|Land area||82 acres (33 ha)|
|Number of animals||1075 (2008)|
|Number of species||171|
|Memberships||BIAZA, EAZA, WAZA|
|Major exhibits||Giant pandas, penguins, koalas, chimpanzees, sun bears|
Edinburgh Zoo, formerly the Scottish National Zoological Park, is an 82-acre (33 ha) non-profit zoological park in Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. The land lies on the south facing slopes of Corstorphine Hill, from which it provides extensive views of the city. Built in 1913, and owned by the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, it receives over 600,000 visitors a year, which makes it Scotland's second most popular paid-for tourist attraction, after Edinburgh Castle. As well as catering to tourists and locals, the zoo is involved in many scientific pursuits, such as captive breeding of endangered animals, researching into animal behaviour, and active participation in various conservation programs around the world.
Edinburgh Zoo was the first zoo in the world to house and to breed penguins. It is also the only zoo in Britain to house koalas and giant pandas. The zoo is a member of the British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA), the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA), the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), and the Association of Scottish Visitor Attractions. It has also been granted four stars by the Scottish Tourism Board. The zoo gardens boast one of the most diverse tree collections in the Lothians.
50 AMAZING Facts to Blow Your Mind! #39
Animal welfare and behaviour
London: Mod and Trad
Making space for nature
- Oh, oh, oh, sassy knowledge whale. Here are 50 amazing facts to blow your mind. Studies from the University of North Carolina concluded that incredibly beautiful people are actually less likely to be hired for a job if they're being interviewed by someone of the same sex. They're also often very lonely because they're viewed as unapproachable and intimidating, and they're even given less care by doctors when being treated for pain. There are only two countries in the world whose flags do not contain either red, white nor blue, Jamaica and Mauritania. A new-born Chinese water deer is so adorably small after birth that you could hold it in one hand, but when it grows up, they can weight as much as 13 kilograms and sprouts fangs, making them look like a vampire deer. After mismanagement, the social news site Digg, a company that was once valued at $200 million was sold for a mere $500,000. A previously crystal-blue hot spring located in Yellowstone National Park is actually turning green as the result of tourists throwing good luck coins into it since 1950. It has since been dubbed Fading Glory. In Australia, torn bank notes are worth half of the proportion of the note left. In other words, half of a $20 bill is actually $10. If you went swimming on the moon, you would be able to walk on the water's surface and jump out of water like a dolphin catching air above water. The character of Popeye is actually based on a real-life person named Frank "Rocky" Fiegel. He was a local tough guy in Chester, Illinois, and quite similar to the real Popeye. He had some pretty serious forearms. Alfred Binet, the original inventor of the IQ test, created the methodology to identify students who needed help. He actually deplored its use as a ranking for unitary and linear intelligence. Lifeguard Thomas Lopez from South Florida was fired after saving someone for drowning because the man he saved wasn't technicially in his assigned lifeguard area. In 1975, a 17-year-old boy was killed while riding his Moped. He was killed exactly one year after his 17-year-old brother was killed while riding the same Moped in the same intersection by the same taxi with the same driver carrying the same passenger. Scientists from Psychology Today concluded that if a person's body odor smells good to you it means that their immunity genes are opposite to yours. This allows higher chances for people with opposite immunity genes to mate, resulting in offspring with stronger immunity systems. Just 2% of the entire world's population is naturally blond. Nissan uses the number 23 in car racing because the number two translates to ni in Japanese, and the number three translates to san, hence 23 translates into Nissan. Neurologists claim that every time you resist acting on your anger, you're actually rewiring your brain to be a calmer and more loving person. In 1987, Steve Rothstein bought a lifetime, unlimited first-class American Airlines ticket for $250,000. He flew over 10,000 flights, costing the company $21 million. They terminated his ticket in 2008. A study conducted at Columbia University concluded that people born in the month of May may have the lowest risk of illness and disease. A Florida woman named Sara Barnes accidently burned down a 3,500-year-old cypress tree. It was the fifth oldest in the country, and she did it because she was smoking meth under it and lit a fire so that she could see her meth better. The town of Tikrit in Iraq erected a two-meter-tall monument to the shoe that was thrown by the journalist at George W. Bush during his final visit to Iraq. Wild pigs are one of the most destructive animals in America, causing more than $400 million in damage each year in Texas alone. They destroy crops, feast on livestock, terrorize tourists and force other wildlife to flee their homes. Approximately 7% of all potatoes grown in the United States are turned into McDonald's fries. A bear named Wojtek, which means he who enjoys war, fought in the Polish army in World War II. He carried shells to the front line and was taught to salute and even became a mascot for the soliders. Although he developed a habit for drinking beer and smoking cigarettes, he survived the war and lived the rest of his life in the Edinburgh Zoo. There's actually a restaurant in Pittsburgh called the Conflict Kitchen, which only serves cuisine from countries that the U.S. is in conflict with. When they started serving Palestinian food, they received death threats. Limbo queen Shemika Charles had been training six hours a day since she was a teenager. She set a world record in 2010 and is now so flexible that she could actually limbo under a car. In 2015, Adidas released a shoe made entirely from ocean trash, including gill nets and beach litter. The company stated that there is no shortage of material to produce this line. When the mummified remains of Ramses II was transported in 1974, it was issued an Egyptian passport, which listed his occupation as king deceased. East St. Louis, Illinois, has a higher murder rate than Honduras, the country with the highest murder rate in the world. There's a new contact lens invented by Canadian optometrist Dr. Garth Webb that can improve human vision beyond 20/20. The bionic lens replaces the natural lens of the eye in a painless eight-minute procedure. It takes effect in only 10 seconds and enhances eyesight for life. One step closer to bein' cyborgs. In 1986, the United Way released 1.5 million balloons in Cleveland as a publicity stunt. However, it clogged the land and waterways in northeast Ohio, shut down major airport runways and forced the Coast Guard to suspend search and rescue for two men who ended up drowning. Oopsies! In addition to being fluent in English, Greek, Latin, French, German and Spanish, Thomas Jefferson also studied Arabic. He also studied Gaelic and Welsh and remains the most multi-lingual president of the United States in history. Research conducted at the University of North Carolina concluded that loving someone and being loved in return makes wounds heal faster, due to the release of oxytocin in the blood. Bruce Wayne, aka Batman, is part owner of the Daily Planet where Clark Kent, aka Superman, works, so essentially, Batman pays Superman's salary. In 2003, a Coca-Cola employee was fired because he was drinking Pepsi on the job. Ryan Gosling and Rachel McAdams hated each other when filming The Notebook. However, after finishing the film, they actually fell in love and dated for four years. The African Union intends on having a single, continent-wide currency modeled after the Euro. The most popular proposed name for the currency as of right now is the Afro. Oh my God, that is the best. In ancient Rome, women tried to dye their hair blond with pigeon dung. In Renaissance Venice, they used horse urine. Mathematician Katherine Johnson is known as the computer back when computers wore skirts. Her obsession with counting allowed her to skip ahead in high school at only the age of 10, and in 1961, she calculated the trajectory of NASA's first trip into space and was correct. Nicholas Cage once woke up to a naked man wearing a leather jacket eating a fudgsicle in front of his bed. After that, Cage could no longer live in that house and moved to the Bahamas. A man with a Liverpool FC tattoo with the club motto you'll never walk alone had his lower leg amputated after a combat injury in Afghanistan. Unbelievably, the surgeon unknowingly cut his tattoo so it now reads you'll never walk. However, in reality, luckily, the man now has a prosthetic leg and competes in marathons. In order to advertise their services, prostitutes in ancient Greece wore sandals that left the words follow me imprinted in the dirt as they walked. On the evening of September 11, 2001, hundreds of Iranian people gathered in Madar Square, Tehran, in a candlelight vigil to express sympathy and support for the American people. Meteors were initially only referred to as comets, a name given from the Latin word comes, meaning hair, and were given their name for the flowing golden tail of hair that flashed through the sky. According to studies conducted at Turkey's Ataturk University and the University of Manchester, dogs and cats are right and left pawed, just like humans are right and left handed. In 1978, U.S. Navy ship the U.S.S. Stein seems to have been attacked by an unknown species of giant squid. Almost all cuts on the sonar dome contained remains of a sharp, curved claw that were found on the rims of the suction cups of some squid tentacles, but the claw marks were much bigger than that of any discovered squid species. Ooh wee ooh. Identical twins separated at birth went on to live similarly eerily lives. Both boys were named James but went by the name Jim. They both had a childhood dog named Toy. They both married twice, first to a woman named Linda and then to a woman named Betty. They both had sons named James Alan, were both sheriffs in separate Ohio counties and both drove Chevrolets. Booh. If you could dig a whole through the earth and jump through it without dying, you would not come out the other side. You would fall down for 20 minutes until you reached the center, then technicially, you would be considered falling up until you made it to the opposite surface. However, if no one was there to catch you, you would fall down again over and over forever. Prior to the invention of rubber erasers in 1770 by Edward Nairne, people would use moist bread to erase pencil marks. In fact, the invention of the eraser, which fixes mistakes, was discovered by accident by Edward thinking that he had grabbed bread. What the hell kinda bread was he eating? Henry Cavill almost missed the call for the role of Superman from Zack Snyder because he was playing World of Warcraft. A study published by the Journal of Transportation found that people are in the best mood when they are bicycling compared to any other mode of transportation. It's probably the little bell, cling cling. There exists a variation of soccer where three teams face off against each other at the same time. Ah, but that's not all for this video, guys, because I have some incredibly exciting news. If you didn't know, over the past year, I've been working on my very first book, and I'm incredibly excited to tell you that it is now finally available for preorder by clicking the link in the description. That's right, I have a book! It's called Mind Blown, and it is a mixture of stories of my own life as well as crazy facts about the world that we live in. It's kind of like a mixture of my blogs and these 50 amazing facts, but in book form. What's even cooler is that I'll be giving away some cool prizes and freebies for those who order the book before its launch on August ninth. I've been working on this book for a long time, and I know you guys are gonna absolutely love it, so preorder it now. Other than that, as always, subscribe to this channel so that you never miss a video of mine, and I will see you in the next video. Preorder the book. You're gonna love it, baby! M-bye! Ooh Oh, whoa, whoa, whoa.
- 1 History
- 2 Animals and exhibits
- 3 Future developments
- 4 Research and conservation
- 5 Zoo gardens
- 6 Controversies
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The Royal Zoological Society of Scotland (RZSS) was founded as a registered charity in 1909 by an Edinburgh lawyer, Thomas Hailing Gillespie. The Corstorphine Hill site was purchased by the Society with help from the Edinburgh Town Council in early 1913. Gillespie's vision of what a zoological park should be was modelled after the 'open design' of Tierpark Hagenbeck in Hamburg, a zoo which promoted a more spacious and natural environment for the animals, and stood in stark contrast to the steel cages typical of the menageries built during the Victorian era. The Scottish National Zoological Park was opened to the public in 1913 and was incorporated by Royal Charter later that year. In 1948, following a visit by His Majesty King George VI, the Society was granted the privilege of adding the prefix 'Royal' to its name. It remains the only zoo with a Royal Charter in the United Kingdom.
Edinburgh Zoo's long association with penguins began in January 1914, with the arrival of three king penguins from the Christian Salvesen whaling expedition which docked in Leith. The subsequent successful hatching of a king penguin chick in 1919 was the first penguin to be hatched in captivity. These were the first penguins to be seen outside of the South Atlantic anywhere in the world. The now famous daily penguin parade started by accident in 1950 with the escape of several birds. This proved so popular with visitors and the penguins that it is a daily feature of the zoo today.
In 1986, the Society acquired the Highland Wildlife Park at Kingussie, 30 miles (48 km) south of Inverness. The zoo and the park work together in providing the most appropriate captive habitat possible in Scotland. Public visitation trips between both sites are organised frequently by the RZSS.
The zoo still retains the original charter, which drives its active breeding programme, and biodiversity, conservation and sustainability initiatives. The RZSS provides multiple ways for the public to help support its mission, including a membership club, animal adoption, donations, legacies and volunteering.
Animals and exhibits
Named after the Budongo Forest in Uganda, the Budongo Trail facility houses a troop of 18 common chimpanzees; 9 males (David, Louis, Qafzeh, Paul, Rene, Frek, Kindia, Liberius and Velu) and 9 females (Cindy, Pearl, Lucy, Eva, Sophie, Lianne, Heleen, Kilimi and Edith). The main building features viewing galleries, a lecture theatre and interactive games and displays designed to teach visitors about the chimpanzee's lifestyle and social structure.
Edinburgh Zoo is well known for housing penguins in its collection, the first three being king penguins, which arrived in January 1913. The zoo's current penguin pool, named "Penguins Rock", is 65 metres long, 3.5 metres deep at its deepest point, contains 1.2 million litres of water, and houses colonies of gentoo, king, and rockhopper penguins.
In 2011, Edinburgh Zoo leased two giant pandas, a male named Yáng Guāng (陽光, meaning "sunshine") and a female named Tián Tián (甜甜, meaning "sweetie"), from the Bifengxia Breeding Centre in China at a cost of $1m a year. The zoo spent £285,000 building an enclosure especially for the pandas, and they will remain at the zoo for a maximum of ten years before being returned to China. Edinburgh Zoo is currently the only zoo in the United Kingdom that houses giant pandas.
Opened in 2011, Brilliant Birds is a walk-through aviary housing several species of exotic birds, including Nicobar pigeons, Bali starlings, lilac-breasted rollers, chestnut-backed thrush, and Victoria crowned pigeons. A selection of amphibians, invertebrates and fish are also displayed in the building's main entrance hall, including axolotl, blue poison dart frogs, mudskippers, figure 8 pufferfish, banded archerfish, blind cave fish, and a colony of leafcutter ants.
Koala Territory was first opened in 2005, and houses three koalas, two males named Gooanroo and Yabbra, and a female named Alinga. Yooranah was the offspring of Alinga and Goonaroo, and was born in 2013 and died in 2016. Koala Territory is decorated with Aboriginal-inspired artwork, and features a garden of eucalyptus plants.
Opened in 2015, the walkthrough became the zoo's swamp wallabies new home. Visitors can get up close to these marsupials.
A daily show in which keepers demonstrate the natural skills of animals to an audience of visitors. Keepers use positive reinforcement training with every animal, which means that the animals that perform in the shows are never forced into doing tricks. Because of this, the animals used in Animal Antics vary between shows.
Other notable mammal species in the zoo's collection include oriental small-clawed otters, Asian lions, meerkats, sun bears, Sumatran tigers, giant anteaters, binturong, African wild dogs, Grévy's zebras, greater one-horned rhinoceros, banteng, red river hogs, North American porcupines, swamp wallabies, striped skunks, pygmy hippopotamus, Scottish wild cats, Malayan tapirs, white-faced saki monkeys, ring-tailed lemurs, cottontop tamarins, geladas,chinese gorals and Barbary macaques.
Other notable bird species in the zoo's collection include Darwin's rhea, Chilean flamingos, Egyptian vultures, eastern white pelicans, scarlet ibis, waldrapp ibis, great argus pheasants, ocellated turkeys, red-fronted macaws, rainbow lorikeets, hamerkop, and southern cassowary.
Several of the zoo's animals have held military rank.
- Wojtek was a bear adopted in Iran by the Polish II Corps and enlisted into the 22nd Artillery Supply Company to allow him to travel when the troops were posted. He served in the Middle East and during the Battle of Monte Cassino and retired to Edinburgh Zoo when the Polish troops, billeted in Scotland, demobilised.
- Sir Nils Olav, a king penguin, was the mascot and Colonel-in-Chief of the Norwegian King's Guard. He was adopted in 1972 when the King's Guard were in the city for the Edinburgh Military Tattoo, given the rank of visekorporal (lance corporal), and promoted each time the corps visited the city. He died in 1987 and his successor, Nils Olav II, inherited his rank. Nils was visited by the Norwegian King's Guard on 15 August 2008 and awarded a knighthood. The honour was approved by the King of Norway, King Harald V. During the ceremony a crowd of several hundred people joined the 130 guardsmen at the zoo to hear a citation from King Harald the Fifth of Norway read out, which described Nils as a penguin "in every way qualified to receive the honour and dignity of knighthood".
The carnivore rock dens, located between the Sumatran tigers and the geladas are to be totally overhauled, with the Amur leopard and jaguar leaving the collection. The Asian lion, Sumatran tiger and Scottish wildcat will remain on-show. A new Sumatran tiger enclosure is being developed in the meadow behind the current enclosure. Red panda are due to rejoin the collection later in the year.
Research and conservation
Edinburgh Zoo is the national centre for primate behavioural research. Budongo Trail, a state-of-the-art chimpanzee enclosure, was opened in May 2008 by The Princess Royal. Budongo Trail is a naturalistic enclosure which can house up to 40 chimps. It includes a large outdoor area and three separate indoor areas for the chimps together with observation areas and a lecture theatre for the public. The RZSS is the principal sponsor in the long term study and conservation of a group of approximately 60 chimpanzees as part of the Budongo Conservation Field Station in Uganda, Africa. Amidst the opening of Budongo Trail, Jane Goodall described it as a "wonderful facility" where primates "are probably better off [than] living in the wild in an area like Budongo [Forest], where one in six gets caught in a wire snare, and countries like Congo, where chimpanzees, monkeys and gorillas are shot for food commercially."
In addition to Budongo Trail, the zoo is home to Living Links, a field station and research centre for the study of primates that was developed in a partnership with the University of St Andrews. Living Links houses capuchin monkeys and squirrel monkeys originating from the forests of South America, and offers researchers unique opportunities to study primate behaviour.
In July 2006, a cull of invasive brown rats on the Scottish island of Canna was deemed a provisional success and after two years of observation, during which time no rats were observed, the island was declared officially rat free by the Environment Minister, Mike Russell on 7 June 2008. The rats had been outcompeting the rare local wood mouse, known as the Canna mouse and also endangering local seabird populations. The National Trust for Scotland which own the island invested £500,000 employing exterminators from New Zealand to cull the estimated 10,000 brown rats. in co-operation with RZSS, approximately 150 Canna mice were captured and homed at Edinburgh Zoo and the Highland Wildlife Park. 40 mice were returned to the island in late 2006 with the remaining being re-introduced in stages.
In May 2008, a joint application submitted by the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland (RZSS) and the Scottish Wildlife Trust (SWT) was approved by the Scottish Government allowing for a trial reintroduction of the European beaver to the Knapdale Forest in Mid-Argyll. If the trial is successful then the European beaver will be the first mammal to be reintroduced to the United Kingdom. Beavers have been extinct in Scotland since the 16th century, when they were hunted for their pelt, meat and medicinal properties (use of castoreum).
Before being acquired by the society, the Corstorphine hill site was a nursery, once owned by Thomas Blaikie, who planted many of the great French parks such as ‘La Bagatelle’. On this site two nurserymen raised the famous apple cultivars ‘John Downie’ and ‘James Grieve’. Today, the zoo has one of the most diverse tree collections in the Lothians with 120 species. The south-facing aspect allows bananas to be grown outside. Increasingly, horticulture is seen as a discipline in its own right, with the focus on habitat creation within enclosures, food stuffs for the animals, and enrichment for both the animals and the visiting public.
Organisations that remain critical of Edinburgh Zoo's work include the Animal Liberation Front, who have voiced their distaste for the quality of the enclosure that formerly housed polar bears. The Born Free Foundation has also stated several times that the zoo fails in its conservation work, as well as opposing the zoo's plans to house elephants.
Edinburgh Zoo received a public backlash on Twitter after the European Endangered Species Programme (EEP) recommended that they should cull three red river hog piglets after an unplanned birth. A protest took place under the #savethehogs tag on Thursday 3 February 2011. The Twitter campaign was started by OneKind, with major support from Captive Animals Protection Society. On Friday 4 February 2011, it was announced that the #savethehogs campaign had been successful and the zoo would attempt to re-home the piglets.
Following various internal issues and allegations relating to senior staff, the zoo was subject to investigations relating to its charitable status. The Office of the Scottish Charity Regulator (OSCR) held an inquiry into the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, and one director was fired while two others were suspended. The zoo suspended its chief operating officer and acting chief executive Gary Wilson while it investigated allegations made against him.
The zoo also came under criticism for plans to charge £20 per person for visitors to watch the necropsy of an animal. A OneKind spokesman criticised the idea, largely due to the timing of the event, which was scheduled to take place two months after the zoo announced a £2 million loss in profits, making the necropsy seem like a "Money-making drive".
In February 2012, the zoo was told to conduct a full review of its financial controls following an inquiry into complaints about how the zoo was run in 2011. The report by the OSCR cleared the zoo of misconduct but found "areas of governance that could be improved".
In May 2012, several hundred zoo visitors were forced to seek shelter after a family of hogs escaped from keepers and ran amok. Those who had taken refuge in the monkey house later described scenes where zoo workers pursued the animals with various equipment including brushes and dart guns. Though the drama lasted over an hour, the adult hogs were recaptured unharmed.
On 22 August 2012 a scarlet ibis escaped from the zoo and went on the loose in the city after a squirrel had chewed a hole in the netting at the top of its cage. Keepers noticed it was missing and later that day it was spotted more than 3 miles away in Dundas Street, near the city centre. The ibis was missing for nearly a week before being recaptured four miles from the zoo.
In September 2012 zoo customers were herded indoors when a Heck bull escaped from its enclosure. The 600 kg animal with three feet long horns was loose for over 40 minutes, until zoo workers and vets managed to restrain him by using tranquilliser darts.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Edinburgh Zoo.|
- Official website
- "Downloadable map (PDF)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- Falklands Conservation - Penguins