Dice (singular die or dice;^{[1]} from Old French déh; from Latin datum "something which is given or played"^{[2]}) are small throwable objects that can rest in multiple positions, used for generating random numbers. Dice are commonly used in tabletop games—including dice games, board games, and roleplaying games—and for gambling.
A traditional die is a cube with each of its six faces marked with a different number of dots (pips) from one to six. When thrown or rolled, the die comes to rest showing on its upper surface a random integer from one to six, each value being equally likely. Dice may also have polyhedral or irregular shapes and may have faces marked with numerals or symbols instead of pips. Loaded dice are designed to favor some results over others for cheating or entertainment.
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✪ 5:00 PM  SSC MTS 2019  Reasoning by Deepak Sir  Dice
Transcription
Contents
History
Dice have been used since before recorded history, and it is uncertain where they originated. It is theorized that dice developed from the practice of fortunetelling with the talus of hoofed animals, colloquially known as "knucklebones".^{[3]} The Egyptian game of Senet was played with flat twosided throwsticks which indicated the number of squares a player could move, and thus functioned as a form of dice. Senet was played before 3000 BC and up to the 2nd century AD.^{[4]} Perhaps the oldest known dice were excavated as part of a backgammonlike game set at the Burnt City, an archeological site in southeastern Iran, estimated to be from between 2800–2500 BC.^{[5]} Excavations from ancient tombs in the Indus Valley civilization indicate a possible South Asian origin.^{[6]}
Games involving dice are mentioned in the ancient Indian Rigveda, Atharvaveda, and Buddhist games list.^{[7]} There are several biblical references to "casting lots", as in Psalm 22, indicating that dicing (or a related activity) was commonplace when the psalm was composed. Knucklebones was a game of skill played in ancient Greece; a derivative form had the four sides of bones receive different values like modern dice.^{[8]}
Although gambling was illegal, many Romans were passionate gamblers who enjoyed dicing, which was known as aleam ludere ("to play at dice"). Dicing was even a popular pastime of emperors. Letters by Augustus to Tacitus and his daughter recount his hobby of dicing. There were two sizes of Roman dice. Tali were large dice inscribed with one, three, four, and six on four sides. Tesserae were smaller dice with sides numbered from one to six.^{[9]} Twentysided dice date back to the 2nd century AD^{[10]} and from Ptolemaic Egypt as early as the 2nd century BC.^{[11]}
Dominoes and playing cards originated in China as developments from dice.^{[citation needed]} The transition from dice to playing cards occurred in China around the Tang dynasty, and coincides with the technological transition from rolls of manuscripts to block printed books.^{[12]} In Japan, dice were used to play a popular game called sugoroku. There are two types of sugoroku. Bansugoroku is similar to backgammon and dates to the Heian period, while esugoroku is a racing game.^{[13]}
Use
Dice are thrown onto a surface either from the hand or from a container designed for this (such as a cup or tray). The face of the die that is uppermost when it comes to rest provides the value of the throw.
The result of a die roll is determined by the way it is thrown, according to the laws of classical mechanics. A die roll is made random by uncertainty in minor factors such as tiny movements in the thrower's hand; they are thus a crude form of hardware random number generator.
One typical contemporary dice game is craps, where two dice are thrown simultaneously and wagers are made on the total value of the two dice. Dice are frequently used to introduce randomness into board games, where they are often used to decide the distance through which a piece will move along the board (as in backgammon and Monopoly).
Construction
Arrangement
Common dice are small cubes, most often 1.6 cm (0.63 in) across,^{[14]} whose faces are numbered from one to six, usually by patterns of round dots called pips. (While the use of Arabic numerals is occasionally seen, such dice are less common.)
Opposite sides of a modern die traditionally add up to seven, requiring the 1, 2, and 3 faces to share a vertex.^{[15]} The faces of a die may be placed clockwise or counterclockwise about this vertex. If the 1, 2, and 3 faces run counterclockwise, the die is called "righthanded". If those faces run clockwise, the die is called "lefthanded". Western dice are normally righthanded, and Chinese dice are normally lefthanded.^{[16]}
The pips on dice are arranged in specific patterns as shown. Asian style dice bear similar patterns to Western ones, but the pips are closer to the center of the face; in addition, the pips are differently sized on Asian style dice, and the pips are colored red on the 1 and 4 sides. Red fours may be of Indian origin.^{[16]}^{[17]} In some older sets, the "one" pip is a colorless depression.
Manufacturing
Nonprecision dice are manufactured via the plastic injection molding process. The pips or numbers on the die are a part of the mold. The coloring for numbering is achieved by submerging the die entirely in paint, which is allowed to dry. The die is then polished via a tumble finishing process similar to rock polishing. The abrasive agent scrapes off all of the paint except for the indents of the numbering. A finer abrasive is then used to polish the die. This process also creates the smoother, rounded edges on the dice.^{[18]}
Precision casino dice may have a polished or sand finish, making them transparent or translucent respectively. Casino dice have their pips drilled, then filled flush with a paint of the same density as the material used for the dice, such that the center of gravity of the dice is as close to the geometric center as possible. This mitigates concerns that the pips will cause a small bias.^{[19]} All such dice are stamped with a serial number to prevent potential cheaters from substituting a die. Precision backgammon dice are made the same way; they tend to be slightly smaller and have rounded corners and edges, to allow better movement inside the dice cup and stop forceful rolls from damaging the playing surface.
Terms
While the terms ace, deuce, trey, cater, cinque and sice are generally obsolete, with the names of the numbers preferred, they are still used by some professional gamblers to designate different sides of the dice. Ace is from the Latin as, meaning "a unit";^{[20]} the others are 2 to 6 in Old French.^{[21]}
Unicode representation
Using Unicode characters, the faces ⚀ ⚁ ⚂ ⚃ ⚄ ⚅, can be shown in text using the range U+2680 to U+2685 or using decimal ⚀
to ⚅
.^{[22]}
Loaded dice
A loaded, weighted, or crooked die is one that has been tampered with so that it will land with a specific side facing upwards more or less often than a fair die would. There are several methods for creating loaded dice, including rounded faces, offsquare faces, and weights. Transparent cellulose acetate dice are used by casinos as tampering is more apparent than with opaque dice.
Variants
Polyhedral dice
Around the end of the 1960s, noncubical dice became popular among players of wargames,^{[23]} and since have been employed extensively in roleplaying games and trading card games. The numerals 6 and 9, which are reciprocally symmetric through rotation, are distinguished with a dot or underline.
Standard variations
Dice are often sold in sets, matching in color, of six different shapes. Five of the dice are shaped like the Platonic solids, whose faces are regular polygons. Aside from the cube, the other four Platonic solids have 4, 8, 12, and 20 faces, allowing for those number ranges to be generated. The only other common noncubical die is the 10sided die, a pentagonal trapezohedron die, whose faces are ten kites, each with two different edge lengths, three different angles, and two different kinds of vertices. Such sets frequently include a second 10sided die either of contrasting color or numbered by tens, allowing the pair of 10sided dice to be combined to generate numbers between 1 and 100.
Using these dice in various ways, games can closely approximate a variety of probability distributions. For instance, 10sided dice can be rolled in pairs to produce a uniform distribution of random percentages, and summing the values of multiple dice will produce approximations to normal distributions.^{[24]}
Unlike other common dice, a foursided (tetrahedral) die does not have a side that faces upward when it is at rest on a surface, so it must be read in a different way. On some foursided dice, each face features multiple numbers, with same number printed near each vertex on all sides. In this case, the number around the vertex pointing up is used. Alternatively, the numbers on a tetrahedral die can be placed at the middles of the edges, in which case the numbers around the base are used.
Normally, the faces on a die will be placed so opposite faces will add up to one more than the number of faces. (This is not possible with 4sided dice and dice with an oddnumber of faces.) Some dice, such as those with 10 sides, are usually numbered sequentially beginning with 0, in which case the opposite faces will add to one less than the number of faces.
Faces/ Sides 
Shape  Notes  

4  Tetrahedron  Each face has three numbers, arranged such that the upright number, placed either near the vertex or near the opposite edge, is the same on all three visible faces. The upright numbers represent the value of the roll. This die does not roll well and thus it is usually thrown into the air instead.  
6  Cube  A common die. The sum of the numbers on opposite faces is 7.  
8  Octahedron  Each face is triangular and the die resembles two square pyramids attached basetobase. Usually, the sum of the opposite faces is 9.  
10  Pentagonal trapezohedron  Each face is a kite. The die has two sharp corners, where five kites meet, and ten blunter corners, where three kites meet. The ten faces usually bear numbers from zero to nine, rather than one to ten (zero being read as "ten" in many applications). Often all odd numbered faces converge at one sharp corner, and the even ones at the other. The sum of the numbers on opposite faces is usually 9 (if numbered 0–9) or 11 (if numbered 1–10).  
12  Dodecahedron  Each face is a regular pentagon. The sum of the numbers on opposite faces is usually 13.  
20  Icosahedron  Faces are equilateral triangles. Icosahedra have been found dating to Roman/Ptolemaic times, but it is not known if they were used as gaming dice. Modern dice with 20 sides are sometimes numbered 0–9 twice as an alternative to 10sided dice. The sum of the numbers on opposite faces is 21 if numbered 1–20. 
Rarer variations
"Uniform fair dice" are dice where all faces have equal probability of outcome due to the symmetry of the die as it is facetransitive. Theoretically, this includes:
 Platonic solids, the five regular polyhedra: 4, 6, 8, 12, 20 sides
 Catalan solids, the duals of the 13 Archimedean solids: 12, 24, 30, 48, 60, 120 sides
 Bipyramids, the duals of the infinite set of prisms, with triangle faces: any multiple of 4 (so that a face will face up) above 8
 Trapezohedra, the duals of the infinite set of antiprisms, with kite faces: any even number not divisible by 4 (so that a face will face up) above 6
 Disphenoids, an infinite set of tetrahedra made from congruent nonregular triangles: 4 sides. This is a less symmetric tetrahedron than the Platonic tetrahedron, but still sufficiently symmetrical to be facetransitive. Similarly, pyritohedra and tetartoids are less symmetrical but still facetransitive dodecahedra: 12 sides.
Long dice and teetotums can in principle be made with any number of faces, including odd numbers.^{[25]} Long dice are based on the infinite set of prisms. All the rectangular faces are mutually facetransitive, so they are equally probable. The two ends of the prism may be rounded or capped with a pyramid, designed so that the die cannot rest on those faces. 4sided long dice are easier to roll than tetrahedra, and are used in the traditional board games dayakattai and daldøs.
Faces/ sides 
Shape  Image  Notes 

1  Möbius strip or sphere  Most commonly a joke die, this is either a sphere with a 1 marked on it or shaped like a Möbius strip.  
2  Cylinder  A coin flip. Some coins with 1 marked on one side and 2 on the other are available, but most simply use a common coin.  
3  Roundedoff triangular prism 
A long die intended to be rolled lengthwise. When the die is rolled, one edge (rather than a side) appears facing upwards. On either side of each edge the same number is printed (from 1 to 3). The numbers on either side of the upfacing edge are read as the result of the die roll.  
4  Capped 4sided long die 
A long die intended to be rolled lengthwise. It cannot stand on end as the ends are capped.  
5  Triangular prism  A prism that is thin enough to land either on its "edge" or "face". When landing on an edge, the result is displayed by digits (2–4) close to the prism's top edge. The triangular faces are labeled with the digits 1 and 5.  
7  Pentagonal prism  Similar in constitution to the 5sided die. Sevensided dice are used in a sevenplayer variant of backgammon. Sevensided dice are described in the 13th century Libro de los juegos as having been invented by Alfonso X in order to speed up play in chess variants.^{[26]}^{[27]}  
12  Rhombic dodecahedron  Each face is a rhombus.  
14  Heptagonal trapezohedron  Each face is a kite.  
16  Octagonal bipyramid  Each face is an isosceles triangle.  
18  Rounded rhombicuboctahedron  18 faces are squares. The 8 triangular faces are rounded and cannot be landed on.  
24  Triakis octahedron  Each face is an isosceles triangle.  
Tetrakis hexahedron  Each face is an isosceles triangle.  
Deltoidal icositetrahedron  Each face is a kite.  
Pseudodeltoidal icositetrahedron  Each face is a kite.  
Pentagonal icositetrahedron  Each face is an irregular pentagon.  
30  Rhombic triacontahedron  Each face is a rhombus.  
34  Heptadecagonal trapezohedron  Each face is a kite.  
48  Disdyakis dodecahedron  Each face is a scalene triangle.  
50  Icosakaipentagonal trapezohedron  Each face is a kite.  
60  Deltoidal hexecontahedron  Each face is a kite.  
Pentakis dodecahedron  Each face is an isosceles triangle.  
Pentagonal hexecontahedron  Each face is an irregular pentagon.  
Triakis icosahedron  Each face is an isosceles triangle.  
100  Zocchihedron  A sphere containing another sphere with 100 facets flattened into it. It does not function as a uniform fair die as some results are more likely than others.  
120  Disdyakis triacontahedron  Each face is a scalene triangle. 
Nonnumeric dice
The faces of most dice are labelled using sequences of whole numbers, usually starting at one, expressed with either pips or digits. However, there are some applications that require results other than numbers. Examples include letters for Boggle, directions for Warhammer Fantasy Battle, Fudge dice, playing card symbols for poker dice, and instructions for sexual acts using sex dice.
Alternatively numbered dice
Dice may have numbers that do not form a counting sequence starting at one. One variation on the standard die is known as the "average" die.^{[28]}^{[29]} These are sixsided dice with sides numbered 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5
, which have the same arithmetic mean as a standard die (3.5 for a single die, 7 for a pair of dice), but have a narrower range of possible values (2 through 5 for one, 4 through 10 for a pair). They are used in some tabletop wargames, where a narrower range of numbers is required.^{[29]} Other numbered variations include Sicherman dice and nontransitive dice.
Spherical dice
A die can be constructed in the shape of a sphere, with the addition of an internal cavity in the shape of the dual polyhedron of the desired die shape and an internal weight. The weight will settle in one of the points of the internal cavity, causing it to settle with one of the numbers uppermost. For instance, a sphere with an octahedral cavity and a small internal weight will settle with one of the 6 points of the cavity held downwards by the weight.
Applications
Polyhedral dice are commonly used in roleplaying games. The fantasy roleplaying game Dungeons & Dragons (D&D) is largely credited with popularizing dice in such games. Some games use only one type, like Exalted which uses only tensided dice. Others use numerous types for different game purposes, such as D&D, which makes use of all common polyhedral dice. Dice are usually used to determine the outcome of events. Games typically determine results either as a total on one or more dice above or below a fixed number, or a certain number of rolls above a certain number on one or more dice. Due to circumstances or character skill, the initial roll may have a number added to or subtracted from the final result, or have the player roll extra or fewer dice. To keep track of rolls easily, dice notation is frequently used.
Many board games use dice to randomize how far pieces move or to settle conflicts. Typically, this has meant that rolling higher numbers is better. Some games, such as Axis & Allies, have inverted this system by making the lower values more potent. In the modern age, a few games and game designers have approached dice in a different way by making each side of the die similarly valuable. In Castles of Burgundy, players spend their dice to take actions based on the die's value. In this game, a six is not better than a one, or vice versa. In Quarriors (and its descendent, Dicemasters), different sides of the dice can offer completely different abilities. Several sides often give resources while others grant the player useful actions.^{[30]}
Dice can be used for divination and using dice for such a purpose is called cleromancy. A pair of common dice is usual, though other forms of polyhedra can be used. Tibetan Buddhists sometimes use this method of divination. It is highly likely that the Pythagoreans used the Platonic solids as dice. They referred to such dice as "the dice of the gods" and they sought to understand the universe through an understanding of geometry in polyhedra.^{[31]}
Astrological dice are a specialized set of three 12sided dice for divination; the first die represents planets, the Sun, the Moon, and the nodes of the Moon, the second die represents the 12 zodiac signs, and the third represents the 12 houses. A specialized icosahedron die provides the answers of the Magic 8Ball, conventionally used to provide answers to yesorno questions.
Dice can be used to generate random numbers for use in passwords and cryptography applications. The Electronic Frontier Foundation describes a method by which dice can be used to generate passphrases.^{[32]} Diceware is a method recommended for generating secure but memorable passphrases, by repeatedly rolling five dice and picking the corresponding word from a pregenerated list.^{[33]}
Notation
In many gaming contexts, especially tabletop roleplaying games, shorthand notations representing different dice rolls are used. A "d" or "D" is used to indicate a die with a specific number of sides; for example, d4
denotes a foursided die. If several dice of the same type are to be rolled, this is indicated by a leading number specifying the number of dice. Hence, 6d8
means the player should roll six eightsided dice and add the results. Modifiers to a die roll can also be indicated as desired. For example, 3d6+4
instructs the player to roll three sixsided dice, calculate the total, and add four to it.
See also
 Crown and Anchor
 d20 System
 Dreidel
 Fuzzy dice
 Musikalisches Würfelspiel
 Quincunx
 Senary
 Teetotum
 Urim and Thummim
References
 ^ Definition of dice in English, Oxford Dictionaries
 ^ "die". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
 ^ Laird, Jay (2009). Encyclopedia of Play in Today's Society. SAGE Publications. pp. 171–173. ISBN 9781452266107.
 ^ Finkel, Irving (2008). "Board Games". Beyond Babylon: Art, Trade, and Diplomacy in the Second Millennium B.C. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 151. ISBN 9781588392954.
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 ^ 2.3, 4.38, 6.118, 7.52, 7.109
 ^ Good, Alexandra. "Knucklebones". Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
 ^ Matz, David (2002). Daily Life of the Ancient Romans. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 94–95. ISBN 9780313303265.
 ^ "christies.com". christies.com. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
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 ^ Ronan, Colin; Needham, Joseph (1986). The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge University Press. p. 55. ISBN 9780521315609.
 ^ Salter, Rebecca (2006). "Board Games". Japanese Popular Prints: From Votive Slips to Playing Cards. University of Hawaii Press. p. 164. ISBN 9780824830830.
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 ^ Cf. Greek Anthology Book 14, §8: "The Opposite Pairs of Numbers on a Die. The numbers on a die run so: six one, five two, three four."
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} "Standard Dice". Archived from the original on 30 July 2013.
 ^ "Chinese Dice". Elliott Avedon Museum & Archive of Games. Archived from the original on 1 May 2008.
 ^ How Dice Are Made from Awesome Dice
 ^ "Casino Dice". www.diceplay.com. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
 ^ "ace". AskOxford. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
 ^ Conant, Levi Leonard (1896). The Number Concept: Its Origin and Development. Macmillan. p. 124.
 ^ "Dice faces in block Miscellaneous Symbols" (PDF). The Unicode standard.
 ^ Peterson, Jon (July 2012). Playing at the World: A History of Simulating Wars, People and Fantastic Adventures, from Chess to RolePlaying Games. Unreason Press. pp. 315–318. ISBN 9780615642048.
 ^ Paret, Michelle; Martz, Eston (2009). "Tumbling Dice & Birthdays: Understanding the Central Limit Theorem" (PDF). Minitab. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
 ^ Kybos, Alea. "Properties of Dice" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
 ^ "games.rengeekcentral.com". games.rengeekcentral.com. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
 ^ "wwmat.mat.fc.ul.pt" (PDF). Retrieved 18 June 2012.
 ^ "Specialist D6". em4miniatures. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} "[TMP] 'What are Average Dice' Topic". The Miniatures Page. 20 November 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
 ^ "Making better use of dice in games". 2 October 2014.
 ^ Guthrie, Kenneth (1988). The Pythagorean sourcebook and library: an anthology of ancient writings which relate to Pythagoras and Pythagorean philosophy. Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press. ISBN 9780933999503. OCLC 255212063.
 ^ "EFF DiceGenerated Passphrases". Electronic Frontier Foundation. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
 ^ "EFF's New Wordlists for Random Passphrases". Electronic Frontier Foundation. 19 July 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
 Diaconis, Persi; and Keller, Joseph B.; "Fair Dice", The American Mathematical Monthly, 96(4):337–339, 1989 (Discussion of dice that are fair "by symmetry" and "by continuity".)
 Iverson, G. R.; Longcour, W. H.; et al.; Bias and Runs in Dice Throwing and Recording: A Few Million Throws, Psychometrika, vol. 36, no. 1, March 1971
 Knizia, Reiner, Dice Games Properly Explained, Elliot Right Way Books, 1999, ISBN 0716021129
External links
Look up dice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. 
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dice. 
 Weisstein, Eric W. "Dice". MathWorld. – analysis of dice probabilities, also featuring Uspenski's work on rolling multiple dice
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica. 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 176–177.