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Economy of Texas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Economy of Texas
Texas flag map.svg
GDP$1.887 trillion (2019)[1]
GDP per capita
$65,077 (2019)
Population below poverty line
15.8% (16.5% considering cost of living)[2][3]
Labor force
13,126,900 (January 1, 2015)[5]
Unemployment3.5% (Feb. 2019)[6]
Public finances
Revenues$71.5447 billion[7]
Expenses$71.4094 billion[citation needed]
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Texas unemployment rate, 1976–2021  US unemployment rate
  Texas unemployment rate, 1976–2021
  US unemployment rate

The economy of the State of Texas is the second largest by GDP in the United States after that of California. It has a gross state product of $1.887 trillion as of 2019.[8] As of 2015, Texas is home to six of the top 50 companies on the Fortune 500 list and 51 overall (third most after New York and California).[9] In 2017, Texas grossed more than $264.5 billion a year in exports—more than the exports of California ($172 billion) and New York ($77.9 billion) combined.[10][11][12]

As a sovereign country (2016), Texas would be the 10th largest economy in the world by GDP, ahead of South Korea and Canada and behind Brazil.[13] For 2019 Texas's household income was $67,444[14] in ranking 26th in the nation.[15] The state debt in 2012 was calculated to be $121.7 billion, or $7,400 per taxpayer.[16] Texas has the second largest population in the country after California.[17]


Texas compared to other countries GDP is in the same range as Canada, Australia, Russia, the Netherlands, or South Korea (corresponding with the Department of Finance figures in 2005).
Texas compared to other countries GDP is in the same range as Canada, Australia, Russia, the Netherlands, or South Korea (corresponding with the Department of Finance figures in 2005).
Boom periods of the four major industries that built the early Texas economy.
Boom periods of the four major industries that built the early Texas economy.

Historically four major business enterprises shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton, timber, and oil.[18] The first enterprise to enjoy major success in Texas was cattle and bison. In the early days of Anglo-American settlement furs and hides were the major products derived from cattle. Beef was not particularly popular in the United States. However soon Texas entrepreneurs pioneered the beef industry and demand steadily increased. The cattle industry enjoyed its greatest financial success in the later 1870s and 1880s.

Cotton production, which had been known in Texas since Spanish times, gradually increased throughout the 19th century. By the early 20th century Texas had become the leading cotton producer in the nation. By the 1920s the cotton industry was past its peak as government regulation and foreign competition took their toll.[19]

The forests of Texas have been an important resource since its earliest days and have played an important role in the state's history. The vast woodlands of the region, home to many varieties of wildlife when Europeans first arrived, provided major economic opportunities for early settlers. They today continue to play an important role economically and environmentally in the state.

The densest forest lands lie in the eastern part of the state. In particular the Big Thicket region, just north of Houston and Beaumont, has historically been home to the most dense woodlands. The Big Thicket was mostly uninhabited until heavy settlement from the U.S. began in the mid-19th century, and was even used as a refuge by runaway slaves and other fugitives. The Rio Grande valley in South Texas was home to a large palm tree forest when Spaniards first arrived, though today very little of it remains.

The development of railroads in the eastern part of the state during the mid-19th century led to a boom in lumber production in the 1880s. This era of financial success lasted approximately 50 years finally coming to an end as Texas' forests were decimated and the Great Depression dropped prices.[20]

In 1901 the Gladys City Oil, Gas, and Manufacturing Company struck oil on Spindletop Hill in Beaumont. Though petroleum production was not new, this strike was by far the largest the world had ever seen. The find led to widespread exploration throughout Texas and neighboring states. By 1940 Texas was firmly established as the leading oil producer in the U.S.[21]

The headquarters of Texas Instruments
The headquarters of Texas Instruments

Texas remained largely rural until World War II though the success of the petroleum industry rapidly expanded the economy with heavy industry of many types taking root. The second world war created tremendous demand for petroleum and a variety of products that Texas was in a unique position to provide. By the end of the war Texas was one of the leading industrial states and the population had become predominantly urban. Additionally the economy had diversified sufficiently that, though petroleum was still the largest sector by the end of the war, the business community in the state was truly diverse.

The Texas economy today relies largely on information technology, oil and natural gas, aerospace, defense, biomedical research, fuel processing, electric power, agriculture, and manufacturing.

Fortune 500 companies
based in Texas for 2021

according to revenues
with State and U.S. rankings
State Corporation US
1 McKesson 7
2 ExxonMobil 10
3 AT&T 11
4 Dell Technologies 28
5 Phillips 66 48
6 Valero Energy 53
7 Sysco 60
8 Oracle 80
9 Energy Transfer 81
10 USAA 87
11 Enterprise Products 105
12 HP Enterprise 106
13 CBRE Group 122
14 Plains GP Holdings 127
15 Baker Hughes 140
16 D.R. Horton 148
17 ConocoPhillips 156
18 Kimberly-Clark 158
19 Tenet Healthcare 167
20 American Airlines Group 174
21 Occidental Petroleum 183
22 Fluor 196
23 Waste Management 202
24 Texas Instruments 210
25 Halliburton 211
26 Core-Mark Holdings 224
27 Jacobs Engineering Group 225
28 Charles Schwab 251
29 Kinder Morgan 262
30 Vistra 274
31 Quanta Services 278
32 HollyFrontier 279
33 EOG Resources 285
34 Group 1 Automotive 286
35 Cheniere Energy 328
36 Southwest Airlines 336
37 CenterPoint Energy 342
38 Builders FIrstSource 350
39 Yum China Holdings 363
40 Targa Resources 364
41 Westlake Chemical 388
42 Pioneer Natural Resources 428
43 NOV 457
44 Huntsman 460
45 Crown Castle International 467
46 KBR 470
47 Academy Sports and Outdoors 475
48 Celanese 477
49 Commercial Metals 492
50 Michaels 506
Further information:
List of Texas companies

Source: Fortune [22]


In 2014, for the thirteenth year in a row, Texas led the United States in export revenues. Texas exports for 2008 totaled $192.2 billion.[23] In 2002, the Port of Houston was 6th among the top sea ports in the world in terms of total cargo volume;[24] Air Cargo World rated Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport as "the best air cargo airport in the world".[25] The ship channel at the Port of Houston—the largest in the U.S. in international commerce and the sixth-largest port in the world.[26]


According to the Tax Foundation, Texans' state and local tax burdens are among the lowest in the nation, 7th lowest nationally, with state and local taxes costing $3,580 per capita, or 8.7% of resident incomes.[27] Texas is one of only 7 states not to have a state income tax.[27][28] The state sales tax rate, 6.25%, is above the national medium, with localities adding up to 2% (8.25% total).[29] Texas does have a "back to school" sales tax holiday once a year (generally around the first weekend in August) on clothing and footwear under $100.[30]

As for Texas's business tax climate, the state ranks 8th in the nation.[27] Property taxes are exclusively collected at the local level in the state, and are generally at rates above the national average.[27] As a whole, Texas is a "tax donor state" with Texans receiving back approximately $0.94 per every dollar of federal income taxes collected in 2005.[27]

Tax burden

Texas is one of the seven states of the United States with no personal state income tax. In addition, Texas does not allow any lower level of government (counties, cities, etc.) to impose an income tax. This means that, for the residents of Texas, the maximum rate of income taxation is the top rate set by the US Government. Businesses, except for sole proprietorships and partnerships, are subject to a gross margins tax.[31]

The state sales tax is set at 6.25 percent.[32] Cities are allowed to impose an additional 1% tax, and additional taxes not to exceed 1% may be approved by voters for any combination of county sales tax, transportation districts, economic development, and/or crime prevention. The average sales tax in Texas amounts to 8.25 percent. The state determines the items subject to sales tax, which all other entities must follow. Motor vehicle sales are subject only to the 6.25% state sales tax. Food, except for prepared food, and non-prescription medicines are among the major items exempt from sales tax.[citation needed]

While property taxes are among the highest in the nation, property costs are also among the lowest in the nation. Property taxes constitute the majority of revenue and are collected and kept by local governments, as the Texas Constitution specifically prohibits a state property tax. For real property, counties, cities, and school districts (along with other special districts, such as for a community college or public hospital) can also impose taxes. All property is assessed uniformly throughout the county via the county "appraisal district", and taxes are assessed based on 100% of the property's assessed value. While larger personal property items such as cars, boats, and airplanes can be subject to local taxes as well, it is far less common.[citation needed]



Offloading freshly harvested cotton into a module builder in Texas; previously built modules can be seen in the background
Offloading freshly harvested cotton into a module builder in Texas; previously built modules can be seen in the background

Texas has the most farms of all United States both in terms of number and acreage. Texas leads the nation in number of cattle, usually exceeding 16 million head. The sprawling 320,000 deeded acre (1,200 km²) La Escalera Ranch, located 20 miles (32 km) south of Fort Stockton, Texas, is one of the largest cattle ranches in the Southwestern United States.

Cultivation of mung bean in Texas began during World War II when a Chinese native by the name of Henry Huie who worked as a U.S. Army cook planted the staple crop in the clay plains near Vernon, Texas.[33]

The state leads nationally in production of sheep and goat products. Texas is king of cotton leading the nation in cotton production, its leading crop and second-most-valuable farm product.[34] Texas is a leader in cereal crop production. Three counties in the state—Colorado, Wharton and Matagorda—take advantage of water from the Lower Colorado River Authority to grow rice and are responsible for about 5% of annual U.S. rice production.[35] Texas is also a large producer of watermelons, grapefruits, and cantaloupes.[34] The Rio Grande valley is one of the best areas for the cultivation of grapefruit. Early varieties like the Duncan had many seeds and pale flesh, but in the 1880s citrus growers in Texas and Florida discovered pink-fleshed seedless grapefruit mutations like the Ruby, which along with red-fleshed varieties like the Rio Red and Star Ruby are preferred varieties for modern commercial production.[36]


Southwest Airlines headquarters in Dallas

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, the center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), is located in Houston. It is a leading hub for the Aeronautics industry. The National Space and Biomedical Research Institute is headquartered in Houston.

Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, located nearly equidistant from downtown Dallas and downtown Fort Worth, is the largest airport in the state, the second-largest in the US, and the fourth-largest in the world.[37] In terms of traffic, DFW is the busiest in the state, the third-busiest in the nation, and the sixth-busiest in the world.[citation needed] The airport serves 135 domestic destinations and 40 international. DFW is the largest and main hub for American Airlines, one of the world's largest in terms of total passengers-miles transported and passenger fleet size.

Texas's second-largest air facility is Houston's George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH), the largest hub of United Airlines. IAH offers service to the most Mexican destinations of any U.S. airport. IAH is currently ranked second among all U.S. airports with scheduled non-stop domestic and international service.

Headquartered in Fort Worth, American Airlines is the world's largest airline by passenger miles, passengers carried, and revenue. Southwest Airlines, also a leader in the commercial passenger market, is based near Love Field airport in Dallas. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics, the aviation division of Lockheed Martin, is also headquartered in Fort Worth, and the company's Missiles and Fire Control division is based in nearby Grand Prairie, along with the American division of Airbus Helicopters, Airbus Helicopters, Inc.. Bell Helicopter is headquartered in Fort Worth as well.


Texas is home to two of the United States Army's largest facilities (in terms of geographic size), Fort Hood in Central Texas near Killeen and Fort Bliss near El Paso. In addition, Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio is home to the Brooke Army Medical Center, one of the Army's major hospitals and its only burn facility, and the Corpus Christi Army Depot in Corpus Christi, Texas is home to the world's largest helicopter repair and maintenance facility.

The United States Air Force operates several bases in the state – Sheppard (Wichita Falls), Dyess (Abilene), Goodfellow (San Angelo), Laughlin (Del Rio), and Lackland and Randolph (San Antonio) Ellington Airport, (Houston).

The United States Navy operates Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Fort Worth (the former Carswell Air Force Base facility) as well as NAS Corpus Christi and NAS Kingsville.

Defense contracting

Texas (specifically Dallas and Houston) has a large number of defense contractors which creates sizable employment for the state.

Two divisions of Lockheed Martin have their divisional headquarters in the DFW area – Lockheed Martin Aeronautics in Fort Worth (where the F-16 Fighting Falcon, the largest Western fighter program,[38] is manufactured, as well as its successor, the F-35 Lightning II and the F-22 Raptor) and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control in Grand Prairie.

Fort Worth is also the home of Bell Helicopter Textron, which manufactures several helicopters for the military, including the V-22 and the H-1, on which final assembly is performed in Amarillo. Furthermore, three major defense service contractors (DynCorp, AECOM, and DXC Technology) have substantial operations in Fort Worth.

Other major defense contractors with DFW presence include Boeing (Richardson), Rockwell Collins (Richardson), Vought Corporation (headquarters in Dallas; facilities in Dallas and Grand Prairie), Raytheon (plants in Garland, Dallas, and McKinney), L-3 Communications (plants in Arlington, Carrollton, and Greenville; also has a facility in Waco), BAE Systems (facility in Fort Worth), Leonardo DRS (Dallas), Hewlett Packard Enterprise and NTT Data (Plano), Alliant Techsystems (facility in Fort Worth), and Elbit Systems (facility and US headquarters in Fort Worth). The Defense Contract Audit Agency maintains its Central Region office in Irving.

Outside the DFW area, KBR (the former Halliburton subsidiary) maintains its headquarters in Houston, while the Southwest Research Institute is located in San Antonio. BAE Systems also manufactures the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles at its facility in Sealy, Texas.

Computer technology

Hewlett-Packard United States offices near Houston, previously the Compaq headquarters
Hewlett-Packard United States offices near Houston, previously the Compaq headquarters
Dell headquarters in Round Rock
Dell headquarters in Round Rock

Texas is one of the major hubs in the U.S. for development of computer components, systems, software and information infrastructure. Austin, Dallas, and Houston are the major centers for this industry in Texas. The Austin area is often nicknamed "Silicon Hills" because of the concentration of semiconductor design companies including AMD, Cirrus Logic, Freescale Semiconductor, Intel and Silicon Labs. Dell's headquarters is located in the city's suburb, Round Rock, and major offices for Google, Facebook, EA Games, and Apple are also open in the Austin area. Austin is also the home of the Texas Advanced Computing Center at The University of Texas at Austin. Dallas is the birthplace of the integrated circuit.[citation needed]

The North Dallas area is called the "Telecom Corridor" or the "Silicon Prairie"[citation needed] for the area's high concentration of information technology companies such as Texas Instruments, Perot Systems, and EDS, as well as telecommunications giant AT&T. San Antonio is the home of cloud computing giant Rackspace, as well as computing pioneer Datapoint. Harris County-based Compaq,[39] was once one of the world's largest computer companies.[citation needed] After Compaq's merger with Hewlett-Packard, the new owner currently employs more employees in the Houston area than anywhere else in the world.[citation needed]


An oil well.
An oil well.

Energy is a major component of the state economy. Texans consume the most energy in the nation both in per capita and as a whole.[40] The state is also the nation's largest energy producer, producing twice as much energy as Florida, the state with the second-highest production. It is also the national leader in wind power generation, comprising about 28% of national wind powered electrical production in 2019. Wind power surpassed nuclear power production in the state in 2014.[41]


Texas has a large tourism industry. The state tourism slogan is "Texas: It's like a whole other country." Tourists might enjoy San Antonio and El Paso's Hispanic culture, or Fort Worth western attractions. Galveston, Corpus Christi, and Padre Island are some of the popular Texas resort areas located on the Gulf of Mexico. Houston is Texas' leading convention city along with its Southern culture. Dallas is also one of the nation's leading convention cities as well as San Antonio. Professional and college sports are dominant in both Dallas and Houston.


Texas is a top filmmaking state. Austin is now one of the leading filmmaking locations in the country. The exteriors for the popular soap opera Dallas were filmed on Southfork Ranch, a location near Plano, Texas. From 1995 to 2004, more than $2.75 billion was spent in Texas for film and television production.

The Texas Film Commission was founded for free services to filmmakers, from location research to traveling.[42] Also many Hollywood studios are relocating parts of their production divisions to the Austin, Houston, and Dallas areas.[42]

The media conglomerate iHeartMedia is based in San Antonio, Texas. Video game developers Robot Entertainment, Gearbox Software, and 3D Realms are based in the Dallas Fort Worth area, while Retro Studios, Armature Studio, and Ghostfire Games are based in Austin. Cinemark Theatres which is one of the largest movie theater chains is also based in the Dallas Fort Worth area.


Healthcare is a growing industry in the state of Texas. The Texas Medical Center, located in south central Houston, is the largest medical center in the world.[43][44] It is home to The University of Texas Health Science Center which trains medical students and residents and includes The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, a global leader of cancer research and treatment.[45] The medical complex also hosts a private medical college, The Baylor College of Medicine.[46]

The University of Texas medical system[47] has additional branches in Dallas, San Antonio, Tyler, and Galveston. The South Texas Medical Center in San Antonio with nearly 27,000 employees[48] has a $14.3 Billion economic impact on the state of Texas.[49] In addition to these facilities, the Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine, the Texas A&M Health Science Center,[citation needed], and Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock and El Paso provide the state with a total of nine centers of medical research.

Wealthiest places in Texas

  1. Southlake, Texas town, Texas $176,427
  2. Barton Creek CDP, Texas $110,504
  3. Westover Hills town, Texas $98,573
  4. Highland Park town, Texas $97,008
  5. Hunters Creek Village city, Texas $88,821
  6. Bunker Hill Village city, Texas $86,434
  7. Hill Country Village city, Texas $77,374
  8. Mustang town, Texas $75,692
  9. West University Place city, Texas $69,674
  10. Hilshire Village city, Texas $66,620
  11. Olmos Park city, Texas $65,697
  12. University Park city, Texas $63,414
  13. The Hills village, Texas $61,363
  14. Southside Place city, Texas $57,021
  15. West Lake Hills city, Texas $55,651
  16. Onion Creek CDP, Texas $54,758
  17. Tiki Island village, Texas $54,611
  18. Parker city, Texas $54,099
  19. Lakeshore Gardens-Hidden Acres CDP, Texas $52,512
  20. Rollingwood city, Texas $52,280
  21. Hedwig Village city, Texas $52,153
  22. Lost Creek CDP, Texas $52,147
  23. Heath city, Texas $51,049
  24. Colleyville city, Texas $50,418
  25. Shavano Park city, Texas $47,705
  26. Sugar Land, Texas city, Texas $47,597
  27. Bellaire city, Texas $46,674
  28. Lakeway city, Texas $45,765
  29. Ransom Canyon town, Texas $45,675
  30. Alamo Heights city, Texas $45,640

See also


  1. ^ "Gross domestic product by state (millions of current dollars)". Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  2. ^ "State Rankings-Statistical Abstract of the United States-Persons Below Poverty Level". U.S. Census. Archived from the original on August 17, 2011. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  3. ^ DeVore, Chuck (February 7, 2013). "Texas vs. California - myth-busting time". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
  4. ^ "U.S. Census website". U.S. Census. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  5. ^ "Civilian Labor Force in Texas". St. Louis Fed. September 20, 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
  6. ^ "Local Area Unemployment Statistics". United States Department of Labor. January 1, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
  7. ^ "State Government Tax Collections Viewable Data". Comptroller of Texas. Retrieved September 24, 2015.
  8. ^ "Gross domestic product (GDP) by state (millions of current dollars)". Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
  9. ^ "FORTUNE 500 2011: States". CNN.
  10. ^ "State Exports for TEXAS". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
  11. ^ "State Exports for CALIFORNIA". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
  12. ^ "State Exports for NEW YORK". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
  13. ^ "In Opinion: If states were countries by economic output, California would be France". Newsweek. June 11, 2016. Retrieved June 30, 2017.
  14. ^ Texas - Median household income 1990-2019. Published by Statista Research Department, Jan 20, 2021. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
  15. ^ Median household income in the United States by state 2019. Published by Statista Research Department, Jan 20, 2021. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
  16. ^ "Texas". Retrieved April 25, 2015.
  17. ^ Geographic Terms and Concepts - Island Areas of the United States, U.S. Census Bureau, archived from the original on December 10, 2016, retrieved March 19, 2019
  18. ^ Reavis, Dick J.; Van Overbeek, Will (2004). Texas. Random House. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-676-90502-1.
  19. ^ Britton, Karen Gerhardt; Elliott, Fred C.; Miller, E. A. (June 12, 2010). "Cotton Culture". Handbook of Texas (online ed.). Texas State Historical Association.
  20. ^ Lumber Industry from the Handbook of Texas Online
  21. ^ Oil and Gas Industry from the Handbook of Texas Online
  22. ^ Fortune 500 Companies - Texas.
  23. ^ ITA. "State Reports - Index". Archived from the original on May 23, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  24. ^ "World Port Rankings 2002, by metric tons and by TEUs". American Association of Port Authorities. Archived from the original on July 13, 2006. Retrieved July 26, 2006.
  25. ^ "Air Cargo World's Air Cargo Excellence Survey". Air Cargo World. Archived from the original on March 25, 2006. Retrieved April 29, 2006.
  26. ^ As Enron Trial Begins, Houston Has Moved On. Newhouse News Service
  27. ^ a b c d e "Texas". Research Areas. The Tax Foundation. 2008. Archived from the original on October 23, 2008. Retrieved October 15, 2008.
  28. ^ "State Individual Income Taxes". Federation of Tax Administrators. Archived from the original on October 25, 2006. Retrieved October 12, 2008.
  29. ^ "Local Sales and Use Tax". Susan Combs, Comptroller of Public Accounts. October 2011. Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
  30. ^ "Clothing Sales Tax Holiday". Susan Combs, Comptroller of Public Accounts. January 2008. Retrieved October 15, 2008.
  31. ^ Accounts, Texas Comptroller of Public. "Franchise Tax". Retrieved November 10, 2016.
  32. ^ "Sales and Use Tax". Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  33. ^ The Wok Ethnic, Texas Monthly September 1975
  34. ^ a b "The Texas Economy". June 5, 2007. Retrieved April 29, 2008.
  35. ^ Koppel, Nathan (March 2, 2012). "Texas Rice Farmers Lose Their Water". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  36. ^ The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink
  37. ^ "Facts about DFW". Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. Archived from the original on June 14, 2007. Retrieved August 4, 2007.
  38. ^ "Lockheed Martin, Poland Air Force Celebrate Arrival of Most Advanced F-16 Multirole Fighters in Europe" (Press release). PRNewswire. November 9, 2006.
  39. ^ "Compaq Offices Worldwide". Archived from the original on December 25, 1996. Retrieved September 6, 2008.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) Compaq. Accessed September 6, 2008.
  40. ^ "Petroleum Profile: Texas". Archived from the original on September 18, 2002. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
  41. ^ "Texas - State Energy Profile Overview". U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  42. ^ a b "Texas Film Commission". Archived from the original on September 23, 2006. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
  43. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 10, 2007. Retrieved February 16, 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  44. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 22, 2012. Retrieved February 16, 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  45. ^ "Top American Hospitals". US News. Archived from the original on May 7, 2009. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  46. ^ "Best Graduate Schools". Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  47. ^ "Top American Hospitals". US News. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  48. ^ "South Texas Medical Center: Facts". Archived from the original on September 24, 2008. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
  49. ^ "Slide 17". Archived from the original on August 24, 2006.

External links

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