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Dutch Republic

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Republic of the Seven United Netherlands
Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden
1581–1795
(part of Spanish Netherlands before 1648)
Motto: Concordia res parvae crescunt[1]
"Unity makes strength"
Anthem: Het Wilhelmus
"The William"
Location of the Dutch Republic in 1789
Location of the Dutch Republic in 1789
The seven provinces together with an eighth not represented in the federal government (Drenthe) and the Generality Lands (in light blue)
The seven provinces together with an eighth not represented in the federal government (Drenthe) and the Generality Lands (in light blue)
CapitalNone The Hague (de facto)
Common languagesDutch, Zeelandic, West Flemish, Dutch Low Saxon, West Frisian
Religion Dutch Reformed (state religion)
Catholic, Lutheran, Judaism
GovernmentConfederative republic
Stadtholder 
• 1581–1584
William I (first)
• 1751–1795
William V (last)
Grand Pensionary 
• 1581–1585
Paulus Buys (first)
• 1787–1795
Laurens van de Spiegel (last)
LegislatureStates General
• State council
Council of State
Historical eraEarly modern
23 January 1579
26 July 1581
30 January 1648
19 January 1795
Population
• 1795
1 880 500[2]
CurrencyGuilder
Rijksdaalder
Ducaton
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Spanish Netherlands
Batavian Republic
Today part of

The Dutch Republic or United Provinces was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795. It was the predecessor state of the modern Netherlands and the first nation state of the Dutch people.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • What is a Stadtholder? / Wat is een Stadhouder? (Dutch Republic - European History)
  • Ten Minute History - The Dutch Revolt (Short Documentary)
  • The Emergence of the Dutch Republic
  • Alternate History: What If The Anglo-Dutch Empire Was Formed?
  • What Made The Netherlands Great (Johan de Witt speech)

Transcription

So I went to the Netherlands this summer. Got a really cool mug from Amsterdam. Learned a lot of stuff, too! I was over there ostensibly learning about the history of the Dutch Republic and trade and the modern economy and all of that kind of stuff so I want to do a lecture series on the history of the Dutch Republic. And I'm going to start that lecture series by answering what might seem to be a very simple question, but it's not, and that question is, "What is a stadtholder?" Who is this guy that keeps coming up in the history of the Dutch Republic and what does this title mean? It seems nebulous and all of that kind of stuff - seems complex. Who is he? What did this person do? That's the question that I want to answer first of all in this lecture series on the history of the Dutch Republic. So what is a stadtholder? Let start with the word, stadtholder. This comes from a Dutch word, stadhouder. How's my Dutch? Stadhouder means "placeholder" in the sense that someone is standing in place of or in stead of. Now, keep in mind that the Dutch language is almost like the German language and the English language got together and had an illegitimate child or something like that and that illegitimate child is Dutch. Not to say that Dutch is illegitimate! I LOVE the language. Okay? And so the stadtholder is a placeholder. And really, part of why this word seems so nebulous and so hard to comprehend is it doesn't always mean the same thing all the time. The stadtholdership really goes through three phases and those three phases - the 3 R's sounds all nice and teacherly and easy to remember - a royal steward, a rebel leader, and a republican head of state(s). So the stadtholder starts off as a steward. Now, when I think steward, I think Lord of the Rings. Great little story here, alright? Because I was going through a flea market when I was in Amsterdam and all of a sudden, I zoomed in on... WAAAAAAAH... In de Ban van de Ring. Or de Ring [makes Dutch g sound]. I guess you would say it like that, okay, because when the Dutch when they see a g they're like [makes guttural sound] something like that. Alright. But this is The Fellowship of the Ring in Dutch. Now unfortunately, I don't have any idea what any of this stuff says but... that's Mordor. It's the same in Dutch. But I'm so excited to have this book that I can't read. Y'all know how much I love Lord of the Rings. But, anyway, as far as the steward goes... This is the person who is there instead of a higher lord who would have the nominal right to that territory. So the stadtholder would govern this territory in the absence of higher absentee nobles. And in the 15th and 16th century, the Netherlands was ruled by the Habsburg emperors. And the Habsburg emperors would appoint stadtholders. And William of Orange was appointed Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, and Utrecht. And what we have here is a case of the stadtholder, after some reluctant self-reflection, becoming the leader of the rebellion against his lord. So William of Orange, the stadtholder, becomes the leader of the Dutch Revolt. And so now, the stadtholdership goes from being the royal steward to the rebel general - that now, William of Orange is George Washington. William of Orange is Robert E. Lee. So William of Orange is the Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, and Utrecht and the thing is that now, as a confederation - now, keep in mind that the Dutch Republic was not a nation. It was not a unitary government. Each province appointed its own stadtholder, so he wasn't stadtholder of the Netherlands or anything like that. So that States of Holland would appoint their own stadtholder; and hopefully, enough people would agree so that there was a bit of unity. So William of Orange was also the stadtholder also of Friesland ends up appointing him as the stadtholder, as well, so there are four provinces that end up appointing William of Orange as their stadtholder. But as a confederation, several provinces would often appoint the same stadtholder but, then again, if you look at 1625, you see that sometimes provinces named different stadtholders - typically descendants of William of Orange, but you'll have one stadtholder in Holland, Zeeland, and Utrecht - and in this case, Gelderland - and then, Overijssel, Drenthe, and Friesland have their own stadtholder. So you have two different stadtholders. That's okay because each province appoints their stadtholder. So, what IS a stadtholder? Now, what's funny about this is one of the best sources we have about the stadtholdership is James Madison's Notes on Ancient and Modern Confederacies. James Madison wrote this when he was preparing for the Constitutional Convention and he writes these notes really based on a lot of European scholarship. This isn't actually original scholarship on Madison's part and he's making notes about all of these texts he's reading because he wants to find out what were the strong points of previous confederations and what were the defects? So, as he's going through, he's looking at Sir William Temple. He's looking at Charles-Joseph Panckoucke - or [struggles with pronunciation] or whatever, okay? Something like that. Sorry for you pronunciation snobs. And Hugo Grotius, who was actually a Dutch scholar. And so Madison's observations are based on his readings of these European philosophers - in many cases, books that Thomas Jefferson had sent him from Europe. So, let's go into the civil powers of the stadtholder as head of state(s) - now, notice I'm not saying "head of state" because the Dutch Republic wasn't a "state" so to speak as much of a confederation provinces and states. There are eight powers that Madison identifies as belonging to the stadtholder: First of all, the power to settle differences between provinces. Second, to recommend and influence the appointment of ambassadors. Third, to be an ex officio member of the Council of State. Four: to preside in the Provincial Courts of Justice where his names is prefixed to all public acts. Five: the supreme curator of most of the universities. Six: to appoint town magistrates. Seven: to give audiences to ambassadors. And Eight: the power of pardon. Now, a lot of these powers sound a lot like the powers of the president of the United States or most heads of state today. Now, also the stadtholder tended to be the captain general - the commander in chief of the armed forces. Keep in mind that this didn't automatically come with the stadtholdership but was typically conferred upon the stadtholder. Whoever held that office would also hold the office of captain general and of admiral general - the head of the navy - so he could control all of the armed forces and pretty much lead the rebel army, so to speak, and rebel navy. Now, the stadholdership was a republican institution, meaning that this was not a king. This was not hereditary. This wasn't something that automatically passed to his son. This is not something that was permanent. It wasn't institutionalized until very late in the Republic. Now, William of Orange was the model stadtholder. When you go to the Netherlands, everyone knows about Willem van Oranje. He's a national hero. He's the father of their country. Before this, nobody really would have thought of a Dutch nation or anything like that - of the Netherlands as being its own thing - so really, the father of their country. And according to an outside observer, an Englishman who was visiting Delft - I had the privilege of visiting Willem van Oranje's house at the Prinsenhof in Delft - and I read this thing that really struck me as very "small r" republican, so to speak, where this English observer said, "His clothes look like those of a humble student, his jacket is a knitted sweater, like those worn by one of our ferrymen. His friends are citizens of this beer-brewing city of Delft, and he fits in perfectly." So although he is a high noble from this important house, he realizes how to get along in a republic and he's able to make himself into this republican sort of figure, which is part of the reason why people loved him so much. And this is really illustrated well at this kind of copy of Willem van Oranje's grave at the Prinsenhof. You can see that he's lying down - he's got his fancy little whatever they put around their necks there - and then you see that he's sort of in some sort of sleeping cap... and then at his feet, a dog. Alright? That, you know... it's like, "Hey, I'm just lying down with my dog, you know? I'm not just some high nobleman or something like that. I'm one of you. Alright? I'm just a guy who takes a nap with his dog." When you look at Dutch art from this period, dogs are all over the place, but I just thought that was really cool that he's just got that dog at his feet. Just seems like such a normal guy... Now, as much as William of Orange might have projected republican simplicity, that wasn't necessarily the case with stadtholders that followed him. In a lot of cases, the pretensions of the office and the trappings of the court and all of that stuff... that they would become more elevated over time as things often do. And the House of Orange-Nassau typically held the stadtholdership. All - or nearly all - of the republican stadtholders were descendants of William of Orange. And this presents a bit of a problem when you're looking at the history of the Dutch Republic. The republic's constitution presented some contradictions because on one hand, you've got a federal republic, which really is a lot like the young United States that's going to come along later... but the figurehead is a semi-hereditary noble. Now, nominally elected, but at the same time all coming from the same noble house and all of that kind of stuff, so is it a republic? Is it a monarchy? Is it somewhere in between? Keep in mind that this is a government that was cobbled together during a rebellion. They weren't necessarily starting from scratch. They were starting with what they had. But the House of Orange is a very prominent feature in the Dutch Republic and... it's a bit of a contradiction. James Madison is reflecting - possibly through someone else but saying that "this is a strange effect of human contradictions... Men too jealous to confide their liberty to their representatives who are their equals abandoned it to a prince who might the more easily abuse it." To somebody like Madison, it seems a little weird that they would let a hereditary nobleman be their figurehead... but it seemed to work for them. Now, there were some people who didn't like the influence of the House of Orange - people who wanted a less centralized government. And so you had conflicts between the Orangists and people who wanted to see more of a role for the states. Now, I plan to do another lecture on this topic and when I do, I'll put a little card or some kind of link there so you can access it. So the Orangists and the States are often going after each other but the thing is that this republic, being in the midst of all of these European monarchies - these much stronger states - that it's very difficult, as Madison said, that "It is certain that so many independent Corps & interests could not be kept together without such a center of Union as the Stadtholdership" - that the stadtholdership is the glue that keeps this thing together. Now, the tried a few stadtholderless periods, these people who wanted the States to have more influence and did not want this central unifying figure of the stadtholder, but every time they brought the stadtholder back. Madison, citing William Temple, wrote that "In the intermission of the Stadtholdership Holland by her riches & authority... drew the others into a sort of dependence." So typically, this movement to reduce the influence of the House of Orange was driven by the Hollanders because the Hollanders had more money. The controlled trade. Amsterdam is there and all of that kind of stuff. So Holland liked this sort of arrangement because they got to call the shots. Now, people in the other provinces, they tended to prefer the Oranges because the Oranges would unite everyone and keep Holland from running the show. "With such a government the Union never could have subsisted, if in effect the provinces had not withing themselves a spring capable of quickening their tardiness and impelling them to the same way of thinking. "This spring is the stadtholder." So in 1754, really the Orangists end up winning this thing and the stadtholdership is institutionalized - that a hereditary stadtholder general is established in the late Dutch Republic so you have William IV and William V... but alas, it does not last forever because in 1795, enter Napoleon and that is the end of that. And William V runs off to Britain in exile. Now of course, that's not the end of the House of Orange. The current king of the Netherlands is of the House of Orange so they haven't gone anywhere. You see where they've got those orange flowers and those oranges - which kind of ironically, oranges in Dutch are not referred to as oranje, like the color, but they're referred to as sinaasappels. So, he's got oranje flowers and sinaasappels. Go figure. So what is a stadtholder? It's pretty complicated but it was an important unifying figure in the Dutch Republic - a royal steward, a rebel leader, and a republican head of state. And this person unified a republic that might not otherwise have been able to exist. Hopefully, you learned a little something and I hope to continue some more lecture on the history of the Dutch Republic so if you want to see those, be sure to subscribe. TomRichey.net, my website. Twitter. Instagram. All of that kind of stuff. Find me on Facebook. I'll be back with some more lectures soon. Until next time. [Music]

Contents

Name

The republic was also known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (Dutch: Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden), Republic of the Seven United Provinces (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Provinciën), the United Provinces (Verenigde Provinciën), Seven Provinces (Zeven Provinciën), Federated Dutch Provinces (Latin: Foederatae Belgii Provinciae), or the Dutch Federation (Belgica Foederata).

Common names in Dutch for the Republic in official correspondence were:

  • De Republiek ("the Republic")
  • Republiek der Verenigde Nederlanden ("Republic of the United Netherlands")
  • Republiek der Verenigde Provinciën ("Republic of the United Provinces")
  • Republiek der Zeven Provinciën ("Republic of the Seven Provinces")
  • Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden ("Republic of the Seven United Netherlands")
  • Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Provinciën ("Republic of the Seven United Provinces")
  • Verenigde Provinciën ("United Provinces")
  • Verenigde Provinciën der Nederlanden ("United Provinces of the Netherlands")
  • Verenigde Staten der Nederlanden ("The United States of the Netherlands")
  • De Verenigde Gewesten ("The United Regions" or one translation would be "The United States")
  • De Zeven Verenigde Gewesten ("The Seven United Regions" or one translation would be "The Seven United States")

And in Latin:

  • Belgica Respublicae Foederatae[3]:58[4]

History

Until the 16th century, the Low Countries – corresponding roughly to the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg – consisted of a number of duchies, counties, and prince-bishoprics, almost all of which were under the supremacy of the Holy Roman Empire, with the exception of the county of Flanders, which was under the Kingdom of France.

Most of the Low Countries had come under the rule of the House of Burgundy and subsequently the House of Habsburg. In 1549 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which further unified the Seventeen Provinces under his rule. Charles was succeeded by his son, King Philip II of Spain. In 1568 the Netherlands, led by William I of Orange, revolted against Philip II because of high taxes, persecution of Protestants by the government, and Philip's efforts to modernize and centralize the devolved-medieval government structures of the provinces.[5] This was the start of the Eighty Years' War.

In 1579 a number of the northern provinces of the Low Countries signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they promised to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army. This was followed in 1581 by the Act of Abjuration, the declaration of independence of the provinces from Philip II.

In 1582 the United Provinces invited Francis, Duke of Anjou to lead them; but after a failed attempt to take Antwerp in 1583, the duke left the Netherlands again. After the assassination of William of Orange (10 July 1584), both Henry III of France and Elizabeth I of England declined offers of sovereignty. However, the latter agreed to turn the United Provinces into a protectorate of England (Treaty of Nonsuch, 1585), and sent the Earl of Leicester as governor-general. This was unsuccessful and in 1588 the provinces became a confederacy. The Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.

During the Anglo-French war (1778), the internal territory was divided into two groups: the Patriots, who were pro-French and pro-American, and the Orangists, who were pro-British.[6] The Republic of the United Provinces faced a series of republican revolutions in 1783–1787. During this period, republican forces occupied several major Dutch cities. Initially on the defence, the Orangist forces received aid from Prussian troops and retook the Netherlands in 1787. The republican forces fled to France, but then successfully re-invaded alongside the army of the French Republic (1793–95), ousting stadtholder William V, abolishing the Dutch Republic, and replacing it with the Batavian Republic (1795–1806). After the French Republic became the French Empire under Napoleon, the Batavian Republic was replaced by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810).

The Netherlands regained independence from France in 1813. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 the names "United Provinces of the Netherlands" and "United Netherlands" were used. In 1815 it was rejoined with the Austrian Netherlands and Liège (the "Southern provinces") to become the Kingdom of the Netherlands, informally known as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, to create a strong buffer state north of France. On 16 March 1815, the son of stadtholder William V crowned himself King William I of the Netherlands. Between 1815 and 1890 the King of the Netherlands was also in a personal union the Grand Duke of the sovereign Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. After Belgium gained its independence in 1830, the state became unequivocally known as the "Kingdom of the Netherlands", as it remains today.

Economy

Dutch East-India trading ship 1600
Dutch East-India trading ship 1600
Onrust Island near Batavia, 1699
Onrust Island near Batavia, 1699
Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, 1653
Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, 1653

During the Dutch Golden Age in the late 16th and 17th centuries, the Dutch Republic dominated world trade, conquering a vast colonial empire and operating the largest fleet of merchantmen of any nation. The County of Holland was the wealthiest and most urbanized region in the world.[7]

The free trade spirit of the time was augmented by the development of a modern, effective stock market in the Low Countries.[8] The Netherlands has the oldest stock exchange in the world, founded in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company, while Rotterdam has the oldest bourse in the Netherlands. The Dutch East-India Company exchange went public in six different cities. Later, a court ruled that the company had to reside legally in a single city, so Amsterdam is recognized as the oldest such institution based on modern trading principles. While the banking system evolved in the Low Countries, it was quickly incorporated by the well-connected English, stimulating English economic output.

Between 1590 and 1712 the Dutch also possessed one of the strongest and fastest navies in the world, allowing for their varied conquests, including breaking the Portuguese sphere of influence on the Indian Ocean and in the Orient, as well as a lucrative slave trade from Africa and the Pacific.

Politics

The republic was a confederation of seven provinces, which had their own governments and were very independent, and a number of so-called Generality Lands. The latter were governed directly by the States General (Staten-Generaal in Dutch), the federal government. The States General were seated in The Hague and consisted of representatives of each of the seven provinces. The provinces of the republic were, in official feudal order:

  1. The Duchy of Guelders (Gelderland in Dutch)
  2. The County of Holland
  3. The County of Zeeland
  4. The Lordship of Utrecht (formerly the Episcopal principality of Utrecht)
  5. The Lordship of Overijssel
  6. The Lordship of Frisia
  7. The Lordship of Groningen and Ommelanden.

In fact, there was an eighth province, the County of Drenthe, but this area was so poor it was exempt from paying federal taxes and as a consequence was denied representation in the States General. Each province was governed by the Provincial States, the main executive official (though not the official head of state) was a raadspensionaris. In times of war, the stadtholder, who commanded the army, would have more power than the raadspensionaris.

In theory, the stadtholders were freely appointed by and subordinate to the states of each province. However, in practice the princes of Orange of the House of Orange-Nassau, beginning with William the Silent, were always chosen as stadtholders of most of the provinces. Zeeland and usually Utrecht had the same stadtholder as Holland.

There was a constant power struggle between the Orangists, who supported the stadtholders and specifically the princes of Orange, and the Republicans, who supported the States General and hoped to replace the semi-hereditary nature of the stadtholdership with a true republican structure.

After the Peace of Westphalia, several border territories were assigned to the United Provinces. They were federally governed Generality Lands (Generaliteitslanden). They were Staats-Brabant (present North Brabant), Staats-Vlaanderen (present Zeelandic Flanders), Staats-Limburg (around Maastricht) and Staats-Oppergelre (around Venlo, after 1715).

The States General of the United Provinces were in control of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and the Dutch West India Company (WIC), but some shipping expeditions were initiated by some of the provinces, mostly Holland and Zeeland.

The framers of the US Constitution were influenced by the Constitution of the Republic of the United Provinces, as Federalist No. 20, by James Madison, shows.[9] Such influence appears, however, to have been of a negative nature, as Madison describes the Dutch confederacy as exhibiting "Imbecility in the government; discord among the provinces; foreign influence and indignities; a precarious existence in peace, and peculiar calamities from war." Apart from this, the American Declaration of Independence is similar to the Act of Abjuration, essentially the declaration of independence of the United Provinces,[10] but concrete evidence that the former directly influenced the latter is absent.

Religion

Interior of the Oude Kerk at Delft during a Sermon, 1651
Interior of the Oude Kerk at Delft during a Sermon, 1651

In the Union of Utrecht of 20 January 1579, Holland and Zeeland were granted the right to accept only one religion (in practice, Calvinism). Every other province had the freedom to regulate the religious question as it wished, although the Union stated every person should be free in the choice of personal religion and that no person should be prosecuted based on religious choice.[11] William of Orange had been a strong supporter of public and personal freedom of religion and hoped to unite Protestants and Catholics in the new union, and, for him, the Union was a defeat. In practice, Catholic services in all provinces were quickly forbidden, and the Dutch Reformed Church became the "public" or "privileged" church in the Republic.[12]

During the Republic, any person who wished to hold public office had to conform to the Reformed Church and take an oath to this effect. The extent to which different religions or denominations were persecuted depended much on the time period and regional or city leaders. In the beginning, this was especially focused on Roman Catholics, being the religion of the enemy. In 17th-century Leiden, for instance, people opening their homes to services could be fined 200 guilders (a year's wage for a skilled tradesman) and banned from the city.[13] Throughout this, however, personal freedom of religion existed and was one factor – along with economic reasons – in causing large immigration of religious refugees from other parts of Europe.[12]

In the first years of the Republic, controversy arose within the Reformed Church, mainly around the subject of predestination. This has become known as the struggle between Arminianism and Gomarism, or between Remonstrants and Contra-Remonstrants. In 1618 the Synod of Dort tackled this issue, which led to the banning of the Remonstrant faith.

Beginning in the 18th century, the situation changed from more or less active persecution of religious services to a state of restricted toleration of other religions, as long as their services took place secretly in private churches.

Decline

Long-term rivalry between the two main factions in Dutch society, the Staatsgezinden (Republicans) and the Prinsgezinden (Royalists or Orangists), sapped the strength and unity of the country. Johan de Witt and the Republicans did reign supreme for a time at the middle of the 17th century (the First Stadtholderless Period) until his overthrow and murder in 1672. Subsequently, William III of Orange became stadtholder. After a stadtholderless era of 22 years, the Orangists regained power, and his first problem was to survive the Franco-Dutch War (with the derivative Third Anglo-Dutch war), when France, England, Münster and Cologne united against this country.

Wars to contain the expansionist policies of France in various coalitions after the Glorious Revolution, mostly including England and Scotland (after 1707, the United Kingdom), burdened the republic with huge debts, although little of the fighting after 1673 took place on its own territory. The necessity to maintain a vast army against France meant that less money could be spent on the navy, weakening the Republic's economy. After William III's death in 1702 the Second Stadtholderless Period was inaugurated. Despite having contributed much in the War of Spanish Succession, the Dutch Republic gained little from the peace talks in Utrecht (1713). The end of the War of Austrian Succession in 1748, and Austria becoming allies with France against Prussia, marked the end of the republic as a major military power.[14]

Fierce competition for trade and colonies, especially from France and England, furthered the economic downturn of the country. The three Anglo-Dutch Wars and the rise of mercantilism had a negative effect on Dutch shipping and commerce.

See also

References

  1. ^ In full concordia res parvae crescunt, discordia maximae dilabuntur. Hubert de Vries, Wapens van de Nederlanden. De historische ontwikkeling van de heraldische symbolen van Nederland, België, hun provincies en Luxemburg. Uitgeverij Jan Mets, Amsterdam, 1995, pp. 31–32.
  2. ^ Demographics of the Netherlands, Jan Lahmeyer. Retrieved on 10 February 2014.
  3. ^ Rowen, Herbert H. (1978). John de Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holland, 1625–1672. Princeton University Press.
  4. ^ De Witt, Johan (10 May 1652). Brieven van Johan de Witt. I. pp. 61–62. De Witt to Shaep(?), 'these United Provinces must not be given the name of respublica (in the singular) but rather respublicae foederatae or unitae (in the plural).'
  5. ^ Pieter Geyl, History of the Dutch-Speaking Peoples, 1555–1648. Phoenix Press, 2001, p. 55.
  6. ^ Ertl 2008, p. 217.
  7. ^ In 1650 the urban population of the Dutch Republic as a percentage of total population was 31.7%, while that of the Spanish Netherlands was 20.8%, of Portugal 16.6%, and of Italy 14%. See "Population, Urbanisation and Health", in Chris Cook and Philip Broadhead, The Routledge Companion to Early Modern Europe, 1453–1763 (Abingdon and New York, 2006), p. 186. In 1675 the urban population density of Holland alone was 61%, that of the rest of the Dutch Republic 27%. See Wijnand W. Mijnhardt, "Urbanization, Culture and the Dutch Origins of the European Enlightenment", BMGN: Low Countries Historical Review, 125/2-3 (2010), p. 143.
  8. ^ Arrighi, G., (2002), The Long Twentieth Century, (London, New York: Verso), p. 47
  9. ^ James Madison (11 December 1787). Fœderalist No. 20.
  10. ^ Barbara Wolff (29 June 1998). "Was Declaration of Independence inspired by Dutch?". University of Wisconsin–Madison. Retrieved 14 December 2007.
  11. ^ "Unie van Utrecht - Wikisource". nl.wikisource.org.
  12. ^ a b Israel, J.I. The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall 1477–1806 Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995
  13. ^ van Maanen, R.C.J., Leiden: de geschiedenis van een Hollandse stad. II. 1574–1795, Stichitng Geschiedschrijving Leiden, 2003
  14. ^ O. van Nimwegen, De Republiek der Verenigde Nederlanden als grote mogendheid. Buitenlandse politiek en oorlogvoering in de eerste helft van de achttiende eeuw en in het bijzonder tijdens de Oostenrijkse Successieoorlog (1740–1748)

Further reading

External links

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