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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Świdnica
Market Square in the Old Town
Market Square in the Old Town
Coat of arms of Świdnica
Coat of arms
Świdnica is located in Lower Silesian Voivodeship
Świdnica
Świdnica
Świdnica is located in Poland
Świdnica
Świdnica
Coordinates: 50°51′N 16°29′E / 50.850°N 16.483°E / 50.850; 16.483
Country Poland
Voivodeship Lower Silesian
CountyŚwidnica County
GminaŚwidnica (urban gmina)
First mentioned1070
City rights1267
Government
 • MayorBeata Moskal-Słaniewska (SLD)
Area
 • Total21.76 km2 (8.40 sq mi)
Elevation
250 m (820 ft)
Population
 (2019-06-30[1])
 • Total57,041
 • Density2,600/km2 (6,800/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
58-100 and 58-105
Area code(s)+48 74
Car platesDSW
Websitehttp://www.um.swidnica.pl

Świdnica (Polish: [ɕfidˈɲitsa] (About this soundlisten); German: Schweidnitz; Czech: Svídnice; Silesian: Świdńica) is a city in south-western Poland in the region of Silesia. As of 2019, it has a population of 57,014 inhabitants. It lies in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, being the seventh largest town in that voivodeship. From 1975–98 it was in the former Wałbrzych Voivodeship. It is now the seat of Świdnica County, and also of the smaller district of Gmina Świdnica (although it is not part of the territory of the latter, as the town forms a separate urban gmina). Świdnica became part of the Wałbrzych agglomeration on 23 January 2014.[2]

Świdnica is home to the St. Stanislaus and St. Wenceslaus Cathedral and the Church of Peace, two landmark churches listed as Historic Monuments of Poland[3][4] with the latter also listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

History

The city's name was first recorded as Svidnica in 1070, when it was part of Piast-ruled Poland. Świdnica became a town in 1250, although no founding document has survived that would confirm this fact. The town belonged at the time to the Duchy of Wrocław, a province of Poland. By 1290, Świdnica had city walls and six gates, crafts and trade were blossoming. At the end of the 13th century, there were guilds of bakers, weavers, potters, shoemakers, furriers and tailors in Świdnica.[5] The city was famous for its beer production. In the late 15th century, almost three hundred houses had the right to brew beer.[5] In various cities of the region (Wrocław, Oleśnica, Brzeg) and Europe (Kraków, Toruń, Prague, Pisa) there were so-called "Świdnica Cellars" – restaurants serving beer from Świdnica.[6] Wrocław's Piwnica Świdnicka exists to this day as the oldest restaurant in Europe. There was also a mint in Świdnica.[7] The Franciscans and Dominicans settled in the city in 1287 and 1291, respectively.[7]

In 1291–1392 Świdnica was the capital of the Piast-ruled Duchy of Świdnica and Jawor. The last Polish Piast duke was Bolko II of Świdnica, and after his death in 1368 the duchy was held by his wife until 1392; after her death it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Bohemia by Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia. By the end of the 14th century, Świdnica was already one of the largest cities in Silesia, with about 6,000 inhabitants.[5]

In 1429 the city successfully defended itself against a Hussite attack.[5] From about 1469 to 1490 it was under the rule of the Kingdom of Hungary and after that it was part of Jagiellonian-ruled Bohemia. In the 15th century, several mills operated in the city.[5] Large cattle and hop markets took place there.[5] In 1493, the town is recorded by Hartmann Schedel in his Nuremberg Chronicle as Schwednitz.[8]

In 1526, all of Silesia, including Świdnica (as Schweidnitz), came under the rule of the Habsburg Monarchy as part of the surrounding Duchy of Schweidnitz. In the 16th century it was one of the regional centers of Anabaptism.[7] The city suffered greatly during the Thirty Years' War (1618–48) as a result of sieges, fires and epidemics.[5] Schweidnitz was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia during the First Silesian War (1740–42). The town was turned into a fortress, which it remained until 1866.[5]

It was captured again by Austria in October 1761, during the Third Silesian War, or Seven Years' War, but Prussians retook it one year later. In 1803 the city was visited by Polish jurist, poet, political and military activist Józef Wybicki, best known as the author of the lyrics of the national anthem of Poland.[9] In 1807 the city was captured by French troops during the Napoleonic Wars. It became part of the Prussian-led German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany and stayed within Germany until the end of World War II. According to the Prussian census of 1905, the city of Schweidnitz had a population of 30,540 who were mostly Germans, but also included a Polish minority comprising around 3% of the population.[10] The World War I flying ace Lothar von Richthofen was buried in Schweidnitz, until the city became owned by Poland after World War II in which the graveyard was leveled. A Nazi prison was located in the city under Nazi Germany,[11] and during World War II, the Germans also established a subcamp of the Gross-Rosen concentration camp, three prisoner of war labor divisions of the Stalag VIII-A camp and a forced labour camp.[7] Among the prisoners was Lesław Bartelski, Polish writer and resistance member, who fought in the Warsaw Uprising.[12]

After the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, the town, like most of Silesia, became again part of Poland under border changes promulgated at the Potsdam Conference. Those members of the German population who had not already fled or had been killed during the war were subsequently expelled to the remainder of Germany and the town was repopulated with Poles, many of whom had themselves been expelled from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. Also Greeks, refugees of the Greek Civil War, settled in Świdnica in the 1950s.[13]

In 2004, Świdnica became the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Świdnica.

Points of interest

The Gothic Cathedral of St. Stanislaus and St. Wenceslaus from the 14th century has the highest tower in Silesia, standing 103 meters tall; it hosts an image of "Our Lady Health of the Sick". It is listed as a Historic Monument of Poland.[3]

The Evangelical Church of Peace, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and Historic Monument of Poland,[4] was built in 1656–57.

Świdnica city hall
Świdnica city hall

The 16th-century town hall has been renovated numerous times and combines Gothic, Renaissance, and Baroque architectural elements. A museum is located in the town hall. The Baroque Church of St. Joseph and the Church of St. Christopher are from the same era. One remaining element of the former defensive works is the Chapel of St. Barbara.

Other notable destinations include the old town and the Stary Rynek square, Gola Dzierżoniowska Castle, Medieval town of Niemcza, Cistercian monastery at Henryków and the Wojsławice Arboretum.

Old Town of Świdnica
Old Town of Świdnica
Saint Joseph's church
Saint Joseph's church

Politics

Wałbrzych constituency

Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from the Wałbrzych constituency.

Michał Dworczyk Law and Justice
Marek Dyduch Democratic Left Alliance
Marcin Gwóźdź Law and Justice
Izabela Mrzygłocka Civic Platform
Wojciech Murdzek Agreement
Tomasz Siemoniak Civic Platform
Monika Wielichowska Civic Platform
Ireneusz Zyska Law and Justice

Education

City Park
City Park

Świdnica is home to a College of Data Communications Technology (Wyższa Szkoła Technologii Teleinformatycznych).

In 2003, Świdnica hosted a session of the Warsaw-based International Chapter of the Order of Smile, when a Child Friendship Centre was established. Świdnica was officially titled the "Capital of Children's Dreams".

Sport

Notable people

Dom pod bykami (House under the bulls)
Dom pod bykami (House under the bulls)

Twin towns – sister cities

Świdnica is twinned with:[14]

Notes

References

  1. ^ "Population. Size and structure and vital statistics in Poland by territorial divison in 2019. As of 30th June". stat.gov.pl. Statistics Poland. 2019-10-15. Retrieved 2020-02-14. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. ^ Press release, Siedem nowych gmin w Aglomeracji Wałbrzyskiej. Swidnica24.pl. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  3. ^ a b Rozporządzenie Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 15 marca 2017 r. w sprawie uznania za pomnik historii "Świdnica - katedra pod wezwaniem św. Stanisława Biskupa i Męczennika i św. Wacława Męczennika", Dz. U. z 2017 r. poz. 655
  4. ^ a b Rozporządzenie Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 15 marca 2017 r. w sprawie uznania za pomnik historii "Świdnica - zespół kościoła ewangelicko-augsburskiego pod wezwaniem Świętej Trójcy, zwany Kościołem Pokoju", Dz. U. z 2017 r. poz. 672
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Historia Świdnicy". UM Świdnica (in Polish). Retrieved 25 November 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  6. ^ Janusz Czerwiński, Ryszard Chanas, Dolny Śląsk – przewodnik, Sport i Turystyka, Warszawa, 1977, p. 178–186 (in Polish)
  7. ^ a b c d "Świdnica". Encyklopedia PWN (in Polish). Retrieved 25 November 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  8. ^ See Die Schedelsche Weltchronik on German Wikisource.
  9. ^ "220 lat Mazurka Dąbrowskiego. Jak właściwie śpiewać Hymn Polski?". Swidnica24.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 1 November 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  10. ^ Belzyt, Leszek (1998). Sprachliche Minderheiten im preussischen Staat: 1815 - 1914; die preußische Sprachenstatistik in Bearbeitung und Kommentar. Marburg: Herder-Inst. ISBN 978-3-87969-267-5.
  11. ^ "Gefängnis Schweidnitz". Bundesarchiv.de (in German). Retrieved 1 November 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  12. ^ Stanisław Sierotwiński, Kronika życia literackiego w Polsce pod okupacją hitlerowską: próba przeglądu zdarzeń w układzie chronologicznym, "Rocznik Naukowo-Dydaktyczny" Zeszyt 24, Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Pedagogicznej w Krakowie, Kraków, 1966, p. 53 (in Polish)
  13. ^ Izabela Kubasiewicz, Emigranci z Grecji w Polsce Ludowej. Wybrane aspekty z życia mniejszości, p. 117 (in Polish)
  14. ^ "Miasta partnerskie". um.swidnica.pl (in Polish). Świdnica. Retrieved 2020-03-03. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)

External links

Media related to Świdnica at Wikimedia Commons

This page was last edited on 28 March 2021, at 19:56
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