April. "Archaeologists Announce that New Discoveries Solve Mystery of How the Great Pyramid Was Built". Ancient Origins. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
  23. ^ "Solved! How Ancient Egyptians Moved Massive Pyramid Stones". Live Science. Retrieved 26 February 2018.

Bibliography

External links

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