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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dunnington is a village and civil parish in the City of York and ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. The population of the civil parish was 3,230 at the 2011 Census.[1] The village is approximately 4 miles (6 km) east from York city centre.

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  • ✪ Kent Dunnington - Addiction: The Perilous Gift (Part 1) [Talbot Chapel]
  • ✪ Cory Dunnington: Celebrity Cruise Scholarship Recipient

Transcription

(bright upbeat music) So as you may know if you were in chapel yesterday, this is part of a series, and the title of the series is Addiction: The Perilous Gift. And I love the title of this series because we do talk a lot about the perils of addiction, and we should. Addiction is incredibly destructive and damaging. And it can't be overstated. What we don't as often talk about is the gift that addiction is, or the benefits of our being creatures capable of addiction. And so I want to talk today a little bit about that. I want to first try to get a grip on what addiction is and why it's so powerful, and I think as we get a better understanding of what makes addiction so powerful, we also come to see that addiction tells us something very important about the kinds of creatures that we are. This isn't really gonna be a sermon. I know this is a Talbot chapel. I feel like I should be preaching a sermon, but this just isn't a sermon. And that's not only due to laziness. (laughs) It's partly because the Bible doesn't directly address addiction. The word addiction is nowhere in the Bible. The word, addiction, is actually a fairly new word as a description of a dependent or abusive relationship with a substance or behavior. Addiction is a relatively new word. It was sort of developed in the beginning of the 19th century Temperance Movement in America. You might think well, yeah, the word, addiction, isn't in the Bible, but there are other words in the Bible that basically mean addiction. Maybe you might think of a word like drunkenness or something like that. But there's good reason to think that those two things are also distinct. Just to give you an example, when we think of an alcoholic, we usually think of someone who's inclined to drink alone. Solitary drinking is a typical mark of an alcoholic. There's a scholar named Peter Ferenci who's done a study and shown that before the Industrial Revolution there are almost no examples in all of world literature of people engaging in solitary drinking. So my view is that although there have always been chemical dependencies and dependencies on certain kinds of behaviors, there's something peculiar about modern life that makes addiction particularly alluring and attractive and powerful. And that's part of what I want to get at today. Now, I should say, I mean, I think you know this. But it's highly contested. People disagree about how to best characterize addiction. I'm gonna talk through the way I've come to think about it. Hopefully, it will be helpful, but if you come tomorrow morning, for instance, to the panel in chapel, you'll be hearing from people who disagree about these things. I'm gonna talk through the way I've come to think about addiction, and I hope there's something in here that's helpful to you. So I want to try to answer three questions in the time that we have today. First, what is addiction? Second, why is it so powerful? And third, why is addiction a perilous gift? So first what is an addiction? I mean, how do you know if you have one? People ask me this a lot. There's no easy answer. Addiction is not like a switch that's turned off and on. Addictions come in degrees. There are minor addictions. There are things that I think are probably better described as dependencies but probably not addictions at one extreme, and at the other extreme there are cases of what I call major addiction. These are seven marks that usually show up in literature about addiction that are characteristic of most addictions. And major addictions always have all seven of these marks. The first two, tolerance and withdrawal, you hear a lot about. They get a lot of press. I actually think they're probably the least significant markers of major addiction. The reason I say that is because people can have tolerance and withdrawal without being addicted. You might think of someone who leaves the hospital after taking pain killers. They develop a physiological dependence on those pain killers, but they need not become addicted. Conversely, people can have addictions but show very little sign of tolerance and withdrawal. I've sort of given a picture here of various addictions. You might think you have a coffee addiction. Probably if you have a coffee addiction, if you want to call it that, it's marked by symptoms of tolerance and withdrawal. You need a little bit more every day, you know, to feel better, and when you don't have it, you get a headache. That's withdrawal. Your body is in distress because you don't have a chemical that you need. I'm inclined not think of coffee as a major addiction because it lacks many of the other marks that most major addictions have. The other marks, numbers three through seven, are in increasing order of significance. Craving, we all know what it is to crave. Physical craving is when you can point at something on your body that hurts or ails because you don't have what you think you need. Psychological craving, you can point at something, but the desire for the object of the addiction is paramount in your consciousness. Ambivalence names the fact that most people with serious addictions have mixed feelings about the object of their addiction. And if you've ever been addicted to a substance or a process, you know that you can engage in that substance or process even when you have deeply mixed feelings about the object. You can simultaneously feel an attraction to alcohol and a repulsion from alcohol, and one of the paradoxical features of addiction is that people engage in addictive activity even when they're repulsed by the object that they're engaging in. Relapse under ambivalence is the most paradoxical feature of addiction. It's not surprising when people, for instance, are under the influence of a drug that they would keep using it. What is surprising is that people can recover from physiological dependence, can know that this drug has destroyed their life, can even have ambivalence about the drug but years later relapse. That's one of the most paradoxical features of addiction. And any account of addiction needs to be able to explain why that happens. The last two, I think, are the most important markers of a major addiction. And if these are characteristic of something in your life, you probably have a serious addiction. Obsession means that the practice of your addiction is paramount in your thinking throughout the day. Alcoholics will describe that in the morning they stand in the shower, and they think about how they're going to get their drinks throughout the day. They plan the day around alcohol. That's called thinking drinking. If you have obsession like that, you have a major addiction. I don't stand in the shower in the morning and think about where I'm gonna get all my coffee throughout the day. (laughs) Denial, some alcoholics and addicts will say denial is the marker of addiction, and the reason that it's so important is because what denial says is you know you have to live with this, but you also know that it's at odds with your picture of a flourishing life. And the way that we cope with that is by telling ourselves and other people lies about how we're actually living our lives. So that's how to begin to recognize an addiction in your own life, but once you've recognized it, how do you know what it is? The most popular description of what an addiction is is a disease. You've all probably heard this. There's been a massive public education campaign over the last several decades, and addiction as a disease is the most prominent understanding of addiction. There's a meme here from, what if I told you telling an addict to have willpower is like telling a diabetic to stop having high levels of glucose. You don't understand the disease of addiction. Why think addiction is a disease? Here are the two most prominent arguments for why we ought to think of addiction as a disease. This comes from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, addiction is a disease because number one, addictive practices lead to changes in the structure and function of the brain. That's true. We can see that from brain imaging. Number two, we can predict addiction based on genetic markers. That's also true. There are certain genes that if you have them, you're just more likely than other people to become an alcoholic. Those two reasons have led many to think of addiction as a biological problem, a disease of some kind. Here are a couple problems with arguments like that. Problem number one, years of practicing the cello leads to long-term changes in the structure and function of the brain. That's true. If we did brain imaging on Yo Yo Ma, you would see that his brain is quite different than yours. We can also predict musical ability based on the so-called melody gene. I would bet a lot of money that Yo Yo Ma has the melody gene. We can identify that gene, and you can know before you're ever born what your chances are of being a decent musician by looking at your melody gene. Does that mean that Yo Yo Ma is addicted to the cello? I'm inclined to think not. So the inference from the fact that a substance or a behavior changes your brain to the claim that you have a disease is a weak inference. The inference from the fact that you can predict predisposition to certain kinds of behaviors to the conclusion that what you have is a disease is a weak inference. Another serious problem with the disease model is that most addicted persons recover in non-medicalized contexts. This is a picture of a 12 step meeting before it happens. Most people recover outside of medicalized settings. Now, there are some addictions that require medical intervention to give people distance from the physiological dependence that they otherwise can't get free of enough to even begin the process of recovery. But we have large catchment surveys, which are basically just studies of various medical ailments that people have in America, and the catchment surveys show that the majority of people recover from addictions without ever even attending a 12 step program, let alone attending a medical detox program. So if addiction is not best thought of as a disease, I don't think it is. I'll say a little bit probably on the panel tomorrow about why I think the disease concept is still so important. And if the only alternative is to think of addiction as a simple choice, then I think we should all be committed to the disease model of addiction. Usually, debate is conducted between addiction as a disease and addiction as a choice, or a series of free choices. Here's a book by a psychologist named Jeffrey Schaler that argues that point. Here's what I think is problematic about the notion of addiction as a simple accumulation of simple, willful, autonomous choices. This is a story, I could read you hundreds of stories like this, from an addict. This is taken from Alcoholics Anonymous, and I just want to read this through, and ask yourself as you're listening to this story, is this person making an autonomous free choice to use alcohol? "I picked up half a gallon of whiskey one day "after work and drank over one-third of it in less "than four fours that same night. "I was so sick the next day, but I made it to work. "When I got home from work, I sat on my parents' sofa "and knew, I knew, I would start working on the half gallon "again, despite the fact that I was still very ill "from the night before. "I also knew that I did not want to drink." That's the ambivalence that I talked about earlier. "Sitting on that sofa, I realized that the old, "I could stop if I wanted to, I just don't want to "didn't apply here because I did not want to drink. "I watched myself get up off the sofa "and pour myself a drink. "When I sat back down on the sofa, I started to cry. "My denial had cracked; I believe I hit bottom that night, "but I didn't now it then; I just thought I was insane. "I proceeded to finish the half gallon." Now, does it seem to you like this person just made a choice to drink in the same way that you make a choice to have one more piece of pizza or to watch one more episode of Breaking Bad on Netflix? I think only when you see how experiences like this are characteristic of major addiction can you begin to understand why the disease concept of addiction has such power because the disease concept of addiction resonates with the addicted person's experience of losing immediate control over their behavior. The experience of some outside force that has taken them over. Notice how she describes herself as watching herself get up off the sofa and pour another drink. So the disease concept is so powerful among other reasons because it does resonate with what it feels like to be in the grip of a major addiction. So is addiction a disease or a choice? I don't think that it's either. What is addiction then if it's not a disease or a choice? I think of addiction as a habit, but I want to try to develop that understanding in a way that might help you get a grip on how incredibly powerful addictions are and why addictions are the most powerful habits that human beings have. What's fascinating about habits are that habits fall in between on what one hand is a determined and involuntary disease and on the other hand is an autonomously willed, voluntary choice. Habits fall exactly in between those two things. And to give you an example, I want you to think about going to a dinner party, right. I assume most of you are well-mannered people. You're in college or graduate school, or you're a professor. You know manners. You know how to behave at a dinner party. You know you shouldn't chew with your mouth open. You shouldn't talk with food in your mouth. You shouldn't spit your food on the carpet if you don't like it. You shouldn't holler out curse words or tell vulgar stories. You all know this stuff, right? Now, I want you to imagine that I gave you some money to go to a dinner party tonight and violate everything you know about good manners, okay. Chew with your mouth open. Spit your food out if you don't like it. Just be a disgusting pig. Suppose I give you money to do that. Could you do it? I suspect you could as long as you kept it in the forefront of your mind. You might last four or five minutes, but the moment you were distracted, you would slip. You would relapse wouldn't you? You would relapse back into your well-mannered behavior. Why? Is that because you have the disease of good manners? No, I don't think you have the disease of good manners. Is it because throughout your day, you make an accumulation of free, autonomous choices to behave with good manners? No, I don't think you do that either. It's because you have the habit of tact or of good manners. You have habituated yourself to become a well-mannered person so that you are neither determined to act with good manners nor do you have to exert your will power to act with good manners. Now, the question is in what sense are you acting voluntarily when you display your good manners at a dinner party? It depends on what you mean by voluntary, and we sometimes mean two different things by voluntary. If you mean, if something is voluntary if you have some control over it, if you could do something to change it, then of course, you act voluntarily when you act with good manners at a dinner party. But if you mean that you have autonomous freedom to resist it, right, then you don't act fully voluntarily if you act with good manners at a dinner party. Addictions are like that. They become what Aristotle called a second nature. Addictions are not just any kind of habit though. They're complex habits. They are embodied rationality. Habits take what we think of as reasonable and train our bodies, train our minds, and train our emotions to act in accordance with that rationality in a way that doesn't require us to think abstractly or discursively, okay. Here's a picture of three different kinds of habits. We can habituate our bodies. There's a picture of Steph Curry. He's got great muscle memory. Muscle memory is just a name for a habit, for the way that training can become incorporated into your body. If I told you to explain to a child how to tie his shoe, you probably couldn't do it. But you know how to tie your shoe, right. That's because that knowledge is now part of your body. We speak about scientists and other experts as having tacit knowledge. They see things through microscopes that we can't see, but they can't explain to us how to see them. We have to learn that over time. There's a picture of Dwight Schrute. He's someone that lacks emotional intelligence from The Office, right. (laughs) Imagine you gave a seminar to Dwight Schrute one morning. Would he leave that seminar with emotional intelligence? No, because he hasn't become habituated. His emotions haven't been transformed by long practice to know how to respond appropriately in social settings. The reason that addiction is such a powerful habit is because its complex. Some habits only habituate part of the human person. Addictions habituate everything about us. The addicted person's body is different than a non-addicted person. The addicted person understands the world differently than a non-addicted person. And the addicted person feels differently about the world than a non-addicted person. Habits are strategic. They're not accidental. Most of you when you see this picture if you're like me, you get kind of hungry. This looks really good, right. There are a few psychopaths among us for whom this picture does nothing, right. (laughs) You could care less about these donuts. Why? Well, some of you, maybe a few of you, have habituated your desires over time so that you no longer desire donuts, and you've done that because you want to coordinate your desires to some other end, some other good. Maybe being healthy, right, or not being overweight. All habits are like that. All habits have targets. They have goals. They ways of coordinating our desires so that we can achieve effortlessly goods that we think we need to flourish. Addiction is like that, too, and if I ask you what are the kinds of goods that addiction aims at, most people, and I think this is the biggest mistake that is made about addiction. Most people think addiction is about pleasure. Addiction is not about pleasure. Addictions often start with the pursuit of pleasure, but major addiction is not about pleasure. Let me give you an example. I could read hundreds of stories like this. Addiction, I want to suggest, is a moral and a spiritual habit. It's not a habit that's about pleasure. "Everything changed with my first drink at the age of 16. "All the fear, shyness, and unease evaporated "with the first burning swallow of bourbon straight "from the bottle during a liquor cabinet raid "at a slumber party. "I got drunk, blacked out, threw up, had dry heaves, "and was sick to death the next day. "I knew I would do it again. "For the first time, I felt part of a group "without having to be perfect to get approval." Look at everything that's in red here. Everything that's in red is what made the practice of drinking alcohol so attractive for this person. It helped fear, shyness, and unease evaporate. It helped this person feel that they belonged. Those aren't pleasures, right. Those are spiritual and moral goods. If you think addiction's about pleasure, how can you explain the fact that despite getting drunk, blacking out, throwing up, having dry heaves, and being sick to death the next day, this person knows that they are going to pursue this object again? Addiction is not about pleasure. It's about something much deeper than that. Pleasure is beside the point, ultimately, when a major addiction takes control. Here's another statement of that from a wonderful book by Caroline Knapp called Drinking, A Love Story. Caroline Knapp is an alcoholic. She says, "It's the equation we all lived by, every single "alcoholic I know: discomfort + drink = no discomfort, "fear + drink = bravery, repression + drink = openness, "pain + drink = self-obliteration. "At heart, alcoholism feels like the accumulation "of dozens of such connections, dozens of tiny fears "and hungers and rages, dozens of experiences "and memories that collect in the bottom of your soul, "coalescing over many, many drinks "into a single liquid solution." Addiction is a solution to the neediness that human beings have for deep, moral, and spiritual goods. If there's one thing I want you to take from today, I want you to think. I want you to realize the grip that addiction has upon our lives has to do with our nature as moral and spiritual beings who have what Thomas Aquinas calls infinite desire. Notice the things that drink helps Caroline Knapp with: discomfort, getting over discomfort, fear, repression, pain. Those are moral issues, spiritual problems. I think the power of addiction today in modernity, for contemporary people, is a consequence of its promise. It is a false promise, but the reason that addiction is so powerful is because it succeeds for a while. It really will help you for a while. It will destroy you in the long-term, but the reason that major addictions get a grip on our lives is because they do give us things that we are finding difficult to get in any other way. The false promise to help persons secure moral and spiritual goods that are elusive in the modern world. I'm gonna talk a little bit more about this at After Dark tomorrow night, but I want to just mention three ways. There are a number of features, I think, of contemporary life that make addiction particularly powerful and alluring. I'll just mention quickly three. This is a picture of a canary in a coal mine. You know what canaries in coal mines are for right? Miners would take canaries down into coal mines with them, and if poisonous gases were released into the mine, the canary would die before it killed the miners, all right. So they'd keep an eye on that canary in the cage, and if it keeled over, they'd say, we gotta get out of the mine. I think addictions and major addicts are like canaries in coal mines in our society. If you have a community that is characterized by major addiction that tells you that there's something wrong in your community, your community is not providing access to the deep, moral, and spiritual goods that people need, and here are three kinds of poisons in the contemporary world that addiction helps us overcome. One is we all want a non-arbitrary identity and purpose. All right? You all think it's great that you're free. You say things like that. But I know from talking to many of you who are graduating, that you don't know what to do with your lives, and you wish somebody would tell you. You wish someone would say, here's who you are, and here's what you need to do. That's why books like The Purpose Driven Life are so powerful, right. We all want a purpose. We feel burdened by the tyranny of possibility. I used to call it the Barnes and Noble syndrome, but we don't go in Barnes and Noble anymore. But when I walked in there, I was overcome. I gotta choose. Maybe I can read 200 of these book in my life, and there are thousands of them here, and what's more, the books I choose to read will shape my life in a certain direction and close off all kinds of other paths. I wish someone would tell me which books I should read. But no, I have to make a choice. That is a peculiarly modern dilemma. Part of the attraction of addiction is that it takes you out of the driver's seat, and we get weary of being in the driver's seat. If you've ever been to a 12 step meeting, you know that people stand up and announce their name, and they say something like, I'm Kent, and I'm an alcoholic. And try to tell an alcoholic that they're not really an alcoholic, and you'll see how important that identity has become. To know that you're an alcoholic is at the very least to have a secure identity, to have something that's true about you that you have no control over. We are people who want to know that we have a name, an identity, and a purpose over which we ultimately don't have control. We want to know that we have a destiny. Addiction helps people experience that. We also want an experience of ecstasy. Ecstasy, I'm using it in the etymological sense there, which means standing outside the self. We are worshiping beings. We want to be consumed by something that is greater than us. And addiction offers that opportunity. Addicts find themselves consumed. They become worshipers. One of my friends in graduate school told me a story. He was a paramedic, and he told me about the first time he showed up for a heroin overdose. And he said he thought it was the clearest picture he'd ever seen of worship, complete devotion to something that is bigger than the self. People want that, and the modern world sometimes makes it hard for us to have access to a transcendent and an ecstatic good, and addictions provide an alluring promise of that sort of thing. Finally, we all want an escape from isolation. Lonely people make the best addicts. And despite the fact that we have the best communication technology in the history of the world, we are the most lonely people in the history of the world. This is the single most characteristic description of people with major addictions is they are incredibly lonely. And what addicts find is that in the initial stages of an addiction, they often find that they belong to a subculture where their loneliness and alienation disappears. Most addicts eventually end up in isolation, but they will describe the object of their addiction as a companion. If you talk to alcoholics, they'll talk about their friends sitting on their shelf in their refrigerator. It helps to keep loneliness at bay. One heroin addict that I talked to, a really intelligent heroin addict, described her addiction to heroin as a psychic home. It was a place that she could always return to. Addictions offer an identity, an ecstatic experience, and an escape from isolation. And just to the extent that our communities to not offer access to those goods, we become breeding grounds for addiction. "The question that addiction puts to the church "is whether or not we can offer a convincing alternative "to the addicted life, and the challenge addiction presents "to the church is whether or not we can embody the "purposive, ecstatic, and all-consuming love of God in a way "that is more compelling than the life of addiction." I think many of us are, we're attracted to the description of addiction as a disease or a willful choice because in some way, it frees us from the responsibility of asking what is it about my own life that contributes to a culture of addiction? If you're like me, if you've ever been to a 12 step meeting, and I encourage you to go to a 12 step meeting. You'll be overcome by the sort of rawness of it. The power of 12 step recovery programs is exactly the raw vulnerability, the extraordinary honesty that is on display. Now, ask yourself, do I want my church to be a place like that? If you don't want your church to be a place like that, then you don't want to be a part of a church that's capable of helping you and other people escape the powerful grip of addiction in your life. A church or a community of Christians capable of helping redeem one another from addiction will look a lot more like a 12 step meeting in a ratty basement with an old coffee maker and an ash tray in the middle of the table then it will look like a suburban book club. And many of us are just not sure we want to be a part of a church like that because it would disturb the comfort of our own lives. I pray that Biola and our churches would be places of radical honesty where you really have no reason to go unless you're ready to confess who you really are. That's the only kind of community capable of helping all of us escape the power of addiction in our lives. (light instrumental music) Biola University prepares Christians to think Biblically about everything from science to business to education and the arts. Learn more at Biola.edu.

Contents

History

Dunnington village was an Anglo-Saxon settlement, and was listed in the 1086 Domesday Book as "Donniton", which, according to Mills, translates as an "estate associated with a man called Dun(n)a".[2] The fields around the village became the country's major area for growing chicory.[3]

Between 1913 and 1926 Dunnington was served by passenger trains on the Derwent Valley Light Railway, and the remaining goods-only railway was withdrawn in stages following the Beeching Axe. Steam trains ran to Dunnington on this line between 1977 and 1979, but following the closure of a crop drying facility the last tracks covering the route to York via Murton and Osbaldwick were lifted.

In 2006 Dunnington published a village design statement (VDS)[4] as part of a national scheme introduced by the Countryside Commission in 1996. This describes the history, visual characteristics and local setting of the village and surrounding landscape. The VDS forms part of the Parish Plan.

Dunnington was the category winner in the small town category (for settlements with population over 3,000) of the 2014 Britain in Bloom competition.[5]

The original Victorian village school was demolished, but a doctors' surgery building that sits on the site was built using a complementary construction style and reclaimed materials.

Community

Dunnington village cross
Dunnington village cross

The village has a historic centre, part of which is a conservation area.

According to the 2001 Census, the parish had a population of 3,194. Before 1996 it had been part of the Selby district, and before 1974 the East Riding of Yorkshire.

Dunnington is connected to York by the A1079 York to Hull, and the A166 York to Bridlington roads. The village is on the FirstGroup bus company's number 10 route through York as well as East Yorkshire Motor Services number 45 route which runs from Bridlington to York.

A monthly magazine for the village and neighbouring communities, The Grapevine, is published by the local church, and contains news from village organisations and feature articles.[6]

Since 2017 Dunnington has had an online community network for communicating, sharing and commenting on events, news, developments and activities in the parish and village.[7]

Recreational areas within or around Dunnington are Hagg Wood, Hassacarr Nature Reserve, Julia's Memorial Garden and a play park. Hassacarr Nature Reserve has attracted some 5,000 visitors over the past 20 years, and has recently been awarded Local Nature Reserve status.[5]

Dunnington has two public houses— the Cross Keys and The Windmill (closed since 2017), though Dunnington Sports Club is also open as a bar. The village also has a library, a doctors' surgery, a dental practice and a reading room at the Village Hall. The village school is Dunnington C of E Primary School.

Dunnington retains a small independent retail area mainly in and around York Street. Services include a newsagent, florist, hairdressers, a beauty salon, a home interiors showroom, fast food, a coffee shop and a bakery. On the location of the old Dunnington railway station, the modern industrial estate is the home of wide range of light industrial businesses and services.

Churches include those for Methodists, Protestants and Anglicans. The Grade: II* listed Church of England parish church is dedicated to St Nicholas, and dates in part from the late 11th century with later additions and alterations to the 19th, when it was rebuilt by C. Hodgson Fowler.[8]

Village sport facilities include those for bowls, cricket, football, tennis, squash, and ladies hockey. There is also a gymnasium.

References

  1. ^ a b UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Dunnington Parish (1170219616)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  2. ^ Mills, Anthony David (2011) [2003]. A Dictionary of British Place Names (revised ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 165. ISBN 019960908X.
  3. ^ "Dunnington", British History Online. Retrieved 17 March 2015
  4. ^ VDS Group (2006). Dunnington Village Design Statement 2006. Dunnington Parish Council.
  5. ^ a b "RHS Britain in Bloom Finals Full Results 2014". p. 33. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  6. ^ "St Nicholas Church Dunnington | The Grapevine". stnicholasdunnington.org.uk. Retrieved 2015-09-30.
  7. ^ "This Is Dunnington". facebook.com/ThisIsDunnington/. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  8. ^ Historic England. "Church of St Nicholas, Church Street (1148552)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 17 March 2015.

Further reading

  • Maggs, Rosalind A.; Hagg Wood Past, Present & Future, Friends of Hagg Wood (2007)

External links

This page was last edited on 15 December 2018, at 11:40
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