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Dracaena (plant)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dracaena draco.jpg
Dracaena draco
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Asparagaceae
Subfamily: Nolinoideae
Genus: Dracaena
Vand. ex L.[1]
  • Acyntha Medik.
  • Chrysodracon P.L.Lu & Morden
  • Draco Crantz
  • Drakaina Raf.
  • Nemampsis Raf.
  • Oedera Crantz
  • Pleomele Salisb.
  • Salmia Cav.
  • Sanseverinia Petagna
  • Sansevieria Thunb.
  • Stoerkia Crantz
  • Terminalis Medik.

Dracaena (/drəˈsnə/[2]) is a genus of about 120 species of trees and succulent shrubs.[3] In the APG IV classification system, it is placed in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Nolinoideae (formerly the family Ruscaceae).[4][5] It has also formerly been separated (sometimes with Cordyline) into the family Dracaenaceae or placed in the Agavaceae (now Agavoideae).

The name dracaena is derived from the romanized form of the Ancient Greek δράκαιναdrakaina, "female dragon".[citation needed]

The majority of the species are native to Africa, southern Asia through to northern Australia, with two species in tropical Central America. The segregate genus Pleomele is now generally included in Dracaena. The genus Sansevieria is closely related, and has recently been synonymized under Dracaena in the Kubitzki system.


Species of Dracaena have a secondary thickening meristem in their trunk, termed Dracaenoid thickening by some authors,[citation needed] which is quite different from the thickening meristem found in dicotyledonous plants. This characteristic is shared with members of the Agavoideae and Xanthorrhoeoideae among other members of the Asparagales.

Dracaena species can be classified in two growth types: treelike dracaenas (Dracaena fragrans, Dracaena draco, Dracaena cinnabari), which have aboveground stems with a single cluster of leaves at the end of each stem and rhizomatous dracaenas (Dracaena trifasciata, Dracaena angolensis), which have underground rhizomes and leaves on the surface (ranging from straplike and moderately thin to thick and cylindrical).[citation needed]

Many species of Dracaena are kept as houseplants due to tolerance of lower light and sparse watering.[citation needed]


Plants of the World Online currently includes: [6]

  • Dracaena acaulis Baker
  • Dracaena acutissima Hua
  • Dracaena adamii Hepper
  • Dracaena aethiopica (Thunb.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena afromontana Mildbr.
  • Dracaena aletriformis (Haw.) Bos
  • Dracaena americana Donn.Sm. – Central America dragon tree
  • Dracaena angolensis (Welw. ex Carrière) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena angustifolia (Medik.) Roxb.
  • Dracaena arborea (Willd.) Link
  • Dracaena arborescens (Cornu ex Gérôme & Labroy) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena ascendens (L.E.Newton) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena aubryana Brongn. ex É.Morren (syn. D. thalioides)
  • Dracaena aubrytiana (Carrière) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena aurea H.Mann
  • Dracaena bacularis (Pfennig ex A.Butler & Jankalski) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena bagamoyensis (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena ballyi (L.E.Newton) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena bhitalae (Webb & Newton) Takaw.-Ny. & Mucina
  • Dracaena bicolor Hook.
  • Dracaena borneensis (Merr.) Jankalski
  • Dracaena brachyphylla Kurz
  • Dracaena braunii Engl.
  • Dracaena breviflora Ridl.
  • Dracaena bueana Engl.
  • Dracaena bugandana Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena bukedea Takaw.-Ny. & Mucina
  • Dracaena burdettii (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena burmanica (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena bushii Damen
  • Dracaena calocephala Bos
  • Dracaena cambodiana Pierre ex Gagnep.
  • Dracaena camerooniana Baker
  • Dracaena canaliculata (Carrière) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena cantleyi Baker
  • Dracaena caulescens (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena cerasifera Hua
  • Dracaena chahinianii (Webb & Myklebust) Takaw.-Ny. & Mucina
  • Dracaena chiniana I.M.Turner
  • Dracaena cincta Baker
  • Dracaena cinnabari Balf.f. – Socotra dragon tree
  • Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen
  • Dracaena concinna Kunth
  • Dracaena conferta Ridl.
  • Dracaena congoensis Hua
  • Dracaena conspicua (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena cristula W.Bull
  • Dracaena cubensis Vict.
  • Dracaena curtisii Ridl.
  • Dracaena cuspidata Ridl.
  • Dracaena dawei (Stapf) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena dhofarica (T.A.McCoy & Lavranos) Takaw.-Ny. & Mucina
  • Dracaena dooneri (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena downsii (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena draco (L.) L. – Canary Islands dragon tree
  • Dracaena dumetescens (L.E.Newton) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena ebracteata (Cav.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena eilensis (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena ellenbeckiana Engl. - Kedong Dracaena (Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda)[7][8][9]
  • Dracaena elliptica Thunb. & Dalm.
  • Dracaena erythraeae (Mattei) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena fasciata (Cornu ex Gérôme & Labroy) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena fernaldii (H.St.John) Jankalski
  • Dracaena finlaysonii Baker
  • Dracaena floribunda Baker
  • Dracaena fontanesiana Schult. & Schult.f.
  • Dracaena forbesii (O.Deg.) Jankalski
  • Dracaena forskaliana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker Gawl. (syn. D. deremensis) – striped dracaena, compact dracaena, corn plant, cornstalk dracaena
  • Dracaena francisii (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena frequens (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena glomerata Baker
  • Dracaena goldieana Bullen ex Mast. & T.Moore
  • Dracaena gracillima (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena granulata Hook.f.
  • Dracaena griffithii Regel
  • Dracaena haemanthoides Bos ex Damen
  • Dracaena halapepe (H.St.John) Jankalski
  • Dracaena halemanuensis Jankalski
  • Dracaena hallii (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena hanningtonii Baker
  • Dracaena hargeisana (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena hewittii Ridl.
  • Dracaena hokouensis G.Z.Ye
  • Dracaena hosei (Ridl.) Jankalski
  • Dracaena humiflora (D.J.Richards) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena hyacinthoides (L.) Mabb.
  • Dracaena impressivenia Yu H.Yan & H.J.Guo
  • Dracaena itumei (Mbugua) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena jayniana Wilkin & Suksathan
  • Dracaena kaweesakii Wilkin & Suksathan[10]
  • Dracaena kirkii Baker
  • Dracaena konaensis (H.St.John) Jankalski
  • Dracaena kupensis Mwachala, Cheek, Eb.Fisch. & Muasya
  • Dracaena laevifolia (R.H.Webb & L.E.Newton) Takaw.-Ny. & Mucina
  • Dracaena lancea Thunb. & Dalm.
  • Dracaena lancifolia (Ridl.) Jankalski
  • Dracaena lavranii (Webb & Myklebust) Takaw.-Ny. & Mucina
  • Dracaena laxissima Engl.
  • Dracaena liberica (Gérôme & Labroy) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena longiflora (Sims) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena longifolia Ridl.
  • Dracaena longistyla (la Croix) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena lunatifolia (L.E.Newton) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena maingayi Hook.f.
  • Dracaena malawiana Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena mannii Baker
  • Dracaena marina Bos ex Damen
  • Dracaena masoniana (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena mokoko Mwachala & Cheek
  • Dracaena multiflora Warb. ex P.Sarasin & Sarasin
  • Dracaena newtoniana (T.G.Forrest) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena nilotica (Baker) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena nitens Welw. ex Baker
  • Dracaena nitida (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena novoguineensis Gibbs
  • Dracaena nyangensis Pellegr.
  • Dracaena ombet Heuglin ex Kotschy & Peyr. – Gabal Elba dragon tree
  • Dracaena ovata Ker Gawl.
  • Dracaena pachyphylla Kurz
  • Dracaena parva (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena parviflora Baker
  • Dracaena patens (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena pearsonii (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena pedicellata (la Croix) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena penangensis Ridl.
  • Dracaena pendula Ridl.
  • Dracaena perrotii (O.Warburg) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena perrottetii Baker
  • Dracaena pethera Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena petiolata Hook.f.
  • Dracaena pfisteri (D.J.Richards) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena phanerophlebia Baker
  • Dracaena phillipsiae (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena phrynioides Hook.
  • Dracaena pinguicula (P.R.O.Bally) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena porteri Baker
  • Dracaena powellii (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena powysii (L.E.Newton) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena praetermissa Bos
  • Dracaena purpurea (Ridl.) Jankalski
  • Dracaena raffillii (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena reflexa Lam. – Pleomele dracaena or "Song of India"
  • Dracaena rockii (H.St.John) Jankalski
  • Dracaena rosulata Mwachala & Eb.Fisch.
  • Dracaena roxburghiana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena sambiranensis (H.Perrier) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena sanderiana Engl. – ribbon dracaena, marketed as "lucky bamboo"
  • Dracaena sarawakensis (W.W.Sm.) Jankalski
  • Dracaena scabra Bos
  • Dracaena scimitariformis (D.J.Richards) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena senegambica (Baker) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena serpenta Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena serrulata Baker – Yemen dragon tree
  • Dracaena siamica Ridl.
  • Dracaena singapurensis Ridl.
  • Dracaena singularis (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena sinus-simiorum (Chahin.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena sordida (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena spathulata Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena specksii (Webb & Myklebust) Takaw.-Ny. & Mucina
  • Dracaena spicata Roxb.
  • Dracaena steudneri Engl.
  • Dracaena stuckyi (God.-Leb.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena subspicata (Baker) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena subtilis (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena suffruticosa (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena surculosa Lindl. – spotted or gold dust dracaena. Formerly D. godseffiana
  • Dracaena tamaranae Marrero Rodr., R.S.Almeira & M.Gonzáles-Martin
  • Dracaena terniflora Roxb.
  • Dracaena testudinea Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena tholloniana Hua
  • Dracaena thwaitesii Regel
  • Dracaena timorensis Kunth
  • Dracaena trachystachys Hook.f.
  • Dracaena transvaalensis Baker
  • Dracaena trifasciata (Prain) Mabb.
  • Dracaena umbraculifera Jacq.
  • Dracaena umbratica Ridl.
  • Dracaena usambarensis Engl.
  • Dracaena varians (N.E.Br.) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena viridiflora Engl. & K.Krause
  • Dracaena volkensii (Gürke) Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena wakaensis Damen & Quiroz
  • Dracaena waltersiae Damen
  • Dracaena xiphophylla Baker
  • Dracaena yuccifolia Ridl.
  • Dracaena zebra Byng & Christenh.
  • Dracaena zeylanica (L.) Mabb.

Formerly regarded as dracaena



Some shrubby species, such as D. fragrans, D. surculosa, D. marginata, and D. sanderiana, are popular as houseplants. Many of these are toxic to pets, though not humans, according to the ASPCA among others. Rooted stem cuttings of D. sanderiana are widely marketed[by whom?] in Australia, the US and the UK as "lucky bamboo", although only superficially resembling true bamboos.


A naturally occurring bright red resin, dragon's blood, is collected from D. draco and, in ancient times, from D. cinnabari. Modern dragon's blood is however more likely to be from the unrelated Daemonorops rattan palms.[12] It also has a social functions in marking graves, sacred sites and farm plots in many African societies[13]



  1. ^ a b "Genus: Dracaena Vand. ex L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2010-01-19. Archived from the original on 2010-05-30. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. pp. 606–607. ISBN 978-0-376-03851-7.
  3. ^ "Search results—the Plant List".
  4. ^ Chase, M.W.; Reveal, J.L. & Fay, M.F. (2009). "A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 132–136. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00999.x.
  5. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.
  6. ^ Plants of the World Online: Dracaena Vand. ex L. (retrieved 13 February 2020)
  7. ^ Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. (1902). "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Kew Gardens. Retrieved 30 Jan 2016.
  8. ^ exoten-garten (2009). "Dracaena ellenbeckiana (Kedong Dracaena)". Retrieved 30 Jan 2016.
  9. ^ Dave's Garden (2005). "Kedong Dracaena - Dracaena ellenbeckiana". Dave's Garden. Retrieved 30 Jan 2016.
  10. ^ Paul Wilkin; Piyakaset Suksathan; Kaweesak Keeratikiat; Peter van Welzen; Justyna Wiland-Szymanska (2013). "A new species from Thailand and Burma, Dracaena kaweesakii Wilkin & Suksathan (Asparagaceae subfamily Nolinoideae)". PhytoKeys. 26 (26): 101–112. doi:10.3897/phytokeys.26.5335. PMC 3817424. PMID 24194672.
  11. ^ Dracaena names. Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database.
  12. ^ "Fruit as source of red resin exuded between scales, used medicinally and as a dye (one source of "dragon's blood"): Daemonorops didymophylla; Daemonorops draco; Daemonorops maculata; Daemonorops micrantha; Daemonorops propinqua; Daemonorops rubra" Terry C.H. Sunderland and John Dransfield. Species Profiles. Ratans.
  13. ^ Sheridan M. 2008. Tanzanian ritual perimetrics and African landscapes: the case of Dracaena. International Journal of African Historical Studies 41 (3): 491–521.

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 14 August 2020, at 17:35
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