In signal processing, direction of arrival (DOA) denotes the direction from which usually a propagating wave arrives at a point, where usually a set of sensors are located. These set of sensors forms what is called a sensor array. Often there is the associated technique of beamforming which is estimating the signal from a given direction^{[1]}^{[2]}. Various engineering problems addressed in the associated literature are:
 Find the direction relative to the array where the sound source is located
 Direction of different sound sources around you are also located by you using a process similar to those used by the algorithms in the literature
 Radio telescopes use these techniques to look at a certain location in the sky
 Recently^{[when?]} beamforming has also been used in radio frequency (RF) applications such as wireless communication. Compared with the spatial diversity techniques, beamforming is preferred in terms of complexity. On the other hand, beamforming in general has much lower data rates. In multiple access channels (codedivision multiple access (CDMA), frequencydivision multiple access (FDMA), timedivision multiple access (TDMA)), beamforming is necessary and sufficient
 Various techniques for calculating the direction of arrival, such as angle of arrival (AoA), time difference of arrival (TDOA), frequency difference of arrival (FDOA), or other similar associated techniques.
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Transcription
Typical DOA estimation methods
References
 ^ Zhang, Qilin; Abeida, Habti; Xue, Ming; Rowe, William; Li, Jian (2012). "Fast implementation of sparse iterative covariancebased estimation for source localization". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 131 (2). doi:10.1121/1.3672656.
 ^ Abeida, Habti; Zhang, Qilin; Li, Jian; Merabtine, Nadjim (2013). "Iterative Sparse Asymptotic Minimum Variance Based Approaches for Array Processing". IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). 61 (4): 933–944. arXiv:1802.03070. doi:10.1109/tsp.2012.2231676. ISSN 1053587X.