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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Draupadi
Panchali
Raja Ravi Varma's painting of Draupadi.
Other namesKrishnā, Yajnaseni, Panchali, Drupadkanya , Yagyajanma
Devanagariद्रौपदी
AffiliationVaikuntha Lakshmi, Panchakanya, Devi
TextsMahabharata
Personal information
Born
ParentsDrupada (father)
SiblingsDhristadyumna (brother)
Shikhandi (sister later brother)
Satyajit (brother)
SpousePandavas (Yudhishthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva)
ChildrenPrativindhya (from Yudhishthira)
Shatanika (from Nakula)
Sutasoma (from Bhima)
Shrutasena (from Sahadeva)
Shrutakarma (from Arjuna)

Draupadi (Sanskrit: द्रौपदी, IAST: draupadī, lit. Daughter of Drupada), also referred as Pānchālī, is the tragic heroine, one of the central characters and the common wife of the Pandavas in the Hindu epic, Mahabharata. She is described to be the most beautiful woman of her time, who was born along with her brother, Dhrishtadyumna, from a yajna organised by King Drupada of Panchala. Arjuna, one of the five Pandava, won her hand in marriage, but she married all five brothers because of her mother-in-law's misunderstanding. After facing problems created by her polyandry, she became the empress of Indraprastha. She had five sons, one from each Pandava, who were collectively addressed as the Upapandavas.

After Yudhishthira, the emperor of Indraprastha, performed the Rajasuya Yajna, he was invited to play a gambling game in Hastinapura. After he lost Draupadi in the game, she was humiliated by the Kauravas, Shakuni and Karna. When Dushasana tried to disrobe her, Krishna saved her. Later she was sent on exile for 13 years along with her husbands. When she was spending the exile in forest, Jayadratha tried to abduct her. For Ajñātavāsa (incognito), Draupadi disguised herself as a maid and served Sudeshna, queen of Matsya. Kichaka, the general of the kingdom, tried to molest her, but was killed by Bhima. After the Kurukshetra War, the revenge for her humiliation was taken, but she lost her father, brothers and her five children.[1][2][3][4][5]

Etymology

Like other epic characters, Draupadi is referred to by multiple names in the Mahabharata. Her names are as follows:

  • Draupadī – (Sanskrit: द्रौपदी) – daughter of Drupada Maharaj.
  • Kṛṣṇā – (Sanskrit: कृष्णा) – one who has a dark complexion.
  • Panchalī – (Sanskrit: पाञ्चाली) – one from the land of Panchala.
  • Yajñasenī – (Sanskrit: याज्ञसेनी) or Yajñasenā (याज्ञसेना) – daughter of Yajnasena, another name of Drupada. Alternately, one born from a Yajña or sacrificial fire. Of the two variants of the name, the effeminate former is preferred over the more classical latter in Puranic texts.
  • Drupadakanya – (Sanskrit: द्रुपदकन्या) – the daughter of Drupada.
  • Sairandhrī – (Sanskrit: सैरन्ध्री) – an expert maid (her assumed name during her second exile in which she worked as Virat kingdom's queen Sudeshna's hair-stylist.)
  • Parṣatī – (Sanskrit: पर्षती) – the granddaughter of Pṛṣata.
  • Nityayuvanī – (Sanskrit: नित्ययुवनी) – one who remains young forever and never becomes old.
  • Mālinī – (Sanskrit: मालिनी) – one who makes garlands.

Birth

Vyasa telling the secret of the birth of Draupadi to Drupada.
Vyasa telling the secret of the birth of Draupadi to Drupada.

According to the epic Mahābhārata, Bareilly region (Panchala; in present - day Uttar Pradesh and nearby regions) is said to be the birthplace of Draupadi,[6] who was also referred to as 'Panchali'. King Drupada of Panchala (Capital Kampilya) had been defeated by the Pandava prince Arjuna on behalf of Drona, who subsequently took half his kingdom. To gain revenge on Drona, he performed a yajña called Putrakameshti yajna to obtain a means of blessing him. Draupadi emerged as a beautiful full grown young woman from the sacrificial fire after her sibling Dhrishtadyumna.[7] When she emerged from the fire, a heavenly voice said that she would bring about a big change in the future of dharma of Bharat varsha.[8] Draupadi is described to be the most beautiful woman of Dvapada Yuga with dark complexion, lotus eyes, beautiful convex nails, dark curly hair and an enchanting fragnance like that of a blue lotus.[9][10]

Marriage and children

Arjuna wins Draupadi in her Swayamvara
Arjuna wins Draupadi in her Swayamvara
The wedding of Draupadi
The wedding of Draupadi

Drupada intended to wed his daughter to Arjuna. Upon hearing of the Pandavas' supposed death at Varnavata, he set up a Swayamvara contest for Draupadi to choose her husband from the competitive contest.[11] The test was to lift and string a bow, and fire arrows to pierce the eye of a golden fish only by looking at its reflection in the water. At the Swayamvara, almost all the assorted monarchs were unable to complete the challenge. There are some variations regarding Karna's participation. Some renditions show Draupadi refusing to marry Karna on account of being a Suta, while many other versions describe him failing to string the bow by the "breadth of a hair". Yet other versions state that he managed to string the bow but one side of the bow hit the side of his head. Injured and humiliated, he was forced to forfeit.[12][13][14]

At the end, Arjuna succeeds in task, dressed as a Brahmin. The other attendees, including the Kauravas and Karna protest at a Brahmin winning the competition and attack Draupadi and Arjuna. Arjuna and Bhima together protect Draupadi by defeating all attendees and are able to retreat. Arjuna, along with Draupadi and his brothers, run to home to tell Kunti of his success, shouting "look what we have found". Kunti thought he was referring to alms found in the forest or to some great prize unknown to her. She tells Arjuna that the find must be shared with his brothers, as they had always shared such things in the past. This misunderstanding, combined with motherly command, leads to agreement that all five brothers marry her. This is one of the rare examples of polyandry in Sanskrit literature.[15][16] The brothers agreed that none should intrude if Draupadi was alone with one of the others, the penalty for doing so being a year to be spent in exile.[15][17] A year was allotted to each Pandava and during that year only that Pandava could enter Draupadi's private chambers.

Later Draupadi becomes mother of five sons, one son each from the Pandava brothers. They were known as Upapandavas. Their names were Prativindhya (from Yudhishthira), Sutasoma (from Bheema), Shrutakarma (from Arjuna), Satanika (from Nakula) and Shrutasena (from Sahadeva).[18] Ashwatthama killed the Upapandavas during his surprise raid on Pandava camp on the eighteenth day of the war to avenge the death of his father Drona.[19]

Draupadi as the empress

With the Pandavas' survival revealed, a succession crisis was started. Upon the news of Pandavas' death at Varnavrat, the title of crown prince had fallen to Duryodhana. Dhritrashtra invites the Pandavas to Hastinapur and proposes that the kingdom be divided. The Pandavas are assigned the wasteland Khandavprastha, referred to as unreclaimed desert. With the help of Krishna, Pandavas rebuilt Khandavprastha into the glorious Indraprastha. The crown jewel of the kingdom was built at the Khandava forest, where Draupadi resided in the "Palace of Illusions".[20] Yudhishthira performed the Rajasuya Yagna with Draupadi by his side; the Pandavas gained lordship over many regions.[21]

A lesser known fact is Draupadi's role as an Empress. Trained in economy, she took upon the responsibility of looking after the treasury of the Empire, and also ran a citizen liaison. Her duties as a busy Empress are mentioned in her famous conversation with Satyabhama, Krishna's favourite wife, during their exile.[22]

Duryodhana's insult

There is a popular myth that is believed to be the reason why Duryodhana hated Draupadi. Duryodhana and his entourage were exploring the keep during their visit to Yudhishthira's Rajasuya Yagna. While touring the grounds, an unsuspecting Duryodhana fell prey to one of the many illusions that could be seen all around the palace. When he stepped on the apparently solid part of the courtyard, there was a splash and Duryodhana found himself waist deep in water, drenched from head to foot by the hidden pool. The myth is, Draupadi and her maids saw this from the balcony with amusement, and joked Andhasya Putra Andhaha meaning 'a blind man's son is blind'. This famous story does not feature in Veda Vyasa's Mahabharatha, but is the figment of imagination of a much later playwright. It gained immense popularity gradually through repeated depictions in various screen and written adaptations of the epic across the length and breadth of the country. The most popular depictions were by B.R. Chopra's Mahabharata series that aired on Doordarshan in 1988 and famous Telugu film 'Daana Veera Soora Karna' starring Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao as Duryodhana, where Draupadi's laughter was singled out for dramatic effect.[23]

In Vyasa's Sanskrit epic, the scene is quite different.[24] It was Bhima, Arjuna, and the twin brothers alongside their retinues who had witnessed Duryodhana's fall and laughed along with their servants. In the Sanskrit text, Draupadi is not mentioned in the scene at all, either laughing or insulting Duryodhana. Nonetheless, Duryodhana felt insulted by the behavior of the four Pandavas, stoking his hatred of them. Later on, he went back to Hastinapur, and expressed his immense agony on witnessing the riches of the Pandavas to his blind father, which was the root cause for inviting his cousins for the dice-game. His main wish was to usurp the wealth of his cousins which they had accumulated on account of the Rajasuya Yajna. Known to few, during this conversation, Duryodhan mentions how he had observed Draupadi serving food to everyone, including physically challenged citizens as the Empress. He says to his father,"And, O king, Yajnaseni, without having eaten herself, daily seeth whether everybody, including even the deformed and the dwarfs, hath eaten or not."[25]

He then went on to express his wrath at having fallen into a pool of water, and being laughed at mockingly, mainly by Bhima, followed by Arjun, Nakul, Sahadeva and other menials in the palace. It is here, where he fleetingly mentioned Draupadi's name, who accordingly to Duryodhan, had "joined in the laughter with other females." Whether Duryodhana was speaking an untruth or her name was a later addition into this part of the text is debatable.

Draupadi's laughter went on to be singled out and romanticized by writers for centuries as a cause for the dice-game, and the war. In Vyasa's Sanskrit epic, however, her role in the scene is trivial compared to the exaggerated treatment it has received in popular adaptations. [24]

Game of dice and humiliation

This key incident is often considered to mark a definitive moment in the story of Mahabharata. It is one of the driving reasons that ultimately led to the Kurukshetra War.

Together with his maternal uncle Shakuni, Duryodhana conspired to call on the Pandavas to Hastinapur and win their kingdoms in a game of gambling. There is famous folklore that the plan's architect, Shakuni had magic dice that would never disobey his will, as they were made from the bones of Shakuni's father. This story, however, is non-existent in the Sanskrit epic. As the game proceeds, Yudhishthira loses everything at first. In the second round, Yudhishthira's brother Nakula is stake, and Yudhishthira loses him. Yudhisthira subsequently gambles away Sahadeva, Arjuna and Bhima. Finally, Yudhishthira puts himself at stake, and loses again. For Duryodhana, the humiliation of the Pandavas was not complete. He prods Yudhishthira that he has not lost everything yet; Yudhishthira still has Draupadi with him and if he wishes he can win everything back by putting Draupadi at stake. Inebriated by the game, Yudhishthira, to the horror of everybody present, puts Draupadi up as a bet for the next round. Playing the next round, Shakuni wins. Draupadi was horrified after hearing that she was staked in the game and now is a slave for Duryodhana. Draupadi questions Yudhishthira's right on her as he had lost himself first and she was still the queen. Duryodhana, angry with Draupadi's questions, commands his younger brother Dushasana to bring her into the court, forcefully if he must.[26][27]

Dushasana drags Draupadi to the court by her hair.
Dushasana drags Draupadi to the court by her hair.

Dushasana drags Draupadi to the court by the hair. Seeing this, Bhima pledges to cut off Dushasana's hands, as they touched Draupadi's hair. Now in an emotional appeal to the elders present in the forum, Draupadi repeatedly questions the legality of the right of Yudhishthira to place her at stake.[28][29]

In order to provoke the Pandavas further, Duryodhana bares and pats his thigh looking into Draupadi's eyes, implying that she should sit on his thigh. The enraged Bhima vows in front of the entire assembly that he would break Duryodhana's thighs, or else accept being Duryodhana's slave for seven lifetimes. At this time Vikarna, a brother of Duryodhana asks the kings assembled in the court to answer the question of Draupadi. He gives his opinion that Draupadi is not won rightfully as Yudhishthira lost himself first before staking her. Besides, no one has right to put a woman on bet according to shastras; not a husband, father, or even the gods. Hearing these words, Karna gets angry and says that when Yudhishthira lost all his possession he also lost Draupadi, even specifically staking her.[30] Karna calls Draupadi a "whore" for being the wedded wife of five men, adding that dragging her to court is not surprising act whether she be attired or naked.[31] He orders Dushasana to remove the garments of Draupadi.[32][33] After her husbands fail to assist her, Draupadi prays to Krishna to protect her. Dushasana attempts to disrobe her, but she is miraculously protected by Krishna, and Dushasana finds that as he continues to unwrap the layers of her sari, the amount of fabric covering her never lessens. Dushasana is eventually reduces to exhaustion, as the awed court observes that Draupadi is still chastely dressed. At this point, a furious Bhima vows to drink blood from Dushasana's chest, at the pain of not seeing his ancestors/entering heaven. This vow unsettles the entire court.

Although Krishna was not present in the court, he saved Draupadi using his divine powers.
Although Krishna was not present in the court, he saved Draupadi using his divine powers.

The only Kauravas who object to the disrobing of Draupadi in the court are Vikarna and Yuyutsu. Vidura openly calls Duryodhana a snake and demon after finding no support even from his own brother, Vidura is helpless. Karna further orders Dushasana to take Draupadi to the servants' quarters and derisively asks her to choose another husband who unlike Yudhistira would not gamble her away. Just then, jackals call out as a mark of evil omen. Queen Gandhari enters the scene and counsels Dhritarashtra to undo her sons' misdeeds. Fearing the ill-omens, Dhritarashtra intervenes and grants Draupadi a boon. Draupadi asks that her husband Yudisthir be freed from bondage so her son Prativindhya would not be called a slave. In order to pacify her further, Dhritarashtra offers a second boon. Calmly, she asks for the freedom of the Pandavas along with their weapons. When Dhritarashtra asks her for her third wish, she reminds him that a kshatriya woman can seek only two wishes, three would be a sign of greed. Dhristarashtra gives them back their wealth, and grants them permission to go home.[34]

Amused by the sudden turn of events, Karna remarks that they "have never heard of such an act, performed by any of the women noted in this world for their beauty." He taunts the Pandavas by praising their wife, as she had rescued them "like a boat from their ocean of distress".[35]

Having restored their pride and wealth, the Pandavas and Draupadi leave for Indraprastha, only to receive another invitation for a game of dice, in which the loser would be given an exile of 12 years followed by a year of Agnathavas, meaning "living in incognito". Yudhishtira yet again accepts the invitation and loses, and goes on an exile with his brothers and wife Draupadi.[36]

Living in exile

Durvasa's visit

Sri Krishna saves Draupadi from the wrath of sage Durvasa
Sri Krishna saves Draupadi from the wrath of sage Durvasa

Once, Draupadi and the Pandavas had finished eating their meal cooked from the Akshay Patra. Suddenly, sage Durvasa and his pupils visited them. They were sent by Duryodhana as he wanted to the sage to curse the Pandavas. The brothers welcomed the sage along with his pupils and offered them service. Durvasa demanded food to eat as he was hungry. However, Draupadi had nothing left to feed the guests. Frightened that the sage would curse them, Draupadi prayed to god. Krishna then came there and asked her to give him the vessel. Draupadi gave the vessel to Krishna and he ate a single grain of rice left in it. The sage and his pupils suddenly felt that they had eaten a grand feast and left the place with satisfaction.[37][38]

Abduction by Jayadratha

Jayadratha tries to kidnap Draupadi
Jayadratha tries to kidnap Draupadi

While the Pandavas were in the Kamyaka forest, they often went hunting, leaving Draupadi alone. At this time Jayadratha, the son of Vriddhakshatra and the husband of Duryodhana's sister Dussala, passed through Kamyaka forest on the way to Salva Desa. Jayadratha met Draupadi and then started beseeching her to go away with him and desert her husbands. Draupadi pointed out the immorality of deserting one's spouses when they were in difficulty, and attempted to stall and dissuade Jayadradtha by describing how the Pandavas would punish him. Failing with words, Jayadratha forced her onto his chariot. Meanwhile, the Pandavas finished their hunt and found Draupadi missing. Learning of their wife's abduction by Jayadratha they rushed to save her. On seeing the Pandavas coming after him, Jayadratha left Draupadi on the road, though ultimately the Pandavas managed to arrest him. Arjuna urged Bhima to spare Jayadratha's life for the sake of Dussala and Gandhari, much to the indignation of Draupadi. In some versions of the story, Yudhishthira asks Draupadi to pass the sentence since it was she who was attacked, and she begrudgingly counsels to spare him because of the relations they share. Before freeing him, the Pandavas shaved Jayadratha's head at five places in order to publicly humiliate him.[39]

Agyatvās (Incognito)

On the year they had to go into exile, the Pandavas chose to stay in the Matsya Kingdom. Draupadi became the maid of Sudeshna, queen of Matsya, and served her.

One day Kichaka, Sudeshna's brother and the commander of king Virata's forces, happened to see Draupadi. He was filled with lust by looking at her and requested her hand in marriage. Draupadi refused him, saying that she was already married to Gandharvas. She warned Kichaka that her husbands were very strong and that he would not be able to escape death at their hands. Later, he forced his sister, the queen Sudeshna, to help him win Draupadi. Sudeshana ordered Draupadi to fetch wine from Kichaka's house, overriding Draupadi's protests. When Draupadi went to get wine, Kichaka tried to molest her. Draupadi escaped and runs into the court of Virata. Kichaka kicked her in front of all the courtiers, including Yudhishthira. Fearful of losing his most powerful warrior, even Virat did not take any action. Bhima is present, and only a look from Yudhishthira prevents him from attacking Kichaka. Furious, Draupadi asked about the duties of a king and dharma. Draupadi then cursed Kichaka with death by her husband's hand. Laughing it off, Kichaka only doubted their whereabouts and asked those present where the Gandharvas were. Yudhishthira then told Sairandhri to go to the temple, as Kichaka would not do anything to her there (in some versions, he recommends she seeks refuge with the queen). With this, the king asked Kichaka to leave and praised Yudhishthira's reply as he himself could not think of anything.

Draupadi in Virata's palace, by Raja Ravi Varma
Draupadi in Virata's palace, by Raja Ravi Varma

Later that night, Arjuna consoled Draupadi, and with Bhima, they hatched a plan to kill Kichaka. Draupadi meets with Kichaka, pretending to actually love him and agreeing to marry him on the condition that none of his friends or brothers would know about their relationship. Kichaka accepted her condition. Draupadi asked Kichaka to come to the dancing hall at night. Bhima (in the guise of Draupadi), fights with Kichaka and kills him.

Bhima talks to Draupadi
Death of Kichaka

Kurukshetra War

During the war, Draupadi stays at Ekachakra with other women. On the 16th day, Bhima kills Dushasana, drinking his blood and fulfilling his oath.

There is a popular myth often depicted in well-known adaptations on Mahabharata. It says that, Draupadi washed her hair with her brother-in-law Dushasana's blood, as a mark of her vengeance against the molestation she had suffered at the dice-game. Though an extremely powerful and symbolic theme, this incident does not appear in Vyasa's Sanskrit Mahabharata. Alf Hiltebeitel in his acclaimed research work, "The Cult of Draupadi" explores the source of this myth as he travels through the rural areas of India. He discovers that the first literary mention of the blood-washing theme appeared in "Venisamhara" [40] or "Braiding The Hair (of Draupadi)", a Sanskrit play written in the Pallava period by eminent playwright Bhatta Narayana. Since then, this powerful theme of vengeance had been used in most retellings and adaptations on Mahabharat, thus mistakenly attributing the authorship to Veda Vyasa.

Ashwatthama's attack

Ashwathama, in order to avenge his father's as well as other Kuru warriors' deceitful killing by the Pandavas, attacks their camp at night with Kripacharya and Kritavarma. Ashwathama killed Dhrishtadyumna, Shikhandi, Upapandavas, and the remaining Pandava and Panchala army.[18] In the morning, Yudhishthira hears the news and asks Nakula to bring Draupadi from Matsya Kingdom.[41] Draupadi vows that if the Pandavas do not kill Ashwatthama, she would fast to death.[42][43] The Pandavas find Ashwatthama at Vyasa's hut. Arjuna and Ashwatthama end up firing the Brahmashirsha astra at each other. Vyasa intervenes and asks the two warriors to withdraw the destructive weapon. Not endowed with the knowledge to do so, Ashwatthama instead redirects the weapon to Uttara's womb, but Krishna protected the Pandavas' only heir with his Sudarshana Chakra. Krishna curses him for this act. Ashwatthama is caught by the Pandavas and his jewel is taken away.[42] Draupadi gives the jewel to Yudhishthira and forgives the killer of her children. Due to the power of meditation, her wrath is subdued and she lets go off Ashwathama, son of their preceptor Drona saying, "I desired to only pay off our debt for the injury we have sustained. The preceptor's son is worthy of my reverence as the preceptor himself. Let the king bind this gem on his head, O Bharata!"[44]

Later life and death

Draupadi falls as the Pandavas proceed.
Draupadi falls as the Pandavas proceed.

Draupadi and Yudhishthira performed the Ashvamedha and ruled for 33 years. When her husbands retired from the world and went on their journey towards the Himalayas and heaven, she accompanied them, and was the first to fall on the journey. When Bhima asked Yudhishthira why Draupadi had fallen, Yudhishthira replied,

"O best of men, though we were all equal unto her she had great partiality for Dhananjaya. She obtains the fruit of that conduct today, O best of men."[45][46]

Polyandry

Polyandry, was not regarded without censure by the society spoken of in the epic. The Vedic texts have not discriminated between polyandry and polygamy but usually, the women of royal families were allowed to indulge in polyandry for expansion of progeny, although polygamy was more common among men of higher social ranks. Her marriage to five men was controversial for political reasons as that was an advantage for Prince Duryodhana to get the throne of Bharat Varsha. However, when questioned by Kunti to give an example of polyandry, Yudhishthira cites Gautam-clan Jatila (married to seven Saptarishi) and Hiranyaksha's sister Pracheti (married to ten brothers).[47]

There are many women of high born classes or royal class like Princess Mādhavi who had 4 husbands, the only daughter of King Yayati. Polyandry was but common in the royal class but under the strict guidance of the Vedic sages exactly like polygamous marriages of ancient Indian kings were under strict supervision and guidance of the Vedic laws and Vedic sages.[48]

Draupadi as a goddess

In Sanskrit Mahābhārata, Draupadi is described as the incarnation of different goddesses.[49] In Sambhava section of Adi Parva, she is said to be partial incarnation of Goddess Shachi (or Sachi).[50] However, in Vaivahika section of Adi Parva[51] Vyasa describes her as the celestial Sri. In Svargarohanika Parva, Yudhisthira goes to heaven and sees Draupadi seated as Goddess Sri (Or Sree).[52]

In living traditions, however, Draupadi is seen more often as an incarnation of Adi Shakti and Goddess Kali. The Draupadi Amman sect (or Draupadi devotional sect) is a tradition that binds together a community of people in worshipping Draupadi Amman as a village goddess with unique rituals and mythologies. The sect believes that Draupadi is the incarnation of goddess Kali. Fire walking or Thimithi is a popular ritual enacted at Draupadi Amman temples.[53] At the ancient religious festival of Bengaluru Pete named Bangalore Karaga, Draupadi is worshipped as an incarnation of Adishakti and Parvati in the nine-day event.[54]

Reclining Draupadi's head – near Auroville.
Reclining Draupadi's head – near Auroville.
Draupati Amman idol in Udappu, Sri Lanka
Draupati Amman idol in Udappu, Sri Lanka

There are over 400 temples dedicated to Draupadi in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and other countries like Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, Mauritius, Réunion, South Africa.[53] In these regions, Draupadi is worshipped mainly by people of the Vanniyar caste and Mutaliyars.[55][56]

There are a few processions and festivals which are conducted for about 3 weeks a year. The most famous festival is in the village Durgasamudram, Tirupati of Chittoor district.[57]

In other traditions

In Digambara Jain scriptures like Harivamsa Purana, polyandry of Draupadi has been rejected and it is suggested that she was married only to Arjuna. Hemachandra, a Svetambara Jain monk, accepts the polyandry in his work Triṣaṣṭi and further suggests that Draupadi was Nagasri in one of her previous lives and had poisoned a Jain monk. Therefore, she had to suffer in hell and animal incarnations for several lives before being born as woman who later became a Jain nun. After her death, she was reborn as Draupadi and was married to five pandavas.[58]

In popular culture

In folktales

  • According to a folklore, Draupadi introduced popular Indian snack Pani Puri.[59]
  • Draupadi had only five sons in the original epic. But, according to some folklores, the Pandavas and Draupadi had six daughters. Based on several folklores, the names of their daughters are listed below:

Arts and dances

The story of Draupadi is one of the central topics of Yakshagana, a traditional dance-play in Southern India and Terukkuttu, a Tamil street theatre form practised in Tamil Nadu state of India and Tamil-speaking regions of Sri Lanka.[62][63][64]

Draupadi and Bhima depicted by actors in yakshagana theatre.
Draupadi and Bhima depicted by actors in yakshagana theatre.

Television and film

In literature

The fiery heroine of Mahabharata has been the topic of research and debate for centuries. There are various plays and novels about her.

  • Yajnaseni by Pratibha Ray – This novel, originally written in Oriya was the recipient of Jnanpith Award.[77] It was also translated in various languages like English, Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Malayalam, etc.
  • The Palace of Illusions: A Novel by Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni – Deviating much from the Sanskrit text, Divakaruni brings up the emotions of Draupadi, re-imagining the whole epic from her perspective.
  • Droupadi by Yarlagadda Lakshmi Prasad, is a Sahitya Akademi Award winning Telugu novel which narrates Mahabharata from Droupadi's perspective.
  • The Cult of Draupadi[78] by Alf Hiltebeitel – This trilogy is an exhaustive, scholarly account of the various folk traditions surrounding Draupadi in South India. Hiltebeitel travels through various parts of India, tracing and recording the lesser-known customs and tribes in Gingi Cult and much more, who extensively worship Draupadi as their deity – a status which has been attained by few Mahabharat characters. There are over 31 plays and ballads that are conducted in over 400 temples, that are dedicated to Draupadi Amman. The story of draupadi create a great respect for the women in the society. Her sacrifice and her inner power defeats the evil activities performed on women
  • Nathabati Anathbat by Shaoli Mitra – This is a stage play[79] depicting the agony of Draupadi as a woman who "has five husbands, and yet none to protect her."
  • Dropodi[80] by Mahasweta Devi in Bengali – A contemporary tale of oppression with Draupadi as the lead character.
  • The Great Indian Novel by Dr. Shashi Tharoor - Written as a fictional work that is analogous to the events featured in the Mahabharata in order to describe contemporary Indian Politics, Dr.Tharoor has described the character of 'Draupadi' as 'Di Mokrasi', who is an illegitimate daughter of 'Dhritarasthra' and 'Lady Drewpad' in the novel. Tharoor likens Draupadi to the tenets of 'Democracy'. As mentioned in Ved Vyasa's epic, he ascribes her to be the wife to all five 'Pandyas', who are themselves an abbreviation of different facets of Indian politics.

See also

References

Citations

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Sources

External links

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