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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Diyarbakır
Top left: Ali Pasha Mosque, Top right: Nebi Mosque, 2nd: Seyrangeha Park, 3rd left: Dört Ayaklı Minare Mosque, 3rd upper right: Deriyê Çiyê, 3rd lower right: On Gözlü Bridge (or Silvan Bridge), over Tigris River, Bottom left: Diyarbakır City Wall, Bottom right: Gazi Köşkü (Veterans Pavilion)
Top left: Ali Pasha Mosque, Top right: Nebi Mosque, 2nd: Seyrangeha Park, 3rd left: Dört Ayaklı Minare Mosque, 3rd upper right: Deriyê Çiyê, 3rd lower right: On Gözlü Bridge (or Silvan Bridge), over Tigris River, Bottom left: Diyarbakır City Wall, Bottom right: Gazi Köşkü (Veterans Pavilion)
Diyarbakır is located in Turkey
Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Location of Diyarbakır within Turkey
Diyarbakır is located in Europe
Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
(Europe)
Diyarbakır is located in Asia
Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
(Asia)
Diyarbakır is located in Earth
Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
(Earth)
Coordinates: 37°55′N 40°14′E / 37.91°N 40.24°E / 37.91; 40.24
Country Turkey
RegionSoutheastern Anatolia
ProvinceDiyarbakır
Government
 • MayorMünir Karaloğlu (state-appointed)
Elevation
675 m (2,215 ft)
Population
 (2018)[1]
 • Total1,723,396
Time zoneUTC+3 (TRT)
Postal code
21x xx
Area code(s)412
Licence plate21
Websitewww.diyarbakir.gov.tr

Diyarbakır (Kurdish: Amed‎,[2] Zaza: Diyarbekir,[3] Armenian: Տիգրանակերտ, Tigranakert;[4] Syriac: ܐܡܝܕ‎, romanizedĀmīd[5]) is one of the largest cities in Turkey. Situated on the banks of the Tigris River, it is the administrative capital of the Diyarbakır Province of southeastern Turkey. It is the third-largest city in Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia Region, after Şanlıurfa and Gaziantep.

Diyarbakır has been a focal point of the conflict between the Turkish state and various Kurdish insurgent groups.[6] Many Kurds view Diyarbakir as the capital of Kurdistan.[7][8]

Names and etymology

The city's name (Kurdish: Amed‎; Turkish: Diyarbakır; Arabic: دیار بکر‎, Diyaru Bakr, which means the Land of Bakir; Armenian: Տիգրանակերտ, Tigranakert;[9] Ancient Greek: Άμιδα, Amida; Ottoman Turkish: دیاربکر‎, Diyâr-ı Bekr; Syriac: ܐܡܝܕ‎) is inscribed as Amed on the sheath of a sword from the Assyrian period, and the same name was used in other contemporary Syriac and Arabic works.[10] The Romans and Byzantines called the city Amida.[10] Amit is found in Empire of Trebizond official documents from 1358.[11] Among the Artukid and Akkoyunlu it was known as "Black Amid" (Kara Amid) for the dark color of its walls, while in the Zafername, or eulogies in praise of military victories, it is called "Black Fortress" (Kara Kale).[10] In the Book of Dede Korkut and some other Turkish works it appears as Kara Hamid.[10]

Following the Arab conquests in the seventh century, the Arab Bakr tribe settled in this region,[10] which became known as the Diyar Bakr ("landholdings of the Bakr tribe", in Arabic: ديار بكر‎, Diyar Bakr).[12][13] In November 1937, Turkish President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk visited the city and, after expressing uncertainty on the exact etymology of the city, in December of the same year ordered that it be renamed "Diyarbakır", which means "land of copper" in Turkish after the abundant resources of copper around the city.[14]

History

16th century plan of Diyarbakır by Matrakci Nasuh. The eastern half of the walled city depicted here (Sur) was leveled in 2015–2016 during the Kurdish–Turkish conflict. The western half is currently (2017) being demolished.
16th century plan of Diyarbakır by Matrakci Nasuh. The eastern half of the walled city depicted here (Sur) was leveled in 2015–2016 during the Kurdish–Turkish conflict. The western half is currently (2017) being demolished.

Antiquity

The area around Diyarbakır has been inhabited by humans from the Stone Age.

The first major civilization to establish itself in the region of Diyarbakır was the Hurrian kingdom of the Mitanni. It was then ruled by a succession of nearly every polity that controlled Upper Mesopotamia, including the Arameans, Assyrians, Urartu, Armenians, Achaemenid Persians, Medes, Seleucids, and Parthians.[15] The Roman Republic gained control of the city in 66 BC, by which stage it was named "Amida".[16] In 359, Shapur II of Persia captured Amida after a siege of 73 days.[17]

Ecclesiastical history

Syriac Christianity took hold in the region between the 1st and 4th centuries AD, particularly amongst the Assyrians of the city. The Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II (408–450) divided the Roman province of Mesopotamia into two, and made Amida the capital of Mesopotamia Prima, and thereby also the metropolitan see for all the province's bishoprics.[18]

At some stage, Amida became a see of the Armenian Church. The bishops who held the see in 1650 and 1681 were in full communion with the Holy See, and in 1727 Peter Derboghossian sent his profession of faith to Rome. He was succeeded by two more bishops of the Armenian Catholic Church, Eugenius and Ioannes of Smyrna, the latter of whom died in Constantinople in 1785. After a long vacancy, three more bishops followed. The diocese had some 5,000 Armenian Catholics in 1903,[19] but it lost most of its population in the 1915 Armenian Genocide. The last diocesan bishop of the see, Andreas Elias Celebian, was killed with some 600 of his flock in the summer of 1915.[20][21][22][23]

An eparchy for the local members of the Syriac Catholic Church was established in 1862. Persecution of Christians in the Ottoman Empire during the First World War brought an end to the existence of both these Syrian residential sees.[20][21][24][25]

In 1966, the Chaldean Catholic Archeparchy of Amida, with jurisdiction over all Chaldean Catholics in Turkey, was revived in Diyarbakır, with the city being both episcopal see and location of the diocesan cathedral of St. Mary Church, Diyarbakır. As of 2015, there are two Chaldean churches and three Armenian churches in at least periodic operation. Three other churches are in ruins, all Armenian: one in Sur, Diyarbakır, one in the citadel that is now part of a museum complex, and one in another part of the city.

Middle Ages

In 639, the city was captured by the Muslim conquests, and introduced the religion of Islam. The city passed under Umayyad and then Abbasid control, but with the progressive fragmentation of the Abbasid Caliphate from the late 9th century, it periodically came under the rule of autonomous dynasties. Isa ibn al-Shaykh al-Shaybani and his descendants ruled the city and the wider Diyar Bakr from 871 until 899, when Caliph al-Mu'tadid restored Abbasid control, but the area soon passed to another local dynasty, the Hamdanids. The latter were displaced by the Buyids in 978, who were in turn followed by the Marwanids in 983. The Marwanids ruled until 1085, the Seljuks took the city from the Marwanids in 1085, the city came under the rule of the Mardin branch of the Oghuz Turks and then the Anatolian beylik of the Artuqids. The city came under the Ayyubid Sultanate in 1183 and ruled the city until it was taken over by the Mongols in 1260, the city was taken over by the competing Turkic federations of the Kara Koyunlu (the Black Sheep) first and then the Aq Qoyunlu until the rise of the Persian Safavids, who naturally took over the city and the wider region.

Safavids and Ottomans

This 17th-century map detail shows Diyarbakır (west at top, from a 17th-century Ottoman map of the Tigris-Euphrates river system that may have been created by Evliya Çelebi)
This 17th-century map detail shows Diyarbakır (west at top, from a 17th-century Ottoman map of the Tigris-Euphrates river system that may have been created by Evliya Çelebi)

The Classical Age of the Ottoman Empire saw it expand into Western Armenia and all but the eastern regions of Kurdistan at the expense of the Safavids. From the early 16th century, the city and the wider region was the source of intrigue between the Safavids and the Ottoman Empire, both of whom sought the support of the Kurdish chieftains around Idris Bitlisi.[26] It was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1514 in the campaigns of Bıyıklı Mehmed Pasha, under the rule of Sultan Selim I. Mohammad Khan Ustajlu, the Safavid Governor of Diyarbakir, was evicted from the city and killed in the following Battle of Chaldiran in 1514.[26]

A typical example of Diyarbakır's historic architectural style, with masonry tiles built of the city's indigenous type of dark basalt stone.
A typical example of Diyarbakır's historic architectural style, with masonry tiles built of the city's indigenous type of dark basalt stone.

Following their victory, the Ottomans established the Diyarbekir Eyalet with its administrative centre in Diyarbakır. The Eyalet of Diyarbakır corresponded to today's Turkish Kurdistan, a rectangular area between the Lake Urmia to Palu and from the southern shores of Lake Van to Cizre and the beginnings of the Syrian desert, although its borders saw some changes over time. The city was an important military base for controlling the region and at the same time a thriving city noted for its craftsmen, producing glass and metalwork. For example, the doors of Rumi's tomb in Konya were made in Diyarbakır, as were the gold and silver decorated doors of the tomb of Ebu Hanife in Baghdad. Ottoman rule was confirmed by the 1555 Peace of Amasya which followed the Ottoman–Safavid War (1532–1555).

Concerned with independent-mindedness of the Kurdish principalities, the Ottomans sought to curb their influence and bring them under the control of the central government in Constantinople. However, removal from power of these hereditary principalities led to more instability in the region from the 1840s onwards. In their place, sufi sheiks and religious orders rose to prominence and spread their influence throughout the region. One of the prominent Sufi leaders was Shaikh Ubaidalla Nahri, who began a revolt in the region between Lakes Van and Urmia. The area under his control covered both Ottoman and Qajar territories. Shaikh Ubaidalla is regarded as one of the earliest proponents of Kurdish nationalism. In a letter to a British Vice-Consul, he declared: "The Kurdish nation is a people apart... we want our affairs to be in our hands."

In 1895 an estimated 25,000 Armenians and Assyrians were massacred in Diyarbekir Vilayet, including in the city.[27] At the turn of the 19th century, the Christian population of the city was mainly made up of Armenians and Syriac Orthodox Christians.[28] The city was also a site of ethnic cleansing during the 1915 Armenian and Assyrian Genocide; nearly 150,000 were expelled from the city to the death marches in the Syrian desert.[29]

Republic of Turkey

A typical example of Diyarbakır's historic architectural style, with masonry tiles built of the city's indigenous type of dark basalt stone.
A typical example of Diyarbakır's historic architectural style, with masonry tiles built of the city's indigenous type of dark basalt stone.
Diyarbakır's city walls, built by Constantius II and extended by Valentinian I between 367 and 375, stretch almost unbroken for about 6 kilometres.
Diyarbakır's city walls, built by Constantius II and extended by Valentinian I between 367 and 375, stretch almost unbroken for about 6 kilometres.
Wall and tower
Keçi Burcu, the Goat Tower, a section of the city wall of Diyarbakir

In January 1928, Diyarbakır became the center of the First Inspectorate-General, a regional subdivision for an area containing the provinces of Hakkari, Van, Şırnak, Mardin, Siirt, Bitlis and Şanlıurfa. In a reorganization of the provinces in 1952, Diyarbakır city was made the administrative capital of the Diyarbakır Province. In 1993, Diyarbakir was established as a Metropolitan Municipality.[30] Its districts are Baĝlar, Bismil, Ergani, Hazro, Kayapinar, Çermik, Çinar, Eğil, Dicle, Kulp, Kocaköy, Lice, Silvan, Sur, Yenişehir and Hani.[31]

Diyarbakır grew from a population of 30,000 in the 1930s to 65,000 by 1956, to 140,000 by 1970, to 400,000 by 1990,[32] and eventually swelled to about 1.5 million by 1997.[33] During the 1980s and 1990s, at the peak of the Kurdish-Turkish conflict, the population of the city grew dramatically, due to the thousands of Kurdish villages depopulated by Turkey.

The American-Turkish Pirinçlik Air Force Base near Diyarbakır, was operational from 1956-1997.

Diyarbakır has seen much violence in recent years, involving Turkish security forces, the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).[34][35][36] Between 8 November 2015 and 15 May 2016 large parts of Sur were destroyed in fighting between the Turkish military and the PKK.[37]

A 2018 report by Arkeologlar Derneği İstanbul found that, since 2015, 72% of the city's historic Sur district had been destroyed through demolition and redevelopment, and that laws designed to protect historic monuments had been ignored. They found that the city's "urban regeneration" policy was one of demolition and redevelopment rather than one of repairing cultural assets damaged during the recent civil conflict, and because of that many registered historic buildings had been completely destroyed. The extent of the loss of non-registered historic structures is unknown because any historic building fragments revealed during the demolition of modern structures were also demolished.[38]

Sports

The most notable football clubs of the city are Diyarbakırspor (established 1968) and Amed SK (established 1990).[39]

The women's football team Amed SFK were promoted at the end of the 2016–17 Turkish Women's Second Football League season to the Women's First League.[40]

Politics

In the 2014 local elections, Gültan Kışanak and Fırat Anlı of the Peace and Democracy Party (BDP) were elected co-mayors of Diyarbakır. However, on 25 October 2016, both were detained by Turkish authorities "on thinly supported charges of being a member of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK)".[41] The Turkish government ordered a general internet blackout after the arrest.[42] Nevertheless, on 26 October, several thousand demonstrators at Diyarbakir city hall demanded the mayors' release.[41] Some days later, the Turkish government appointed an unelected state trustee as the mayor.[43] In November, public prosecutors demanded a 230-year prison sentence for Kışanak.[44]

In January 2017, the Turkish government appointed unelected state trustee ordered the removal of the Assyrian sculpture of a mythological winged bull from the townhall, which had been erected by the BDP mayors to commemorate the Assyrian history of the town and its still resident Assyrian minority.[45][46]

In the Municipal election 2019 Adnan Selçuk Mızraklı was elected mayor of Diyarbakir[47] In August 2019 he was dismissed accused of supporting terrorism.[48]

Economy

Historically, Diyarbakır produced wheat and sesame.[49][50] They would preserve the wheat in warehouses, with coverings of straw and twigs from licorice trees. This system would allow the wheat to be preserved for up to ten years.[49] In the late 19th and early 20th century, Diyarbakır exported raisins, almonds, and apricots to Europe.[50] Angora goats were raised, and wool and mohair was exported from Diyarbakır. Merchants would also come from Egypt, Istanbul, and Syria, to purchase goats and sheep.[51] Honey was also produced, but not so much exported, but used by locals. Sericulture was observed in the area, too.[52]

Prior to World War I, Diyarbakır had an active copper industry, with six mines. Three were active, with two being owned by locals and the third being owned by the Turkish government. Tenorite was the primary type of copper mined. It was mined by hand by Kurds. A large portion of the ore was exported to England. The region also produced iron, gypsum, coal, chalk, lime, jet, and quartz, but primarily for local use.[53]

The city is served by Diyarbakır Airport and Diyarbakır railway station.

Demographics

Demographic history

At the turn of the 19th century, the Christian population of the city was mainly made up of Armenians and Assyrians.[28] The Assyrian and Armenian presence dates to antiquity.[54] There was also a small Jewish community in the city.[55]

Present day

According to a November 2006 survey by the Sûr Municipality, 72% of the inhabitants of the municipality use Kurdish most often in their daily speech due to the overwhelming Kurdish majority in the city [56] with small minorities of Assyrians, Armenians, Turks and Yazidis still resident. After World War II, as the Kurdish population moved to urban centres, Diyarbakir's Kurdish population continued to grow.[57] There are also several Alevi Turkmen villages around Diyarbakır old city, however there are no specific official data about the population numbers.[55][58]

Culture

Some jewelry making and other craftwork continues today although the fame of the Diyarbakır's craftsmen has long passed. Folk dancing to the drum and zurna (pipe) are a part of weddings and celebrations in the area.

Cuisine

Diyarbakır is known for rich dishes of lamb which use spices such as black pepper, sumac and coriander; rice, bulgur and butter. The most famous specialty dish from Diyarbakır is Meftune which is made up of lamb meat and vegetable laced with garlic and sumac. Another known dish is Kaburga Dolması which is a baked lamb's ribs stuffed with rice, almonds and many spices.[59] Diyarbakır is also known for its watermelons; one of the events in the city is the annually held Watermelon Festival.[60]

Main sights

Sheikh Matar Mosque with its Four-legged Minaret
Sheikh Matar Mosque with its Four-legged Minaret

The core of Diyarbakır is surrounded by an almost intact, dramatic set of high walls of black basalt forming a 5.5 km (3.4 mi) circle around the old city. There are four gates into the old city and 82 watch-towers on the walls, which were built in antiquity, restored and extended by the Roman emperor Constantius II in 349. The area inside the walls is known as the Sur district; before its recent demolition and redevelopment this district had 599 registered historical buildings.[38]

Medieval mosques and medreses

  • Great Mosque of Diyarbakır built by the Seljuk Turkish Sultan Malik Shah in the 11th century. The mosque, one of the oldest in Turkey, is constructed in alternating bands of black basalt and white limestone (The same patterning is used in the 16th century Deliler Han Madrassah, which is now a hotel). The adjoining Mesudiye Medresesi/Medreseya Mesûdiyeyê was built at the same time, as was another prayer-school in the city, Zinciriye Medresesi/Medreseya Zincîriyeyê.
  • Behram Pasha Mosque (Beharampaşa Camii/Mizgefta Behram Paşa) – an Ottoman mosque built in 1572 by the governor of Diyarbakır, Behram Pasha, noted for the well-constructed arches at the entrance.
  • Sheikh Matar Mosque with Dört Ayaklı Minare/Mizgefta Çarling (the Four-legged Minaret) – built by Kasim Khan of the Aq Qoyunlu.
  • Fatihpaşa Camii/Mizgefta Fetih Paşa – built in 1520 by Diyarbakır's first Ottoman governor, Bıyıklı Mehmet Paşa ("the moustachioed Mehmet pasha"). The city's earliest Ottoman building, it is decorated with fine tilework.
  • Hazreti Süleyman Mosque/Mizgefta Hezretî Silêman (1155–1169) Süleyman son of Halid Bin Velid, who died capturing the city from the Arabs, is buried here along with his companions.
  • Hüsrevpaşa Camii/Mizgefta Husrev Paşa – the mosque of the second Ottoman governor, 1512–1528. Originally the building was intended to be a school (medrese)
  • İskender Paşa Camii/Mizgefta Îskender Paşa – a mosque of an Ottoman governor, an attractive building in black and white stone, built in 1551.
  • Melek Ahmet Camii/Melek Ahmed Paşa a 16th-century mosque noted for its tiled prayer-niche and for the double stairway up the minaret.
  • Nebii Camii/Mizgefta Pêxember – an Aq Qoyunlu mosque, a single-domed stone construction from the 16th century. Nebi Camii means "the mosque of the prophet" and is so-named because of the number of inscriptions in honour of the prophet on its minaret.
  • Safa Camii/Mizgefta Palo – built in the middle of the 15th century under Uzun Hasan, ruler of the Aq Qoyunlu (White Sheep Turkomans) tribe[61] and restored in Ottoman time in 1532.

Churches

Museums

Other historical buildings

Climate

Diyarbakır has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa). Summers are very hot and very dry, due to its location on the Mesopotamian plain which is subject to hot winds from the deserts of Syria and Iraq to the south. The highest recorded temperature was 46.2 °C (112.64 °F) on 21 July 1937. Winters are cold with moderate precipitation and frosty nights. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two. The lowest recorded temperature was −24.2 °C (−10.12 °F) on 11 January 1933. Highest recorded snow depth was 65 cm (25.6 inches) on 16 January 1971.

Climate data for Diyarbakır (1960–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.9
(62.4)
21.8
(71.2)
28.3
(82.9)
35.3
(95.5)
39.8
(103.6)
42.0
(107.6)
46.2
(115.2)
45.9
(114.6)
42.0
(107.6)
35.7
(96.3)
28.4
(83.1)
22.5
(72.5)
46.2
(115.2)
Average high °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
8.9
(48.0)
14.5
(58.1)
20.2
(68.4)
26.5
(79.7)
33.7
(92.7)
38.4
(101.1)
38.1
(100.6)
33.2
(91.8)
25.2
(77.4)
16.1
(61.0)
9.2
(48.6)
22.6
(72.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
3.5
(38.3)
8.5
(47.3)
13.8
(56.8)
19.3
(66.7)
26.3
(79.3)
31.2
(88.2)
30.3
(86.5)
24.8
(76.6)
17.2
(63.0)
9.2
(48.6)
4.0
(39.2)
15.8
(60.5)
Average low °C (°F) −2.3
(27.9)
−1.1
(30.0)
2.7
(36.9)
7.1
(44.8)
11.4
(52.5)
17.0
(62.6)
21.8
(71.2)
21.1
(70.0)
16.1
(61.0)
10.2
(50.4)
3.9
(39.0)
−0.1
(31.8)
9.0
(48.2)
Record low °C (°F) −24.2
(−11.6)
−21.0
(−5.8)
−14.0
(6.8)
−6.1
(21.0)
0.8
(33.4)
1.8
(35.2)
9.9
(49.8)
11.4
(52.5)
0.0
(32.0)
−1.8
(28.8)
−12.9
(8.8)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−24.2
(−11.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 68.0
(2.68)
68.8
(2.71)
67.3
(2.65)
68.7
(2.70)
41.3
(1.63)
7.9
(0.31)
0.5
(0.02)
0.4
(0.02)
4.1
(0.16)
34.7
(1.37)
51.8
(2.04)
71.4
(2.81)
484.9
(19.1)
Average rainy days 12.2 11.8 11.8 12.0 8.9 2.9 0.5 0.3 1.2 6.1 8.0 11.5 87.2
Average relative humidity (%) 75 72 67 65 59 43 31 31 35 51 69 75 56
Mean monthly sunshine hours 120.9 134.4 173.6 207.0 300.7 366.0 387.5 362.7 297.0 229.4 162.0 117.8 2,859
Source 1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [4]
Source 2: Weatherbase[65]

Notable people born in the city

See also

References

  1. ^ "Diyarbakir".
  2. ^ Avcýkýran, Dr. Adem (ed.). "Kürtçe Anamnez, Anamneza bi Kurmancî" (PDF). Tirsik. p. 55. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  3. ^ Zazaca -Türkçe Sözlük, R. Hayıg-B. Werner
  4. ^ Western Armenian pronunciation: Dikranagerd; Hovannisian, Richard G. (2006). Armenian Tigranakert/Diarbekir and Edessa/Urfa. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers. p. 2. ISBN 9781568591537. The city that later generations of Armenians would call Dikranagerd was actually ancient Amid or Amida (now Diyarbekir or Diyarbakır), a great walled city with seventy-two towers...
  5. ^ "J. Payne Smith (Mrs. Margoliouth), A Compendious Syriac Dictionary (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1903) p. 19 [from sedra.bethmardutho.org, tagged by George A. Kiraz, accessed on May. 20, 2020]".
  6. ^ https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/tensions-increase-already-fragile-kurdish-peace-process-faulters-turkey
  7. ^ https://mesopotamia.coop/cities/amed-diyarbakir/
  8. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/24/world/europe/an-aleppo-like-landscape-in-a-kurdish-redoubt-of-turkey.html
  9. ^ Western Armenian pronunciation: Dikranagerd; Hovannisian, Richard G. (2006). Armenian Tigranakert/Diarbekir and Edessa/Urfa. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers. p. 2. ISBN 9781568591537. The city that later generations of Armenians would call Dikranagerd was actually ancient Amid or Amida (now Diyarbekir or Diyarbakır), a great walled city with seventy-two towers...
  10. ^ a b c d e Diyarbakır Archived 23 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Turkish Airlines. Retrieved 2012-05-13.
  11. ^ Zehiroglu, Ahmet M. ; "Trabzon Imparatorlugu" 2016 (ISBN 978-605-4567-52-2) ; p.223
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Sources

External links

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