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Drew Gilpin Faust

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Drew Gilpin Faust
Women in Economic Decision-making Drew Gilpin Faust (8414040540).jpg
Faust, speaking at the World Economic Forum in 2013
28th President of Harvard University
In office
July 1, 2007 – July 1, 2018
Preceded byLawrence Summers
Derek Bok (acting)
Succeeded byLawrence S. Bacow
Personal details
BornCatharine Drew Gilpin
(1947-09-18) September 18, 1947 (age 71)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Spouse(s)Charles E. Rosenberg
ChildrenJessica Rosenberg
Leah Rosenberg
ResidenceCambridge, Massachusetts
Alma materBryn Mawr College
University of Pennsylvania
ProfessionCollege administrator, Academic
Academic background
ThesisA sacred circle: The social role of the intellectual in the Old South, 1840–1860 (1975)
Doctoral advisor 
Academic work
Sub-disciplineAmerican south
Main interestsAntebellum period and Civil War
Notable worksMothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War (1996)

Catharine Drew Gilpin Faust (born September 18, 1947)[1] is an American historian and was the 28th President of Harvard University, the first woman to serve in that role.[2] Faust is the former dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study; she is Harvard's first president since 1672 without an undergraduate or graduate degree from Harvard and the first to have been raised in the South.[3][4]

In 2014, she was ranked by Forbes as the 33rd most powerful woman in the world.[5] On February 11, 2018, it was officially announced that Lawrence Bacow would succeed her on July 1, 2018.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Harvard President Drew Gilpin Faust Address | Harvard Commencement 2018
  • Harvard President Drew Gilpin Faust Address | Harvard Commencement 2017
  • Death & the Civil War
  • Harvard President Drew Gilpin Faust Speech | Harvard Commencement 2016
  • A Conversation with Drew Faust on Leadership


Thank you, Susan, for those generous words, and thank you graduates, alumni and friends for that generous welcome. Heartfelt congratulations to you, our graduates, and to your families for the hard work and many accomplishments that have brought you to this day. I am especially grateful to John Lewis for sharing his inspiring words and presence with us. There can be no finer example of how to live a life than that of John Lewis, whose courage, dedication, selflessness, and moral clarity have for more than a half century challenged this country to realize its promise of liberty and justice for all. It is an inexpressible honor and privilege to stand on this stage beside him. Almost eleven years ago I stood on this platform to deliver my inaugural address as Harvard’s 28th president. Today’s remarks represent something of a bookend—a kind of valedictory—vale-dictory, literally, farewell words. When I spoke in 2007, I observed that inaugural speeches are “by definition pronouncements by individuals who don’t yet know what they are talking about.” By now I can no longer invoke that excuse. I am close to knowing all I ever will about being Harvard’s president. I then went on to say something else about the peculiar genre of inaugural addresses: that we might dub them, as I put it then, “expressions of hope unchastened by the rod of experience.” By now I should know that rod. In my mind I hear the Jimi Hendrix of my youth asking: “Are you experienced?” I would have to answer affirmatively. Perhaps not as experienced as Charles William Eliot who made it through 40 years as Harvard president. But 11 years is a long time. Think about it: the iPhone and I were launched within 48 hours of each other in the summer of 2007. We are now so attached to our devices that it seems almost unimaginable that they were not always there. The smartphone initiated a revolution in how we communicate, how we interact, how we organize our lives. We are only beginning to understand the impact of this digital transformation on our disrupted society, economy, politics—and even our brains. 2008 brought the financial crisis and the loss of close to a third of our endowment—prompting us in the ensuing years to overturn a system of governance that had been in place since 1650, and to transform our financial—and ultimately our investment—processes and policies. Five years ago, we lived through the marathon bombings and the arrival of terror in our very midst—and came together as Boston Strong. We have experienced wild weather from hurricanes to snowmageddon to bombogenesis, and doubled down on our commitment to combat climate change. We have confronted a cheating crisis, an email crisis, a primate crisis, and sexual assault and sexual harassment crises—and made significant and lasting changes in response to each. We have faced down H1N1, Ebola, Zika, and even the mumps. We have been challenged—as well as often inspired and enlightened—by renewed and passionate student activism: Occupy; Black Lives Matter; Divest Harvard; I, Too, Am Harvard; Undocumented at Harvard and hashtag Me Too. We have faced a political and policy environment increasingly hostile to expertise and skeptical about higher education: the unprecedented endowment tax passed last December will, we estimate, impose on us a levy next year equivalent to $2,000 per student. There has indeed been a good measure of chastening. But today I want to focus not on that “rod of experience,” but on what I then defined as the essence of an inaugural message: the expression of hope. Now, as then, that is what fills both my mind and my heart as I think about Harvard, its present and its future. These past eleven years have only strengthened my faith in higher education and its possibilities. Hope, I have learned, derives not just from the innocence of inexperience, but from the everyday realities, the day-to-day work of leading and loving this university. At a time of growing distrust of institutions and constant attacks on colleges and universities, I want to affirm my belief that they are beacons of hope—I think our best hope—for the future to which we aspire. In their very essence universities are about hope and about the future, and that is at the heart of what we celebrate today. Hope is the foundation of learning. The 6,989 graduates we honor today arrived here with aspirations about what education could make possible, with dreams about how their lives would be changed because of the time they would spend here. Dean Rakesh Khurana regularly speaks to students in the College about the transformations—intellectual, social, personal—they should seek from their undergraduate experience, urging them to articulate their hopes and define a path toward realizing them. And we do have such very high aspirations for them: that they find lives of meaning and purpose, that they discover a passion that animates them, that they strive toward veritas, that they use their education to do good in the world. Never has the world needed these graduates more, and I think they understand that. I had lunch with a dozen or so seniors a month ago, and I asked them to characterize their four years here. They spoke of the ways they had changed and grown, but, more pointedly, they spoke of how the world seemed to have changed around them. They worried about the health and sustainability of the earth; they worried about the health of our democracy and of civil society. And they described how their attitudes and plans had altered because of these changed circumstances. They no longer took their world for granted; the future of our society, our country, our planet could not be guaranteed; it was up to them. Their careers and life goals had shifted to embrace a much broader sense of responsibility extending beyond themselves to encompass an obligation to a common good they had come to recognize might not survive without them. I thought of these students as something akin to alchemists—confronting dark realities and forging a golden path that offered hope—to themselves about their own lives, but to all of us as we imagine what these extraordinary graduates will do with and for the damaged world we offer them as their inheritance. It would be impossible to be surrounded by these students as they move through their time at Harvard without being filled with hope about the future they will create. To paraphrase the Ed School’s Campaign slogan, they are here learning to change the world. Building a more enlightened world is of course the fundamental work of the faculty as well, and at the core of Harvard’s identity as a research university. The fundamental question we ask as we consider appointing a professor is “What has this person done to alter and enhance our understanding of the world?” Perhaps they have revealed how the microbiome works, or how international trade agreements affect economic prosperity, or how undocumented students confront educational challenges. Perhaps they’ve unlocked ways to identify the actual location of genes that cause schizophrenia, or have discovered how to engineer an exo-suit to enable a person to walk. Harvard scholars explore history and literature to help us understand tyranny; art to illuminate the foundations of justice; law and technology to address assaults on fundamental assumptions about privacy. With its eye cast on creating a different future, all of this work is founded in hope—of seeing something more clearly, of influencing others to change their understanding and perhaps even their actions. We are by definition a community of idealists, thinking beyond the present and the status quo to imagine how and when things could be different, could be otherwise. The privilege of interacting with Harvard’s remarkable students and faculty, and the dedicated staff who support their work has uplifted me every day for the past eleven years. It would be next to impossible not to believe in the future they are so intent to build. But there is another way that Harvard fills me with hope, and that is the way we as a community—living and working together within these walls—are endeavoring ourselves to grapple with the challenging forces dividing and threatening the world—forces like climate change, or the divisiveness that poisons our society and polity, the undermining of facts and rational discourse, the chilling of free speech. We might in some ways see the work we have undertaken together on sustainability as emblematic of these wider efforts. We have come to consider ourselves a living laboratory. Our research and engagement on environmental issues of course stretches well beyond our walls: our faculty, for example, have played critical roles in forging international climate agreements, have engineered innovative ways to create and store renewable energy, have influenced regulatory frameworks from Washington to Beijing, have explored the searing impact of climate change on health. But at the same time we have endeavored to make our own community a model for what might be possible—what we might hope for as we imagine the future. We have reduced our greenhouse gas emissions by 30%, our trash by 44%; we produce 1.5 megawatts of solar energy—enough to fuel 300 homes. We have programs experimenting with healthy building materials, green cleaning, and food waste, and we have constructed HouseZero, an energy neutral structure that is essentially an enormous computer generating data about every aspect of its operation and design, making information available to others as they build for the future. We seek to be a living experiment in other ways as well. We gather here in Cambridge, face to face in a residential educational setting because we regard this very community as an educational machine. I have often observed that Harvard is likely the most diverse environment in which most of our students have ever lived. We endeavor to attract talented individuals from the widest possible range of backgrounds, experiences and interests, the broadest diversity of geographic origins, socio-economic circumstances, ethnicities, races, religions, gender identities, sexual orientations, political perspectives. And we ask students to learn from these differences, to teach one another—and to teach us as well—with the variety of who they are and what they bring. This isn’t easy. It requires individuals to question long-held assumptions, to open their minds and their hearts to ideas and arguments that may seem not just unfamiliar, but even disturbing and disorienting. And it is an experiment that becomes ever more difficult in an increasingly polarized social and political environment in which expressions of hatred, bigotry, and divisiveness seem not just permitted but encouraged. But in spite of these challenges all around us, we at Harvard strive to be enriched, not divided by our differences. To sustain this vision of an educational community, we must be a living laboratory in another sense as well. We must be a place where facts matter, where reasoned and respectful discourse and debate serve as arbiters of truth. There has been much recent criticism of universities for not being sufficiently open to differing viewpoints. Protecting and nourishing free speech is for us a fundamental commitment, and one that demands constant attention and vigilance, especially in a time of sharp political and social polarization. The uncontrolled—and uncontrollable—cacophony that defines a university means we will inevitably sometimes fall short; we cannot always guarantee that every member of this community listens generously to every other. But that must simply motivate us to redouble our efforts. Silencing ideas or basking in comfortable intellectual orthodoxy independent of facts and evidence blocks our access to new and better ideas. We must be dedicated to the belief that truth cannot simply be asserted or claimed but must be established with evidence and tested with argument. Truth serves as inspiration and aspiration in all we do; it pulls us toward the future and its possibilities for seeing more clearly, understanding more fully, and improving ourselves and the world. Its pursuit is fueled by hope. Hope joins with truth as the as the very essence of a university. And so I come back to hope—the hope implicit in our efforts to model a different way for humans to live and work together, the hope in the ideas and discoveries that are the currency we trade in, the hope in the bright futures of those who graduate today. Yet as I step down from my responsibilities as Harvard president, I am keenly aware of another of hope’s fundamental attributes. It implies work still unfinished, aspirations not yet matched by achievement, possibilities yet to be seized and realized. Hope is a challenge. I think of the words the beloved late crew coach Harry Parker once spoke to a rower—words I quoted often during the campaign: “This is what you can be. Do you want to be that?” These are the words and the message I would like to leave with Harvard. The work is unfinished. The job remains still to be done in times that make it perhaps more difficult than ever. May we continue to challenge ourselves with the hope of all we can be and with the unwavering determination to be that. May Harvard be as wise as it is smart As restless as it is proud As bold as it is thoughtful As new as it is old As good as it is great.


Early life and career

Catharine Drew Gilpin was born in New York City[6] and raised in Clarke County, Virginia, in the Shenandoah Valley.[1] She is the daughter of Catharine Ginna (née Mellick) and McGhee Tyson Gilpin; her father was a Princeton graduate and breeder of thoroughbred horses.[1][7] Her paternal great-grandfather, Lawrence Tyson, was a U.S. Senator from Tennessee during the 1920s.[8] Faust also has New England ancestry and is a descendant of the Puritan divine Rev. Jonathan Edwards, the third president of Princeton.[7]

She graduated from Concord Academy, Concord, Massachusetts, in 1964. She earned a BA magna cum laude with honors in history from Bryn Mawr College in 1968. She earned an MA in American civilization from the University of Pennsylvania in 1971 and a Ph.D. in 1975, with a dissertation entitled "A Sacred Circle: The Social Role of the Intellectual in the Old South, 1840–1860".[9][10] In the same year, she joined the University of Pennsylvania faculty as assistant professor of American civilization. A specialist in the history of the South in the antebellum period and Civil War, Faust rose to become Walter Annenberg Professor of History.

She is the author of six books, including Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War (1996), for which she won both the Society of American Historians Francis Parkman Prize and the Avery O. Craven Award from the Organization of American Historians in 1997. Her other works include James Henry Hammond and Old South, a biography of James Henry Hammond, Governor of South Carolina from 1842–1844. This Republic of Suffering (2008) was a critically acclaimed exploration of how the United States' understanding of death was shaped by the high losses during the Civil War. It was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award.

In 2001, Faust was appointed the first dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, which was established after the merger of Radcliffe College with Harvard University.[1]

President of Harvard University

On February 8, 2007, The Harvard Crimson reported that Faust had been selected as the next president of the university.[11] Following formal approval by the university's governing boards, her appointment was made official three days later.[12] She is the fifth woman to serve as president of an Ivy League university.[citation needed]

Her appointment followed the departure of Lawrence Summers, who resigned on June 30, 2006, after a series of controversial statements that led to mounting criticism from members of Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Derek Bok, who had served as President of Harvard from 1971–1991, returned to serve as an interim president during the 2006–2007 academic year.

Preparations for inauguration of Faust
Preparations for inauguration of Faust

During a press conference on campus, Faust said, "I hope that my own appointment can be one symbol of an opening of opportunities that would have been inconceivable even a generation ago." She also added, "I'm not the woman president of Harvard, I'm the president of Harvard."[3]

On October 12, 2007, Faust delivered her installation address, saying,

A university is not about results in the next quarter; it is not even about who a student has become by graduation. It is about learning that molds a lifetime, learning that transmits the heritage of millennia; learning that shapes the future.[13]

In one of Faust's first initiatives, she significantly increased financial aid offers to students at Harvard College. On December 10, 2007, Faust announced a new policy for middle-class and upper-middle-class students, which limited parental contributions to 10 percent for families making between $100,000 and $180,000 annually, and replaced loans with grants. In announcing the policy, Faust said, “Education is the engine that makes American democracy work.... And it has to work and that means people have to have access.”[14] The new policy expanded on earlier programs that eliminated contributions for families earning less than $60,000 a year and greatly reduced costs for families earning less than $100,000. Similar policies were subsequently adopted by Stanford, Yale, and many other private U.S. universities and colleges.[15]

In addition to promoting access to higher education, Faust has testified before the U.S. Congress to promote increased funding for scientific research and support of junior faculty researchers.[16] She has made it a priority to revitalize the arts at Harvard and integrate them into the daily life of students and staff.[17] Faust has worked to further internationalize the university. In addition, she has been a strong advocate for sustainability and has set an ambitious goal of reducing the university’s greenhouse gas emissions by 2016, including those associated with prospective growth, by 30 percent below Harvard’s 2006 baseline.[18]

In May 2008, Christina Romer, an economics professor at the University of California, Berkeley, was not offered tenure at Harvard despite support from the members of the Harvard Economics Department. At Harvard, the confidential nature of the process includes a panel that consists of outside experts and internal faculty members from outside the department. Faust has declined to discuss press reports related to Romer’s tenure case.[19] Romer was later nominated by President Barack Obama to chair the Council of Economic Advisers. Also in Faust's tenure, Harvard's economics department witnessed an exodus of prominent faculty to Stanford and MIT, including Raj Chetty, Susan Athey, Guido Imbens, Drew Fudenberg, and Nobel Laureate Al Roth.[20]

In the wake of a series of layoffs in June 2009, Faust was criticized for refusing to accept a pay cut that would have saved jobs. In the months preceding the layoffs, various campus groups called upon Faust and other administrators to reduce their salaries as a means of cutting costs campus-wide.[21] Reports on Faust's salary differ: The Boston Globe reports that Faust made $775,043 in the 2007–2008 school year,[22] while the Harvard Crimson reported that Faust made $693,739 in salary and benefits for the 2008–2009 fiscal year.[23] In early 2009, the Harvard Corporation approved salary freezes for the president, deans, senior officers, management staff, and faculty, and offered an early retirement program. The University also undertook an involuntary reduction in staff of 2.4 percent of its employees.[24]

In December 2010, Faust and Stanford University President John L. Hennessy co-wrote an editorial in support of passage of the DREAM Act. The legislation was not passed by the 111th United States Congress.[25]

In 2011, Faust signed an agreement with Navy Secretary Ray Mabus, JD '76, to formally return the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC) program to campus after almost 40 years, following the repeal of the "Don't Ask Don't Tell" law in December 2010.[26]

Faust retired as President of Harvard College in June 2018, succeeded by Lawrence Bacow. Just four days after retiring from her position as president, she joined the board of Goldman Sachs. She retains her title as a professor of History at Harvard.[27]

Personal life

Faust is married to Charles E. Rosenberg, a historian of medicine at Harvard. They have a daughter, Jessica Rosenberg, who is a Harvard graduate and works for the New Yorker. Faust also has a stepdaughter, Leah Rosenberg.[28]

She was previously married to Stephen Faust.[29]

Her first cousin is the movie and television actor Jack Gilpin.[29]

Faust was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1988 and treated that year. She has enjoyed good health since then. She has declined to speak with the media with more details about her diagnosis or treatment.[30]

Honors, affiliations, and awards

Awards for written works

  • Received the 2009 Bancroft Prize from Columbia University for This Republic of Suffering (2008).
  • Awarded the 2008 American History Book Prize for This Republic of Suffering.
  • Her "Dread Void of Uncertainty" was named one of ten best history essays of 2005 by the Organization of American Historians [36]
  • Received the Francis Parkman Prize of the Society of American Historians for Mothers of Invention, 1997 [37]

Selected works

  • This Republic of Suffering: Death and the American Civil War (Knopf, 2008) ISBN 978-0-375-40404-7
    • This Republic of Suffering made the New York Times Book Review list of "10 Best Books of 2008" as chosen by the paper's editors.[38] The book was also a finalist for the National Book Awards (2008) and the Pulitzer Prize. (2009) [39]
  • Drew Gilpin Faust, "The Dread Void of Uncertainty": Naming the Dead in the American Civil War", Southern Cultures, Volume 11, Number 2, Summer 2005, pp. 7–32 | 10.1353/scu.2005.0018, at Project MUSE
  • Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War (University of North Carolina Press, 1996) ISBN 978-0-8078-5573-7
  • Southern Stories: Slaveholders in Peace and War (University of Missouri Press, 1992) ISBN 978-0-8262-0975-7
  • The Creation of Confederate Nationalism: Ideology and Identity in the Civil War South (Louisiana State University Press, 1982) ISBN 978-0-8071-1606-7
  • James Henry Hammond and the Old South: A Design for Mastery (Louisiana State University Press, 1982) ISBN 978-0-8071-1248-9
  • A Sacred Circle: The Dilemma of the Intellectual in the Old South, 1840–1860 (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977) ISBN 978-0-8122-1229-7

Film and television appearances

Year Title Role Director
2012 American Experience: Death and the Civil War Herself Ric Burns
2015 The Gettysburg Address Herself Sean Conant


  1. ^ a b c d Rimer, Sara (February 12, 2007). "A 'Rebellious Daughter' to Lead Harvard". The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
  2. ^ Crimson News Staff (February 8, 2007). "Faust Expected To Be Named President This Weekend". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved February 9, 2007.
  3. ^ a b Alderman, Jesse Harlan (February 11, 2007). "Harvard names 1st woman president". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2007.
  4. ^ Maria Sacchetti and, Marcella Bombardieri (February 12, 2007). "Champagne, cheers flow at Harvard". The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 12, 2007.
  5. ^ a b "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
  6. ^ "Drew Gilpin Faust facts, information, pictures | articles about Drew Gilpin Faust". Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  7. ^ a b Martin E. Hollick, "The New England Ancestry of Drew Gilpin Faust, Harvard's 28th President" Archived December 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., American Ancestors, New England Historic Genealogical Society
  8. ^ "Living History, Drew Gilpin Faust", Harvard Magazine, May–June 2003
  9. ^ Faust, Catharine Drew Gilpin (1975). A sacred circle: The social role of the intelectual in the Old South, 1840-1860 (Ph.D.). University of Pennsylvania. OCLC 606047590 – via ProQuest. (Subscription required (help)).
  10. ^ "Where can I find Drew Faust's thesis?". Harvard "Ask a Librarian". March 30, 2011. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
  11. ^ Schuker, Daniel J. T.; Zachary M. Seward; Javier C. Hernandez (February 8, 2007). "It's Faust: Radcliffe dean, if approved by Overseers, will be Harvard's first female leader". The Harvard Crimson.
  12. ^ Guehenno, Claire M.; Bhayani, Paras D. (February 11, 2007). "Faust Confirmed as 28th President". The Harvard Crimson.
  13. ^ Drew Gilpin Faust, Installation address: Unleashing our most ambitious imaginings Archived June 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., President's Office, Harvard University, 12 Oct 2007
  14. ^ Rimer, Sara; Finder, Alan (December 10, 2007). "Harvard Steps Up Financial Aid". The New York Times.
  15. ^ Glater, Jonathan D. (February 21, 2008). "Stanford Set to Raise Aid for Students in Middle". The New York Times.
  16. ^ "Faust talks to U.S. Senate". The Harvard Crimson. March 11, 2008.
  17. ^ Glynias, Marissa A.; Kim, Minji (February 2, 2010). "A call to arts". The Harvard Crimson. Archived from the original on September 19, 2012.
  18. ^ "Statement on the Report of the Harvard Greenhouse Gas Task Force" Archived June 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., July 8, 2008, President's Office, Harvard
  19. ^ Wang, Shan (May 22, 2008). "Faust Vetoes Tenure Decision". The Harvard Crimson.
  20. ^ "At the Margin: Harvard Economics' Precarious Spot on Top".
  21. ^ Wu, June Q.; Athena Y. Jiang (May 18, 2009). "Admins stay mum on salaries". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved June 24, 2009.
  22. ^ Jan, Tracy (June 24, 2009). "Harvard workers stunned by layoffs". Boston Globe. Retrieved June 24, 2009.
  23. ^ "Faust's salary a surprise". [The Harvard Crimson]. November 9, 2009.
  24. ^ "Layoffs Begin". Harvard Magazine. July 23, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
  25. ^ "Deserving of the DREAM". Politico. December 8, 2010. Retrieved April 26, 2011.
  26. ^ "Harvard welcomes ROTC back to campus". Retrieved September 19, 2015.
  27. ^ "Days After Exiting Presidency, Faust Joins Goldman Sachs Board of Directors | News | The Harvard Crimson". Retrieved 2018-07-06.
  28. ^ Harvard University – President Biography
  29. ^ a b "- Harvard Magazine". Harvard Magazine. Retrieved September 19, 2015.
  30. ^ Maria Sacchetti; Marcella Bombardieri (February 27, 2007). "In Faust, early bold streak". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 22, 2007.
  31. ^ O'Leary, Mary E. (May 27, 2008). "Yale graduates 3,100 under sunny skies". New Haven Register. Archived from the original on June 19, 2008. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
  32. ^ Dienst, Karin. "Princeton awards five honorary degrees".
  33. ^ "The 100 Most Powerful Women".
  34. ^ Jacqueline Trescott, "Drew Gilpin Faust, the prize-winning historian and Harvard president, will deliver annual Jefferson Lecture", The Washington Post, March 21, 2011.
  35. ^ "Library of Congress to Award Drew Gilpin Faust Kluge Prize for Achievement in the Study of Humanity". Library of Congress. June 12, 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  36. ^ "The Best American History Essays".
  37. ^ "Past Winners, Francis Parkman Prize". Archived from the original on March 4, 2013.
  38. ^ "The 10 Best Books of 2008". The New York Times. December 3, 2008.
  39. ^ "Pulitzer Prize History 2009". Pulitzer Prize. 2009.

External links

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