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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dniester[1]
Dniester01.jpg
Rîbnița and the Dniester river
Dniester map.png
Map of the Dniester basin
Location
CountryUkraine, Moldova,
Transnistria (unrecognized)
CitiesTiraspol, Bender, Rîbnița, Drohobych
Physical characteristics
Source 
 ⁃ locationEastern Beskids (Ukrainian Carpathians)
 ⁃ coordinates49°12′44″N 22°55′40″E / 49.21222°N 22.92778°E / 49.21222; 22.92778
 ⁃ elevation900 m (3,000 ft)
MouthBlack Sea
 ⁃ location
Odessa Oblast
 ⁃ coordinates
46°21′0″N 30°14′0″E / 46.35000°N 30.23333°E / 46.35000; 30.23333
 ⁃ elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Length1,362 km (846 mi)
Basin size68,627 km2 (26,497 sq mi)
Discharge 
 ⁃ average310 m3/s (11,000 cu ft/s)
Basin features
Tributaries 
 ⁃ leftMurafa River, Smotrych River, Zbruch River, Seret River, Strypa River, Zolota Lypa River, Stryi River
 ⁃ rightBotna River, Bîc River, Răut River, Svicha, Lomnytsia, Ichel
Official nameLower Dniester
Designated20 August 2003
Reference no.1316[2]
Official nameDnister River Valley
Designated20 March 2019
Reference no.2388[3]

The Dniester River (/ˈnstər/ NEES-tər)[4] is a river in Eastern Europe. It runs first through Ukraine and then through Moldova (from which it separates the breakaway territory of Transnistria), finally discharging into the Black Sea on Ukrainian territory again.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    4 006
    3 205
    2 935
    690
    9 060
  • ✪ Khotyn fortress and Dniester River (Traveline in Ukraine) Хотин
  • ✪ Zalishchyky on Dniester/Zaleszczyki nad Dniestrem
  • ✪ Галич Halych Залуква Zalukva Dniester T0903 H09 Україна Ukraine 22.10.2014
  • ✪ Удивительная панорама Днестра - Fantastic view on the Dniester River
  • ✪ Crossing the border to TRANSNISTRIA reaching the town of Bendery - Part I

Transcription

This time I will use a more Ukrainian way of transportation. - We are in the bus station, and we are going to Khotyn. - I'm looking for our bus, but I think I should ask some people. It is in this kind of situations where the problems with language can arise, in special on the countryside. - Where is our bus? - I will ask these people. Excuse me, do you speak English? - Yes. - Can you please tell me, I don't get it, my bus to “Khotyn”? - Maybe it's this bus. - This bus? - Yes. - It's ours, OK, thank you. Oh, yes, we found it! - These small buses, like that, it's very popular in Ukraine, and very comfortable... ...you can get from any place you want to another place you want, and it's called “minibus marshrutka”. - Open the window to Europe. Regardless of the look and feel of the vehicle, in most cases the problem are just the roads underneath their wheels. - I'm very surprised with this roads, and now I'm driving in this small minibus... ...and it's all the time shaking, but it's a very good massage for my cellulite. The road leading to Khotyn crosses the only river in Ukraine that rivals Dnipro... ...and with a kind of similar name, Dniester. - This is Khotyn, a very small town, with 10,000 inhabitants, so we are following to the castle... ...the Khotyn fortress. A walk full of animals. - Why are they afraid of me? - Horses! Yummy... - In Ukraine I tried a sausage with horse meat, and now when I see these horses... ...I'm very sorry and very sad about them, they are such nice animals, but so tasty. The rural look of Khotyn represents a kind of time travel, that reaches its best expression... ...when arriving at the highlight of the town. - And now we are going closer to this fortress, Khotyn fortress, with a beautiful view to Dniester river. - Welcome in Khotyn! - So this is the castle Khotyn, the first remains of this castle were dated from the 13th century... ...when it was wooden, and after a great fire it was destroyed and in the 16th century it was rebuilt... ...and now we have this castle like it looked like in the 16th century. - This fortress had 3 big fortification walls, one of them we can see right now there... ...the remains of this wall, so it was very difficult to go inside, and most of the times... ...when some enemy came inside, it was because the people couldn't stand... ...to be inside without water and food. - There is a legend that this tunnel, connected this fortress and another we are going later... ...called Kamyanets Podilski, and it takes about 30 kilometres under the river and underground... - And another legend says that sometimes people can see some ghosts here... ...and can here some strange noises, like we can hear it now. Some of the best views are from the narrow windows of the outer walls. - This is the river Dniester. To which it is possible to walk down around the castle. - There is a legend connected with this wet spot, and it says that there was a daughter of the owner... ...of the fortress and she fell in love with the son of his great enemies, and they loved each other... ...but it was forbidden, and her father just took them, and put them inside the wall, and blocked them. - And that's why the legend says that they are crying there. - This is one of the biggest and widest rivers in Ukraine, and the biggest river in Western Ukraine. - And it flows to Moldova, if I threw this coin, my coin will be in Moldova in few weeks... - Times ago this river was the second cleanest river in Europe.

Contents

Names

The name Dniester derives from Sarmatian dānu nazdya "the close river."[5] The Dnieper, also of Sarmatian origin, derives from the opposite meaning, "the river on the far side". Alternatively, according to Vasily Abaev Dniester would be a blend of Scythian dānu "river" and Thracian Ister, the previous name of the river, literally Dān-Ister (River Ister).[6] The Ancient Greek name of Dniester, Tyras (Τύρας), is from Scythian tūra, meaning "rapid."[citation needed]

The names of the Don and Danube are also from the same Indo-Iranian word *dānu "river". Classical authors have also referred to it as Danaster. These early forms, without -i- but with -a-, contradict Abaev's hypothesis. Edward Gibbon refers to the river both as the Niester and Dniester in his History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.[7]

In Ukrainian, it is known as Дністе́р (translit. Dnister), and in Romanian as Nistru. In Russian, it is known as Днестр (translit. Dnestr), in Yiddish: Nester נעסטער; in Turkish, Turla.

Dnister's riverhead in Staryi Sambir (western Ukraine).
Dnister's riverhead in Staryi Sambir (western Ukraine).

Geography

The Dniester rises in Ukraine, near the city of Drohobych, close to the border with Poland, and flows toward the Black Sea. Its course marks part of the border of Ukraine and Moldova, after which it flows through Moldova for 398 kilometres (247 mi), separating the main territory of Moldova from its breakaway region Transnistria. It later forms an additional part of the Moldova-Ukraine border, then flows through Ukraine to the Black Sea, where its estuary forms the Dniester Liman.

The Dniester at the Moldavian fortress of Tighina.
The Dniester at the Moldavian fortress of Tighina.

Along the lower half of the Dniester, the western bank is high and hilly while the eastern one is low and flat. The river represents the de facto end of the Eurasian Steppe. Its most important tributaries are Răut and Bîc.

History

The Dniester in Khotyn (western Ukraine). Another Moldavian fortress and an Orthodox church seen on foreground.
The Dniester in Khotyn (western Ukraine). Another Moldavian fortress and an Orthodox church seen on foreground.

During the Neolithic, the Dniester River was the centre of one of the most advanced civilizations on earth at the time. The Cucuteni–Trypillian culture flourished in this area from roughly 5300 to 2600 BC, leaving behind thousands of archeological sites. Their settlements had up to 15,000 inhabitants, making them among the first large farming communities in the world.[8]

In antiquity, the river was considered one of the principal rivers of European Sarmatia, and it was mentioned by many Classical geographers and historians. According to Herodotus (iv.51) it rose in a large lake, whilst Ptolemy (iii.5.17, 8.1 &c.) places its sources in Mount Carpates (the modern Carpathian Mountains), and Strabo (ii) says that they are unknown. It ran in an easterly direction parallel with the Ister (lower Danube), and formed part of the boundary between Dacia and Sarmatia. It fell into the Pontus Euxinus to the northeast of the mouth of the Ister, the distance between them being 900 stadia – approximately 210 km (130 mi) – according to Strabo (vii.), while 210 km (130 mi) (from the Pseudostoma) according to Pliny (iv. 12. s. 26). Scymnus (Fr. 51) describes it as of easy navigation, and abounding in fish. Ovid (ex Pont. iv.10.50) speaks of its rapid course.

Greek authors referred to the river as Tyras (Greek: ὁ Τύρας).[9] At a later period it obtained the name of Danastris or Danastus,[10] whence its modern name of Dniester (Niester), though the Turks still called it Turla during the 19th century.[11] The form Τύρις is sometimes found.[12]

According to Constantine VII, the Varangians used boats on their trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, along Dniester and Dnieper and along the Black Sea shore. The navigation near the western shore of Black Sea contained stops at Aspron (at the mouth of Dniester), then Conopa, Constantia (localities today in Romania) and Messembria (today in Bulgaria).

From the 14th century to 1812, part of the Dniester formed the eastern boundary of the Principality of Moldavia.

Between the World Wars, the Dniester formed part of the boundary between Romania and the Soviet Union. In 1919, on Easter Sunday, the bridge was blown up by the French Army to protect Bender from the Bolsheviks.[13] During World War II, German and Romanian forces battled Soviet troops on the western bank of the river.

After the Republic of Moldova declared its independence in 1991, the small area to the east of the Dniester that had been part of the Moldavian SSR refused to participate and declared itself the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, or Transnistria, with its capital at Tiraspol on the river.

At the confluence of the Seret and the Dniester.
At the confluence of the Seret and the Dniester.

Tributaries

From source to mouth, right tributaries, i.e. on the southwest side, are the  Stryi (231 km or 144 mi), Svicha [uk] (107 km or 66 mi), Lomnytsia [de] (122 km or 76 mi),  Bystrytsia (101 km),  Răut (283 km or 176 mi), Ichel [ro] (101 km or 63 mi),  Bîc (155 km or 96 mi), and Botna (152 km or 94 mi).

Left tributaries, on the northeast side, are the Strv'yazh (94 km or 58 mi), Hnyla Lypa (87 km or 54 mi), Zolota Lypa (140 km or 87 mi), Koropets [fr] (78 km or 48 mi),  Strypa (147 km or 91 mi), Seret (250 km or 160 mi), Zbruch (245 km or 152 mi),  Smotrych (169 km or 105 mi), Ushytsia [uk] (122 km or 76 mi), Zhvanchyk [de] (107 km or 66 mi), Liadova [uk] (93 km or 58 mi),  Murafa (162 km or 101 mi), Rusava [uk] (78 km or 48 mi), Yahorlyk [uk] (73 km or 45 mi), and Kuchurhan (123 km or 76 mi).[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/display.asp?linkpath=pages%5cD%5cN%5cDnisterRiver.htm
  2. ^ "Lower Dniester". Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  3. ^ "Dnister River Valley". Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  4. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary: "Dniester"
  5. ^ Mallory, J.P. and Victor H. Mair. The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. London: Thames & Hudson, 2000. p. 106
  6. ^ Абаев В. И. Осетинский язык и фольклор (Ossetian language and folklore). Moscow: Publishing house of Soviet Academy of Sciences, 1949. P. 236
  7. ^ Edward Gibbons Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Vol 1 chapt 11
  8. ^ Mikhail Widejko. "Trypillya Culture Proto-Cities: History of Discovery and Investigations  M. Yu. Videiko Published: Відейко М. Ю. Трипільські протоміста. Історія досліджень. Київ 2002; с. 103–125 (Videiko M. Yu. Trypillya culture proto-cities. History of investigations. Kiev 2002, p. 103–125)". Iananu.kiev.ua. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
  9. ^ Strab. ii.
  10. ^ Amm. Marc. xxxi. 3. § 3; Jornand. Get. 5; Const. Porphyr. de Adm. Imp. 8
  11. ^ Herod. iv. 11, 47, 82; Scylax, p. 29; Strab. i. p. 14; Mela, ii. 1, etc.; also Schaffarik, Slav. Alterth. i. p. 505.
  12. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, p. 671; Suid. s. v.
  13. ^ Kaba, John (1919). Politico-economic Review of Basarabia. United States: American Relief Administration. p. 15.
  14. ^ Encyclopedia of Ukraine – Dniester River

General

External links

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