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Duke of Camerino

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dukedom of Camerino
Chest of Arms of Cear Borgia Duke of Valentinois.gif
Creation date1502
MonarchPope Alexander VI and Cardinal council
PeerageVatican and Italy
First holderCesar Borgia
Present holderHouse of Borgia

Duke of Camerino[1] is a title of nobility, originally in Papal peerage. It was created on 1503 by Apostolic authority of Pope Alexander VI and cardinal council over the ancient Marquissate of Camerino, which was part of the Dukedom of Spoleto.

History

Camerino was a Welf Marquissate, under Varano family, its rulers participated in all conflicts between Ghibellines and Welfs. Meanwhile, Cesar Borgia was in Rome making his final plans for his intervention in Tuscany, in Camerino the Lord of Faenza Manfredo Astorre, fidelity at Papal authority is found floating in the Tiber, he had been strangled.

On 5 June Pope Alexander VI, excommunicated Giulio Cesare Varano, ruler of Camerino, accusing him of giving help to enemies of holy church. On 23 June Cesar Borgia left Rome with an army of 8000 troops. On 20 July Cesar Borgia carrying the Apostolic authority, took Camerino and Giulio Cesare Varano prisoner. On 25 July and after Alexander VI and cardinal council received notice of Camerino's capture, Cesar Borgia is invested by Apostolic authority and by cardinal council as Duke of Camerino,[2] being first time in history the denomination is used over the Camerino city and region of Camerino.[3]

Background

Cesar Borgia left then Dukedom of Camerino to his brother Giovanni Borgia, was named later Duke of Nepi and Duke of Pallestrina by Apostolic authority.[4] Giovanni Borgia carried many other titles and he did after death of Alexander VI a career as ambassador. He died on November, 1555 in Genoa being ambassador of Pope Paul III. The Dukedom of Camerino right remained in hands of Giovanni Borgia until his death when it passed to another branch of the Borgia family in reason of patrimony formed by him under the Sicilian and Spanish crowns because he had three daughters and no sons.

On 1503 Pope return Camerino to Juan Maria Varano in quality of Lord under Papal dukedom domine. On 1521 Juan, Lord of Camerino was deposed by his brother Segismund and he was reposed again in 1522. On 1534 Camerino is integrated to Dukedom of Spoleto but the ruler and Lady of Camerino was deposed by Pope on 1535, date in which is returned in quality of Marquissate to Ercole Varano for return to the Pope again in 1540 who gave Camerino to Octavio Farnesio, Duke of Parma.

Camerino was a policy piece in hands of Popes whose used it in pursuit policy alliances until 1555; in which the region remained definitely joined to Papal states until 1860, year which Camerino passed to new Kingdom of Italy.

The title of Duke of Camerino remained then in hands of Borgia family; nevertheless, it was used by the popes without permission of Giovanni Borgia and his descendants. Giovanni Borgia received rents of Camerino until his death, the dukedom right passed to a branch of the House of Borgia.

Dukes of Camerino

Rulers under Papal domine

Papal rulers

Kingdom of Italy

According to the laws of the Italian Republic, the titles of nobility of Italy ceased to exist with the fall of the monarchical regime.

Citations

  1. ^ a b Olivier, Manuel. D. Rodrigo de Borja (Alejandro VI). Sus hijos y descendientes, Second tree, Cervantine Library. http://www.cervantesvirtual.com
  2. ^ L. William, George, Papal Genealogy, The Families of Renaissance Popes. p. 217. McFarland and Company Inc, Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina, and London. ISBN 0-7864-2071-5, 1998, 2004
  3. ^ Hollingsworth, Mary. The Borgias: History's Most Notorious Dynasty. Published by: Quercus Edition Ltda. London, 2011. ISBN 9781782069447
  4. ^ Lola Galán, José Catalán Deus. El papa Borgia: Un inédito Alejandro VI liberado al fin de la leyenda negra. Edited and published by: Aguilar, Random House Mondadory, 2012. ISBN 9788403011762
  5. ^ L. William, George, Papal Genealogy, The Families of Renaissance Popes. p. 217. McFarland and Company Inc, Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina, and London. ISBN 0-7864-2071-5, 1998, 2004.
  6. ^ L. William, George, Papal Genealogy, The Families of Renaissance Popes. p. 61. McFarland and Company Inc, Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina, and London. ISBN 0-7864-2071-5, 1998, 2004 (Borgia)

General sources

  • John W. Barker and Christopher Kleinhenz. "Camerino, Duchy of", Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia, ed. Christopher Kleinhenz (London and New York: Routledge, 2004), p. 173.
  • John E. Law. "The Ending of the Duchy of Camerino", Italy and the European Powers: The Impact of War, 1500–1530, ed. Christine Shaw (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2006), pp. 77–90.
  • John E. Law. "The Da Varano Lords of Camerino as Condottiere Princes", Mercenaries and Paid Men, ed. John France (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2008), pp. 89–104.
This page was last edited on 5 July 2021, at 05:28
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