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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study. The word diploma also refers to an academic award which is given after the completion of study in different courses such as diploma in higher education, diploma in graduation or diploma in post graduation etc. Historically, it can also refer to a charter or official document,[1] thus diplomatic,[2] diplomat[3] and diplomacy[4] via the Codex Juris Gentium Diplomaticus.[2]

The diploma (as a document certifying a qualification) may also be called a testamur, Latin for "we testify" or "certify" (testari), so called from the word with which the certificate begins;[5] this is commonly used in Australia to refer to the document certifying the award of a degree.[6][7][8] Alternatively, this document can simply be referred to as a degree certificate or graduation certificate, or as a parchment.[9] The certificate that a Nobel laureate receives is also called a diploma.

The term diploma is also used in some historical contexts, to refer to documents signed by a King affirming a grant or tenure of specified land and its conditions (see Anglo-Saxon Charters and Diplomatics).

Sheepskin diploma from Mexico City College, 1948 (in Latin)
Sheepskin diploma from Mexico City College, 1948 (in Latin)

Usage

Australia

In Australia, there are three varieties of Diploma currently recognized by the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF):

  • a "Diploma", a qualification granted by vocational education and training (VET) sector or university. It is typically completed with 12 to 18 months of full-time study. When accepted for credit as part of a bachelor's degree, it is usually deemed to be equivalent to the first year of the degree.
  • an "Advanced Diploma", which is equivalent to an Australian "Associate Degree".
  • a "Graduate Diploma", which is undertaken after completing a bachelor's degree (or being deemed to have equivalent knowledge). This can be in a field other than that covered by said degree (e.g., the Graduate Diploma of Education necessary to become a school teacher in most Australian states). It can also be a coursework-only qualification undertaken as additional study in a specialisation within one's degree area.

The "Vocational Graduate Diploma" was a short lived AQF qualification equivalent to the "Graduate Diploma", intended to be delivered exclusively in the VET sector. On January 1, 2015, all such qualifications being offered lost the word "Vocational" from their title.[10]

Canada

In Ontario, Canada, diplomas are two and three year academic post-secondary programmes taught by colleges and institutes of applied studies, arts, and technology. Two year programmes are referred to as college diplomas, while three year programmes are called Ontario College Advanced Diplomas. Baccalaureate degrees in Ontario are commonly a year longer than an Advanced Diploma and are offered by both colleges and universities.

Germany and the German academic education system in Europe

In Germany, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, Hungary and other countries that adopted the German academic education system, diploma (in German Diplom) is the standard academic degree, needing at least 3.5 years to complete it, being comparable with a Bachelor's and Master's degree in one.

Greece

In Greece, diplomas can be awarded by educational institutes as a proof of a certain educational level. The diploma in engineering is a degree provided by Greek technical universities and universities after the successful completion of a five-year integrated study programme and it is equivalent to the Master of Engineering degree, which is awarded by the European universities.

Also in Greece there are the Vocational Training Diploma[11] (Post-Secondary Education EQF 5 level) provided by the National Qualifications and Vocational Guidance Organization (E.O.P.P.E.P.) to the Vocational Training Institutes IEK, following certification exams carried out by the E.O.P.P.E.P.[12]

Greek Vocational Training Diploma
Greek Vocational Training Diploma

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, Diploma or Advanced Diploma/Certificate (Qualifications Frameworks Level 4), Professional Diploma/Certificate (Qualifications Frameworks Level 4), Higher Diploma, and Associate Degree are below the level of the Bachelor Degree.

Certificate (not Post-Graduate Certificate) Qualifications Frameworks Level 3 or below; are below the level of Diploma, Advanced or Professional Diploma/Certificate (Qualifications Frameworks Level 4), Higher Diploma or associate degree.

Postgraduate Certificates and Postgraduate Diplomas are usually granted after the bachelor's degree. It's more vocational oriented than a master's degree.

India

In India, a diploma is a specific academic award usually earned in professional/vocational courses, e.g., Diploma in Engineering, Diploma in Nursing, Diploma in Pharmacy etc. Engineering diploma is concentrated for the area of study, e.g., diploma in Electronics Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Civil Engineering, computer engineering etc.

There are two types of diplomas/certificate issuance which are issued in formal education sector & non formal education sector. Formal education sector diploma/certificates are issued by govt. approved/recognized institution, colleges and universities etc. and non formal education sector diploma/certificates are issued by NGOs, companies and societies etc. outside formal education sector.

Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland, a National Diploma was awarded before 2004. It was at the same level as the ordinary bachelor's degree and below the honours Bachelor's degree, whilst the Higher Diploma is taken after the bachelor's degree. There is BTEC Extended Diploma also after which one gets progression to a Degree (University).

Latin America

In Mexico and other Latin American countries, a diploma may be awarded for short courses of vocational training. The university-issued diplomas finalizing higher education are most often called título (title) or certificado (certificate). A "Diplomado" can also be a short, specialized executive education program for experienced professionals.

Pakistan

In Pakistan, a diploma is a specific academic award usually earned in professional/vocational courses e.g. Diploma in Engineering, Diploma in Nursing, Diploma in Pharmacy etc. Engineering diploma is called Diploma of Associate Engineering (DAE) and is concentrated for the area of study, e.g., Electronics Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Civil Engineering etc. DAE holders are often called associate engineers in Pakistan.

Postgraduate Diploma or PGD are ranked higher than the Bachelor's degree as they are completed after graduation. These are normally a year's worth of coursework after a university degree.

Singapore

In Singapore, most diplomas are awarded after a three-year course, offered by the various polytechnics (e.g. Temasek Polytechnic, Singapore Polytechnic, Nanyang Polytechnic, etc.) or the two arts institutions (e.g. Nanyang Academy of Fine Arts, LaSalle College of the Arts). Other private schools also offer diploma programmes for just one year. (e.g. Kaplan / MDIS/ PSB Academy).

Spain

In the Kingdom of Spain, university diplomas are issued in the name of the King. As such, they are Public Official documents, strictly regulated and protected by the law. They are internationally recognized by the Hague Convention of October 5, 1961.

United Kingdom

In the UK, diploma can refer to several different types of qualification. A Diploma can be a qualification worth 37 or more credits on the Regulated Qualifications Framework, e.g. Entry Level Diploma, Level 3 Diploma. The Diploma of Higher Education is a higher education award below the standard of a bachelor's degree, at the same level as a Foundation Degree. The Higher National Diploma is a vocational qualification at the same level. A Graduate Diploma is a one-year qualification at bachelor's degree level, normally taken by those who have already obtained a degree. A Postgraduate Diploma is an award at the level of a master's degree, but normally taking less time to complete.[13]

Some universities may offer other qualifications, such as the University of Cambridge's Undergraduate Diploma (a 1-year, part-time course at the same level as a Diploma of Higher Education)[14] and Undergraduate Advanced Diploma.

The document certifying the award of a degree is normally called a degree certificate in the UK, and details are printed in English, not in Latin.[15]

Undergraduate Advanced Diploma

The Undergraduate Advanced Diploma (UGAdvDip or UGAD) is a FHEQ Level 6 award, the academic level is the equivalent to the final year of a bachelor's degree and a Graduate Diploma.[16][17][18] An advanced diploma prepares students to enter into a specific career or further study in an advanced degree, like a Master of Arts.[19] After graduated form an Undergraduate Advanced Diploma, it enables student to apply for postgraduate studies such as Master's degree or Postgraduate Diploma. [20][18][19] Most are offered on a part-time basis, except for a pre-masters programme such as Undergraduate Advanced Diploma in British & European Studies at the Department for Continuing Education of the University of Oxford.[21][22] Students are eligible to apply for College Associate Membership (optional).

United States

In the United States, the word diploma usually refers to the actual document, especially in the context of academic degrees earned at the college or university level. That is, Americans normally draw a distinction between a diploma as documentary evidence of the award of an academic degree, and the underlying degree itself (which is not called a diploma). The reason this distinction matters is that many American universities do not print diplomas until several weeks or months after the dates on which graduates were formally awarded their degrees on their academic transcripts. In other words, when a diploma says on its face that so-and-so degree was "given at [city] on [date]", the diploma itself was not physically handed to the holder on that date. (For ceremonial purposes, the documents handed out at graduation are simply certificates of participation in the graduation ceremony itself.) Thus, asking alumni when they received their diplomas is usually pointless; what really matters for most purposes (e.g., occupational licensing) is when they received their degrees. This important distinction can lead to some confusion when persons who obtained degrees at American universities are presenting their academic credentials in other countries.

There are two major exceptions where Americans have merged the document with the qualification it represents (as seen in other countries). The first is the high school diploma. Second, the term "diploma" can refer to a specific academic or training award. For example, the Diploma in Nursing was offered by hospital-based nursing schools.

Historically, American universities emulated their European counterparts by issuing diplomas written in the Latin language. That is now the exception today: "While most colleges and universities now issue English diplomas, some prominent holdouts — including Yale, Princeton and the University of Pennsylvania — still use Latin."[23]

The term diplomate (always ending with an e) is used in the United States to refer to a person holding a specialized certification in a professional field, although the documentary evidence of this is traditionally called a "certificate" and not a "diploma". For example, board-certified physicians in the United States traditionally indicate their board-certified status on their letterhead and business cards with the title "Diplomate", a comma, and then the name of their certifying board.

International

The International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma is a pre-university qualification normally taken by students in the final two years of high school.[24]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Diploma". Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  2. ^ a b "Diplomatic". Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  3. ^ "Diplomat". Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  4. ^ "Diplomacy". Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  5. ^ "Testamur". Collins Dictionary. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  6. ^ "Testamur (degree certificates)". Monash University. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  7. ^ "My Graduation Certificate". University of Melbourne. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  8. ^ "Testamur (certificate)". University of Wollongong. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  9. ^ "Parchment". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  10. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20160305054743/http://www.asqa.gov.au/news/2629/retitling-of-vocational-graduate-diplomas-and-vocational-graduate-certificates.html
  11. ^ http://proson.eoppep.gr/en/QualificationTypes/Details/56
  12. ^ https://eoppep.gr/index.php/en/
  13. ^ "What qualification levels mean". Gov.uk. 25 October 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  14. ^ "Undergraduate Certificates and Diplomas". Institute of Continuing Education. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  15. ^ "Advice and Guidance on Degree Fraud" (PDF). Higher Education Degree Datacheck. Prospects. 2016. It has not been practice for UK providers to issue degree certificates in Latin for at least 10 years. Contemporary certificates are in English. Latin versions are occasionally issued as mementos, but are supplementary to the English version.
  16. ^ "Advanced Diploma in Economics". Faculty of Economics. University of Cambridge. Archived from the original on 18 December 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  17. ^ Oxford, University of. "Undergraduate Advanced Diplomas". Oxford University Department for Continuing Education. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
  18. ^ a b https://www.admin.ox.ac.uk/media/global/wwwadminoxacuk/localsites/educationcommittee/documents/policyguidance/University_awards_framework.pdf
  19. ^ a b "Best 17 Advanced Diplomas in United Kingdom 2020". www.academiccourses.com.
  20. ^ Davison, Tim (2016-05-19). "Undergraduate Certificates, Diplomas and Advanced Diplomas". www.ice.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
  21. ^ "Pre-Master's Courses 2019-20: British and European Studies". Issuu. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
  22. ^ Oxford, University of. "UG Advanced Diploma in British & European Studies Pre-Master's Course". Oxford University Department for Continuing Education. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
  23. ^ Francese, Christopher A. (14 May 2009). "Opinion: A Degree in English". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  24. ^ "International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme". Retrieved 2007-05-08.
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