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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Edward E. Cox
EdwardECox.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 2nd district
In office
March 4, 1925 – December 24, 1952
Preceded byFrank Park
Succeeded byJ. L. Pilcher
Personal details
Born
Edward Eugene Cox

(1880-04-03)April 3, 1880
near Camilla, Georgia
DiedDecember 24, 1952(1952-12-24) (aged 72)
Bethesda, Maryland
Political partyDemocratic
Alma materMercer University
Occupationlawyer

Edward Eugene "Eugene" or "Goober" Cox (April 3, 1880 – December 24, 1952) served as a US Representative from Georgia for nearly 28 years. A conservative Democrat who supported racial segregation[1] and opposed US President Franklin Roosevelt's "New Deal,"[2] Cox became the most senior Democrat on the House Committee on Rules.

Two special investigative committees that he chaired were heavily criticized as result-oriented persecutions of those disliked by Cox. A failed attempt to create another such committee would turn out to have far-reaching consequences. In 1941, with American entry into World War II seeming inevitable, Cox proposed an investigative committee, similar to the Civil War-era Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, to deal with matters of national defense. When Roosevelt learned of Cox's intentions, he pre-empted them by agreeing to a similar proposal from Missouri Senator Harry Truman. The Truman Committee would come to be seen as a significant asset to the war effort, and its chairman, then a little-known backbencher, would become Roosevelt's Vice President and, after his death in 1945, US President.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ What is Dark Matter and Dark Energy?
  • ✪ "Grey Eminence: Fox Conner and the Art of Mentorship" by Major Edward Cox
  • ✪ Why do we harvest horseshoe crab blood? - Elizabeth Cox

Transcription

Matter as we know it: Atoms, stars and galaxies, planets and trees, rocks and us. This matter accounts for less than 5% of the known universe. About 25% is dark matter and 70% dark energy. Both of which are invisible. This is kind of strange, because it suggets, that everything, we experience is really only a tiny fraction of reality. But it gets worse, we really have no clue, what dark matter and energy are... or how they work. We are pretty sure, they exist. Then, so, what do we know? Dark matter is the stuff, that makes it possible for galaxies to exist. When we calculated, why the universe is structured the way it is, it quickly became clear that there's just not enough normal matter. The gravity of the visible matter is not strong enough to form galaxies and complex structures. The stars would more likely be scattered all over the place... ...and not form galaxies. So, we know there is something else inside and around them. Something, that doesn't emit or reflects light. Something dark. But beside, being able to calculate the existence of dark matter... ...we can see it. Kind of. Places with a high concentration of dark matter bend light passing nearby. So, we know there's something there, that interacts with gravity. Right know, we have more ideas about what dark energy is not, than what it is. We know dark matter is not just clouds of normal matter without stars, because it would emit particles we could detect. Dark matter is not anti-matter, because anti-matter produces unique gamma rays when it reacts with normal matter. Dark matter is also not made up of black holes. Very compact objects, that violently affect their surroundings, while dark matter seems to be scatted all over the place. Basically, we only know three thing for sure: 1. Something is out there. 2. It interacts with gravity. 3. There is a lot of it. Dark matter is probably made of a complicated exotic particle, that doesn't interact with the light and matter in the way we expect. But right now, we just don't know. Dark energy is even more strange and mysterious: We can't detect it; we can't measure it and we can't taste it. But we do see its' affects very clearly: In 1929, Edwin Hubble examined how the wavelength of light emitted by distant galaxies... shifts towards the red end to the electromagnetic spectrum, as it travels through space. He found that fainter, more distant galaxies, showed a large degree of redshift. Closer galaxies not so much. Hubble determinded that this was, because the universe itself is expanding. The redshift occurs, because the wavelengths of light are stretched as the universe expands. More recent discoveries have shown that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Before that, it was thought that the pull of gravity would cause the expansion to either slow down or even restract and collapse it on itself at some point. Space doesn't changes its properties as it expands. There's just more of it. Youth space is constantly created everywhere. Galaxies are tight bound clusters of stuff, held together by gravity. So, we don't experience this expansion in our daily lives, but we see it everywhere around us. Wherever there is empty space in the universe, more is forming every second. So, dark energy seems to be some kind of energy intrinsic to empty space. Energy, that is stronger than anything else we know and that keeps getting stronger as time passes by. Empty space has more energy than everything else in the universe combined. We have multiple ideas about what dark energy might be. One idea is that dark energy is not a thing, but just a property of space. Empty space is not nothing; it has it own energy. It can generate more space and is quite active. So, as the universe expands, it could be that just a more a more space appears to fill the gaps and this leads to a faster expanding universe. This idea is close to an idea, that Einstein had in 1917 of a concept of a cosmological constand. A force, that counteracted the force of gravity. The only problem is, that when we tried to calculate the amount of this energy, the result was so wrong and weird that it only added to the confusion. Another idea is that empty space is acually full of temporary, virtual particles that spontaneously and continually form from nothing and then disappear into nothing again. The energy from those particles could be dark energy. Or maybe dark energy is an unknown kind of dynamic energy fluid or field, which permeates the entire universe. But somehow has the opposite effect on the universe than normal energy and matter. But if it exists, we don't know how and where or how we could detect it. So, there are still a lot of questions to answer. Our theories about dark matter and dark energy are still just that: theories. On the one hand, this is kind of frustrating; On the other hand, this is frontier science, making it very exciting. It shows us that no matter, how much we feel we are on top of things, we are still very much apes with smartphones on a tiny fragile island in space, looking into the sky, wondering how our universe works. There is so much left to learn and that is awesome! [This video is supported by the "Australian Academy of Science", which promotes and supports excellence in science. Learn more about this topic and others like it at "nova.org.au". It was a blast to work with them. So, go check out their side. Our videos are also made possible by your support on "patreon.com". If you want to support us and become a part of the 'Kurzgesagt'-bird-army, check out our patreom page!]

Life and career

Born near Camilla, Georgia, Cox attended Camilla High School and Mercer University in Macon, Georgia, before graduating from the law department of that university in 1902. The same year, he was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Camilla. In 1904, he was elected mayor of Camilla and held the position for two years.

He served as a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1908.

Cox was appointed and then elected judge of the superior court of the Albany circuit and served from 1912 until 1916, when he resigned and unsuccessfully challenged the incumbent, Frank Park, for the Democratic nomination to represent Georgia's 2nd congressional district in the 65th Congress]]. It finally took until 1924 for Cox to win the Democratic nomination from Park and to be elected to the 69th Congress. Once in office, Cox was re-elected 13 times; in all, he served from March 4, 1925 until his death in 1952. Cox died of a heart attack on December 24, 1952, between his victory in the 1952 general election and the start of the 83rd Congress.

Although Cox was a frequent critic of the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, their coattails often provided Democratic majorities in the House that allowed Cox to chair powerful committees, particularly in his later years. He was part of a series of conservative Democrats and Republicans who held the chairmanship of the U.S. House Committee on Rules from 1935 to 1961, which then prevented the passage of civil rights legislation.[3] In 1950, Cox made an unsuccessful attempt to forge a coalition of Dixiecrat Democrats and leaders of the House's Republican minority in support of a bill that would "restore to the House Rules Committee its old power to bury any bill safely in a deep committee pigeonhole."[4]

In 1943, Cox sponsored and chaired a select committee whose mission was to investigate the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).[5] Cox clashed strongly with FCC Chairman James Lawrence Fly, who regularly released press statements attacking Cox and the committee. However, it was revealed that shortly before the investigation began, Cox had been paid to represent a private party seeking favorable action from the FCC. Commissioner Clifford Durr petitioned House Speaker Sam Rayburn to remove Cox from the committee for conflict of interest, but Rayburn, a personal friend of Cox, referred the issue to the Judiciary Committee, which concluded that it had no authority in the matter. The original conflict of interest led to a criminal inquiry of Cox by the US Department of Justice,[6] and it destroyed the credibility of his investigation of the agency to such a degree that Cox was forced to give up his committee seat.[7]

In 1947 to 1948, he served on the Herter Committee.[8]

In June 1949, during the debate on the Housing Act of 1949, Cox, then 69, started a fist fight on the floor of the House with the House Dean, Representative Adolph J. Sabath (then 83). The combatants, each a longstanding Democratic member of the Rules Committee, soon apologized and expressed their admiration for the other.[9]

In the 82nd Congress, his final term, Cox was chairman of the United States House Select Committee to Investigate Tax-Exempt Foundations and Comparable Organizations. The Committee's focus was on whether the organizations and persons receiving funding from foundations included subversives.[10] The Committee's report was not issued until after Cox's death.

After his death in Bethesda, Maryland, Cox was interred in Oakview Cemetery, Camilla, Georgia.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Milestones, Jan. 5, 1953". Time. 1953-01-05. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
  2. ^ "National Affairs: Roast Chicken". Time. 1937-08-23. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
  3. ^ Donald R. Wolfensberger. "Committee on Rules - a History". U.S. House Committee on Rules. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-09.
  4. ^ "The Revolt that Failed". Time. 1950-01-30. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
  5. ^ "U.S. at War: Work, Opinions, Feuds". Time. 1943-02-01. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
  6. ^ Pearson, Drew (1943-07-15). "Washington Merry-Go-Round: Cox the Fox". Kingsport (TN) Times. p. 4.
  7. ^ "FCC Investigating Committee Loses its Chairman; Cox Resigns Under Pressure". Billboard. 1943-10-09. p. 6. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  8. ^ "Final Report on Foreign Aid of the House Select Committee on Foreign Aid" (PDF). Marshall Foundation. May 1, 1948. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  9. ^ "Aged Fighters Bury Hatchet". The Statesville (NC) Landmark. 1949-06-23. p. 3.
  10. ^ "Education: The Grubstakers". Time. 1952-12-22. Retrieved 2010-07-06.


U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Frank Park
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 2nd congressional district

March 4, 1925 – December 24, 1952
Succeeded by
J. L. Pilcher

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov.

This page was last edited on 1 October 2020, at 03:25
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