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Dyula language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dioula
Julakan
Native toBurkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Mali
EthnicityDyula
Native speakers
6,852,620 (2019)[1]
10.3 million L2 speakers
Niger–Congo
  • Mande
    • Western Mande
      • ...
        • Manding
          • East Manding
            • Bambara–Dyula
              • Dioula
N'Ko, Latin, Arabic
Language codes
ISO 639-2dyu
ISO 639-3dyu
Glottologdyul1238[2]

Jula (or Dyula, Dioula) is a language of the Mande language family spoken in Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast and Mali. It is one of the Manding languages and is most closely related to Bambara, being mutually intelligible with Bambara as well as Malinke. It is a trade language in West Africa and is spoken by millions of people, either as a first or second language. Like the other Mande languages, it is a tonal language. It is written in the Latin script and the Arabic script, as well as in the indigenous N'Ko script.

Dioula can be heard spoken in the 2004 film Night of Truth, directed by Fanta Régina Nacro, Burkina Faso's first female director.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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Transcription

Contents

Writing systems and phonology

Latin alphabet and orthography

Dioula orthography is regulated in Burkina Faso by the Dioula Sub-Commission of the National Commission for Languages. On 15 July 1971, the National Sub-Commission for Dioula was created[3] and on 16 July 1971, it began a study in order to set the Dioula alphabet. An alphabet was published on 27 July 1973 and gained official status on 2 February 1979[4]. Some letters were added later, ‹ c, j › for borrowed words, and others were replaced: ‹ sh › by ‹ s ›, and ‹ ny › by ‹ ɲ ›[5].

Dioula Alphabet
A B C D E Ɛ F G H I J K L M N Ɲ Ŋ O Ɔ P R S T U V W Y Z
a b c d e ɛ f g h i j k l m n ɲ ŋ o ɔ p r s t u v w y z
Phonetic value
a b c d e ɛ f g h i ɟ k l m n ɲ ŋ o ɔ p r s t u v w j z

In Burkina Faso, the Dioula alphabet is made up of 28 letters each representing a single phoneme. In the orthography, long vowels are represented by doubled letters; thus, /e/ is written ‹ e › and /eː/, ‹ ee ›. The nasalisation of a vowel is written followed by an n; for example, /ẽ/ is written ‹ en ›.

The seven vowel sounds may also be either lengthened /iː eː ɛː aː ɔː oː uː/ or nasalized /ĩ ẽ ɛ̃ ã ɔ̃ õ ũ/.[6]

The notation of tones was recommended in 1973, but in practice they are not written. The transcription guide published in 2003 does not reiterate this recommendation. Tones are noted solely in lexicographical works. However, to avoid ambiguity, tone marking is obligatory in certain cases.

For example:

  • ‹ a › he/she (third person singular pronoun)
  • ‹ á › you (second person plural pronoun)

N'Ko alphabet

The N'Ko script is an indigenous writing system for the Manding language continuum, invented in 1949 by Solomana Kanté, a Guinean educator. Today, the script has been digitised as part of Unicode, which allows it to be used easily online, but the lack of funding from governments and the omnipresence of French on all levels of daily life means that use of this alphabet remains limited.

External links

See also

References

  1. ^ "Jula". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-08-25.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Dyula". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Republic of Burkina Faso, Ministerial Decree no 54/ENC/CNU.
  4. ^ Republic of Burkina Faso, Ministerial Decree no 367/ENC/CNU.
  5. ^ Diallo, Mohamadou (2001). "Le noyau du code orthographique du dioula du Burkina Faso". Mandekan, Bulletin Semestriel d'Études Linguistiques Mandé. 37: 9–31.
  6. ^ Hien, Amélie (2000). La terminologie de la médecine traditionnelle en milieu jula du Burkina Faso : méthode de recherche, langue de la santé et lexique julakan-français, français-julakan. Université de Montréal.

Bibliography

  • Commission nationale des langues burkinabè – Sous-commission du dioula, Guide de transcription du Dioula, Burkina Faso, 2003
  • Commission nationale des langues burkinabè – Sous-commission nationale du dioula, Règles orthographiques du Dioula, Ouagadougou, Coopération suisse, 1999, 69
  • Moussa Coulibaly et Haraguchi Takehiko, Lexique du Dioula, Institute of Developing Economies, 1993 (read online [archive])
  • Maurice Delafosse, Vocabulaires comparatifs de plus de 60 langues ou dialectes parlés à la Côte d'Ivoire et dans les régions limitrophes, Paris, E. Leroux, 1904, 284
  • Maurice Delafosse, Essai de manuel pratique de la langue mandé ou mandingue. Étude grammaticale du dialecte dyoula. Vocabulaire français-dyoula. Histoire de Samori en mandé. Étude comparée des principaux dialectes mandé, Paris, Publications de l'INALCO, 1904, 304
  • Mohamadou Diallo, « Le noyau du code orthographique du dioula du Burkina Faso », Mandekan, Bulletin semestriel d’études linguistiques mandé, o 37, 2001, 9-31
  • Mamadou Lamine Sanogo (master's thesis, supervised by Bakary Coulibaly), Les syntagmes nominaux du jula véhiculaire, University of Ouagadougou, 1991, 81
  • Mamadou Lamine Sanogo (DEA thesis, supervised by Bakary Coulibaly), Approche définitoire du jula véhiculaire, University of Ouagadougou, 1992, 79
  • Mamadou Lamine Sanogo, « Tons, segments et règles transformationnelles en jula », Mandenkan, Paris, o 30, 1995, 41-54
  • Mamadou Lamine Sanogo (University of Rouen thesis, supervised by Claude Caitucoli (URA-CNRS 1164)), Langues nationales, langues véhiculaires, langue officielle et glottopolitique au Burkina Faso, 1996, 832
  • Mamadou Lamine Sanogo, « Les fondements scientifiques d'une règle d'écriture orthographique : le redoublement de la voyelle finale du défini en jula », Cahiers du CERLESHS, University of Ouagadougou, o 16, 1999, 127-144
  • Mamadou Lamine Sanogo, À propos de jula à Bobo-Dioulasso, 2000, 73-83 , spécial 2, PUO
  • Mamadou Lamine Sanogo, « L'ethisme jula : origines et évolution d'un groupe ethnolinguistique dans la boucle du Niger », dans Y. G. Madiéga et O. Nao, , 1, 2003, 370-379
  • Mamadou Lamine Sanogo, « À propos des constructions du syntagme complétif en dioula », Cahiers du CERLESHS, University of Ouagadougou, o 20, 2003, 179-211
  • Mamadou Lamine Sanogo, « Vers une approche sociolinguistique des dérivatifs en dioula véhiculaire », Cahiers du CERLESHS, University of Ouagadougou, o 1* er numéro spécial, June 2003, 221-223
  • Mamadou Lamine Sanogo, La recherche terminologique dans un dialecte couvert : le cas du dioula, Paris, Édition des archives contemporaines, 2006, 631-639
  • Y. Person, Samori : Une révolution dyula, 1, Dakar, IFAN, « Mémoires de l’Institut fondamental d’Afrique noire », 1968
  • Y. Person, Samori : Une révolution dyula, 2, Dakar, IFAN, « Mémoires de l’Institut fondamental d’Afrique noire », 1970
  • Y. Person, Samori : Une révolution dyula, 3, Dakar, IFAN, « Mémoires de l’Institut fondamental d’Afrique noire », 1975


This page was last edited on 22 November 2019, at 20:28
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