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Demographics of Vancouver

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Demographics of Metropolitan Vancouver (Greater Vancouver Regional District) concern population growth and structure for Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Figures given here are for the Greater Vancouver Regional District, however, not for the City of Vancouver proper.

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Transcription

Are you thinking about changing careers but feeling intimidated about the education and licensure associated with well-paying jobs? Exactly how much GRUNT work does it take to get the GRATIFICATION of a new career making at least six figures? We did the math on the grunt-to-grat ratio for you, with 10 jobs you wouldn't expect to be well-paying, and the details on what it takes to land the position, in this episode of The Infographics Show, 10 Surprisingly High Paying Jobs. Don’t forget to subscribe and click the bell button so that you can be part of our Notification Squad. Number 10. Railroad conductor Up to $104,000 Did you know that in the U.S., professionalized railroad conductors are still around? Neither did we, but they exist, and they cash in in some areas. The national median salary is just $54,000, but it does go all the way up to $104,000. The grunt is working your way up in a dying industry and learning on the job without many mentors or companies to choose from. You’re away from home for long periods of time. But the grat is you get to see the country in an old timey kind of way, you get to feel like that kid you once were with your first train set, and you can avoid the 9 to 5 and tell corporate America to kiss your – uh – caboose. All aboard! Number 9. Crab fisherman Up to $200,000 Tolerating the miserable work of capturing crab through terrifying squalls for five figures per month was popularized by Discovery Channel’s reality series The Deadliest Catch. Even negotiating the dynamic between the personalities on board seems treacherous enough to think twice. But in recent years, changing safety regulations have made fishing for Dungeness crab more doable. There is also an after-season for other kinds of crab, as well as fish. All said and done, you can still clear $200,000 a year after a few years’ experience. The grunt work is working your way up, because there is no school for crab fishing. You have to find a crew you trust and respect to show you the ropes when you start as a deckhand. And you’ll be away from home and leave your loved ones behind to worry. The grat is having a nontraditional career and six figures to roll hard on your few days on land. Number 8. Building inspector Up to $117,000 It’s not super scintillating, but if you’re good with checklists and you have a mind for structural engineering, working for a city government inspecting buildings could bring home six figures. The grunt part is working your way up in the kind of large bureaucracy – that is, a major U.S. city – that is big enough to pay at least $68,000 per year, and all the way up to $117,000 per year. It’s also highly specialized, so you’ll give up other career tracks. And there are a few months of studying for a standardized exam. But the grat is a well-paying job with predictable days and permanent demand for your skills. Number 7. Egg donor Up to $114,000 Here is one for the ladies. It can be lucrative, but it has its dilemmas. And it’s not really a job, as in an existing role in any company, but an opportunity you could make your full-time gig if you’re really, really determined to get some cash. The grunt is altering your cycle, feeling like a human petri dish, and the whole ethical conundrum of creating a human you’ll never meet. But the grat is up to $14,000 per cycle, so you could, if you go on back-to-back cycles and take two months off, clear $140,000 in a year. Number 6. Anesthesiologist Up to $500,000 Anesthesiologists, in their quiet bedside role near the superstar surgeon, look like some kind of low-level nurse or technician. They’re actually doctors, and they make bank. The grunt is med school like any other doctor. That’s completing a four year degree, doing the MCAT preparation to take the standardized exam to get into a decent medical school, then going through four years of medical school, and four years of residency that actually comprise a one-year internship plus a three-year residency. Some anesthesiologists do additional residencies beyond those 12 years mandatory, and then have to study and take the board exam to become board-certified. That board certification is an important credential to earn the trust involved in taking someone safely through a major surgery and recovery. But then the grat is you make more than a family doctor, general practitioner, pediatrician, or psychiatrist does. That is, anesthesiologists take home, on average $294,811. That is a national average. In larger U.S. cities their annual salary is in the $400 to $500 thousand dollar range. Number 5. Write for the federal government Up to $123,234 A writer-editor for the State Department, in which you don't do any foreign policy analysis or speech writing, but analyze communication documents and systemic functions of the department itself, grosses you $95,000 to $123,000 per year. If you'd like to do something similar for the Department of Energy, and recommend standards for documentation for audits and other reports, you could start as low as $79,000, but also go up to $123,000. The grunt is working your way up in a dull bureaucracy and memorizing templates and standards and learning to speak bureaucratese. The grat is the money, the great benefits, and the job security. Number 4. Longshoreman Up to $200,000 This job loading and unloading ship cargo at large ports is of course only available if you’re near a big port like Houston, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or New York – or are willing to move. But you might be willing, for the money. There is no education requirement – just experience. West Coast longshoremen average $98,000 according to shippingwatch.com, but with overtime and union power to play hardball on negotiations, that salary gets north of $100,000. And an LA Times analysis in 2015 showed over half of longshoremen made over $100,000, while foremen and managers top $200,000. A few bosses get $300,000, and all get free healthcare. A New York longshoreman makes at least $124,000, with another round of negotiations coming up in 2018. The grunt is working your way up and the intense physical labor with never ending stacks of cargo waiting to be moved. But the grat is the cash, the health care, and holding one of the few jobs that globalization actually needs. Number 3. Mine operator – underground Up to $165,000 It’s not for you if you’re scared of tight spaces, and it’s not glamorous, literally digging around in the dirt. And there’s this coal miner image out in the pop culture lexicon of being, well, white trash. But you can laugh all the way to the bank, because if you’re willing to work underground, you’ll clear $150,000 to $165,000. The grunt is learning the trade on the job, the danger, the dirt, and taking such a specific career track that it doesn’t prepare you for much else. But the grat is the earnings. And while automation continues to improve mining, you’re not being replaced by a robot quite yet. That is, you will be in demand for a while. Number 2. City employees – at least those of affluent towns Up to $142,903 You can actually make more than $143,000 without any education requirements in some cities, like Santa Monica. But we picked the silliest job in that particular city that pays six figures: farmers market manager. In fact, 105 City of Santa Monica workers cleared over $300,000 in 2016, to the horror of watchdog blog Transparent California. The city’s global caché and resulting steady stream of tourists, produce high occupancy taxes – that is, the city’s share of hotel bills – and parking taxes, filling city coffers and boosting salaries for all jobs. The grunt is a dull bureaucratic job – and perhaps your nagging conscience if you happen to be the Assistant City Librarian bringing home $220,558, or occupying another overpaid post. The grat is, well, you’re overpaid and you’re in sunny Santa Monica, or another rich city living large. Number 1. Firefighter Up to $121,104 as a starting firefighter Mmm, running into burning buildings and maintaining the fitness level to regularly charge flights of stairs. Maybe not? Think again: it has its advantages. Salaries vary by city and position, but in major cities like New York and LA, you’ll clear six figures. You’ll make at least $121,000 from Day One in Los Angeles, but in New York, you’ll have to work for five years to get to $110,000 as a low level firefighter. But then you get promoted on your way to Chief and earn more at each level, over $300,000 in some fire departments. The grunt is you’re working in fire, putting yourself in danger, worrying about your coworkers, dealing with deeply distressed people who are watching their homes and offices burning, and you’re also a paramedic, meaning you have to see terrible injuries from violence and witness other human loss. But you work days at a time and then have chunks of time free, so you can travel and buy toys with the six figures you’re earning, with solid job security. And you get to contribute to your community and truly help people every time you go to work. So, which of these high paying jobs took you most by surprise? Would you consider working any of these jobs? Let us know in the comments! Be sure to check out our other video, 10 Tallest Buildings in the World. Thanks for watching, and, as always, don’t forget to like, share, and subscribe. See you next time!

Contents

Population growth

The following table shows the development of the number of inhabitants according to census data of Statistics Canada. The former municipalities of Point Grey and South Vancouver are not included in the data prior to 1931.[1] NB Vancouver did not exist as such at the time of the 1881 and 1871 censuses.

Population growth.[2]
Population growth.[2]
Vancouver
YearPop.±%
189113,709—    
190126,133+90.6%
1911100,401+284.2%
1921117,217+16.7%
1931246,593+110.4%
1941275,353+11.7%
1951344,833+25.2%
1956365,844+6.1%
1961384,522+5.1%
1966410,375+6.7%
1971426,256+3.9%
1976410,188−3.8%
1981414,281+1.0%
1986431,147+4.1%
1991471,644+9.4%
1996514,008+9.0%
2001545,671+6.2%
2006578,041+5.9%
2011603,502+4.4%
2016631,486+4.6%
Metro Vancouver
YearPop.±%
189121,887—    
190142,926+96.1%
1911164,020+282.1%
1921232,597+41.8%
1931347,709+49.5%
1941393,898+13.3%
1951562,462+42.8%
1961790,741+40.6%
19711,028,334+30.0%
19811,169,831+13.8%
19911,602,590+37.0%
19961,831,665+14.3%
20011,986,965+8.5%
20062,116,581+6.5%
20112,313,328+9.3%
20162,463,431+6.5%

Ethnic origin

The demographics of Vancouver reveal a multi-ethnic society. There remains a small population, less than 2%, of Aboriginal peoples, who according to archeological and historical records, have inhabited this region for more than 3,000 years.[citation needed]

From the time of Vancouver's first non-indigenous settlement in the second half of the 19th century, people from Britain and Ireland were the largest group of immigrants and, collectively, remain the largest ethnic grouping in Vancouver to this day. The largest non British or Irish ethnic groups situated in Vancouver include Chinese, Indians and Germans.

The city has one of the most diverse Chinese-speaking communities with several varieties of Chinese being represented. Vancouver contains the second-largest Chinatown in North America (after San Francisco's), and many multicultural neighbourhoods such as the Punjabi Market, Greektown, and Japantown. Commercial Drive, the core of the historic Little Italy, which is also the main Portuguese area, has become an alternative-culture focus, though traditional Italian and Portuguese and other establishments and residents remain in the area. Bilingual street signs can be seen in Chinatown and the Punjabi Market, and commercial signs in a wide array of languages can be seen all over the metropolitan area.

Ethnic groups in Metro Vancouver (2016)
Source: [1]
Population %
Ethnic group European 1,195,185 49.3%
Chinese 474,655 19.6%
South Asian 291,005 12%
Filipino 123,170 5.1%
Aboriginal 74,700 3.1%
Korean 52,980 2.2%
West Asian 46,010 1.9%
Southeast Asian 44,905 1.9%
Latin American 34,805 1.4%
Japanese 30,110 1.2%
Black 29,830 1.2%
Arab 16,430 0.7%
Multiple minorities 35,290 1.5%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 6,490 0.3%
Total population 2,426,235 100%


Aboriginal peoples

As of around 2009, 3% of residents of Vancouver state that they have at least some ancestry from the First Nations, and of that 3% over 50% state that they also have non-First Nations ancestry. A person with some First Nations ancestry may not necessarily identify as someone who is First Nations.[3]

There is a small community of aboriginal people in Vancouver as well as in the surrounding metropolitan region, with the result that Vancouver constitutes the largest native community in the province, albeit an unincorporated one (i.e. not as a band government).[citation needed] There is an equally large or larger Métis contingent.

British and European origins

Much of the white population consists of persons whose origins go back to the British Isles and, until recently, British Columbians with British and Irish ancestry most likely came directly from the British Isles, rather than via Ontario or the Maritime Provinces. Until the 1960s, it was easier to purchase the Times of London and The Guardian in Vancouver than it was to find the Toronto Globe and Mail or Montreal Gazette. Other large and historically important European ethnic groups consist of Germans, Dutch, French (of both European and Canadian origin), Ukrainians, Scandinavians, Finns, Italians, Croats, Hungarians, Greeks, and lately numerous Romanians, Russians, Portuguese, Serbs and Poles. Non-visible minorities such as newly arrived Eastern Europeans and the new wave of Latin Americans are also a feature of the city's ethnic landscape. Prior to the Hong Kong influx of the 1980s, the largest non-British Isles ethnic group in the city was German, followed by Ukrainian and the Scandinavian ethnicities. Most of these earlier immigrant groups are fully assimilated or intermarried with other groups, although a new generation of East Europeans form a distinct linguistic and social community.

Chinese origins

The first Chinese immigrants to British Columbia were men who came to "the British Colonies of Canada," as they called British Columbia, for the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush of 1858 and a decade later to work on building the Canadian Pacific Railway.

South Asian origins

Indian immigrants first arrived in Vancouver during the late 19th century.[4] Most ethnic South Asians in the Lower Mainland are Punjabi Sikhs. Surrey has the largest ethnic South Asian population in Metro Vancouver, at 32.4%. The Newton neighbourhood in Surrey contains the highest percentage of ethnic Indians in a neighbourhood in Metro Vancouver.[5]

Korean origins

As of 2014 there are about 70,000 ethnic Koreans in the Vancouver area.[6]

An H-Mart and several Korean restaurants are located on Robson Street.[7] As of 2008 there are many Korean national students at the university and primary/secondary levels studying English.[8] Other areas with Korean businesses include Kingsway in Vancouver, Burnaby, and New Westminster; other areas in Vancouver; North Road in Burnaby and Coquitlam, and areas of Port Coquitlam.[9] As of 2011 Coquitlam is a popular area of settlement for Koreans.[10]

Rimhak Ree (Yi Yimhak) came to Vancouver to study mathematics at the University of British Columbia in 1953, making him the first known ethnic Korean to live in the city.[11] There were about 50 ethnic Koreans in Vancouver in the mid-1960s. The first Korean United Church congregation in the city opened in 1965. Numbers of Korean immigration to Canada increased due to more permissive immigration laws established in the 1960s as well as the home country's political conflict and poverty. There were 1,670 ethnic Koreans in Vancouver by 1975, making up 16% of all ethnic Koreans in Canada and a 3000% increase from the mid-1960s population.[12] Korean immigration to Canada decreased after a more restrictive immigration law was enacted in 1978.[13]

Christianity is a popular religion among ethnic Koreans. About 200 Korean churches are in the Vancouver area.[6]

In 1986 Greater Vancouver had fewer than 5,000 ethnic Koreans. In 1991 the number had increased to 8,330. The number of ethnic Koreans in the Vancouver area increased by 69% in the period 1996 through 2001.[14] The number of university students from Korea choosing to study in Vancouver had become most of the Korean students studying in Canada by the late 1990s.[8] The first Korean grocery store in the North Road area opened in 2000.[9] In 2001 28,850 ethnic Koreans live in Greater Vancouver, and this increased to 44,825 according to the 2006 census.[14]

Canwest Global does a co-venture with the Canada Express, a Korean publication, to serve ethnic Koreans. It previously published a Korean edition of the Vancouver Sun but later stopped. Daniel Ahadi and Catherine A. Murray, authors of "Urban Mediascapes and Multicultural Flows: Assessing Vancouver’s Communication Infrastructure," wrote that the Korean edition of the Vancouver Sun was "error-fraught".[15]

Other Asian ethnicities

Other significant Asian ethnic groups in Vancouver are Vietnamese, Filipino, Cambodian and Japanese. In Vancouver the term 'Asian' is normally used to refer only to East Asian and Southeast Asian peoples, while South Asians are usually referred to as Indo-Canadian or East Indians. Technically, though, the term 'Asian' may refer to either group, and also to the large Persian and other Middle Eastern populations as well as elements from Central Asia.

Tables of ethnicities (Vancouver CMA)

By City

METRO VANCOUVER

By Riding

VANCOUVER

SURREY & OTHER SUBURBS

Visible minorities

Pie chart of the ethnic breakdown of Metro Vancouver from the 2016 census.

  European (48.6%)
  Chinese (19.6%)
  South Asian (12%)
  Filipino (5.1%)
  Aboriginal (3.1%)
  Korean (2.2%)
  West Asian (1.9%)
  Latin American (1.4%)
  Japanese (1.2%)
  Black (1.2%)
  Arab (0.7%)
  Multiple visible minorities (1.5%)
  Visible minority not included elsewhere (0.3%)

In the city of Vancouver and four adjacent municipalities (Surrey, Burnaby, Richmond, and Coquitlam), there is no visible majority. Hence, the term visible minority is used here in contrast to the overall Canadian population which remains predominantly of European descent. In Metro Vancouver, at the 2016 census, 48.9% of the population were members of non-European ethnic groups and 48.6% were members of European ethnic groups. 2.5% of the population identified as First Nations (see table, below).

Vancouver has more interracial couples and less residential segregation than Canada's two largest cities, Toronto and Montreal. In total, 7.2% of married and common-law couples in Greater Vancouver are interracial; double the Canadian average of 3.2%, and higher than in Toronto (6.1%) and Montreal (3.5%).

Visible minorities in Greater Vancouver[55][56]
Population group Population (2016) % of total population (2016) Population (1981) % of total population (1981)
Visible minority group Chinese 474,655 19.6% 63,845 5.1%
South Asian 291,005 12% 34,820 2.8%
Filipino 123,170 5.1% 15,050 1.2%
Korean 52,980 2.2% 6,000 0.5%
West Asian 46,010 1.9% 2,220 0.2%
Southeast Asian 44,905 1.9% 2,250 0.2%
Latin American 34,805 1.4% 3,025 0.2%
Japanese 30,110 1.2% 11,715 0.9%
Black 29,830 1.2% 2,570 0.2%
Arab 16,430 0.7% 2,305 0.2%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 6,490 0.3% 16,610 1.3%
Multiple visible minorities 35,295 1.5% 16,695 1.3%
Total visible minority population 1,185,680 48.9% 135,550 10.8%
European 1,179,100 48.6% 1,098,870 87.9%
Aboriginal group 61,455 2.5% 16,190 1.3%
Total population 2,426,235 100% 1,250,610 100%

Aboriginal peoples

Aboriginal peoples, who make up less than two percent of the city's population, are not considered a visible minority group by Statistics Canada.

Aboriginal peoples[57][58]
Aboriginal group First Nations 7,865 1.3% 7,510 1.3%
Métis 3,595 0.6% 3,235 0.6%
Inuit 70 0% 45 0%
Aboriginal, n.i.e. 305 0.1% 210 0%
Multiple Aboriginal identities 100 0% 140 0%
Total Aboriginal population 11,945 2% 11,145 1.9%
Total population 590,210 100% 571,600 100%

Future Projections

Ethnic Origin by Regional Group[59] Population (2016) Percent of 2,426,235 Population in 2036[60] Percent of 3,301,000
European origins 1,179,100 48.6% 1,250,000 37.9%
East and Southeast Asian origins 725,820 30% 1,216,000 36.8%
South and West Asian origins 337,015 13.9% 584,000 17.7%
Aboriginal origins 61,455 2.5% 97,000 2.9%
Latin, Central and South American origins 34,805 1.4% 73,000 2.2%
African origins 29,830 1.2% 55,000 1.7%
Arab origins 16,430 0.7% 42,000 1.3%
Other 41,785 1.8% 81,000 2.5%
*Percentages total more than 100% due to multiple responses, e.g. German-East Indian, Norwegian-Irish-Polish

Languages

The following figures come from the 2016 census profile for Vancouver, the census metropolitan area.[61]

Vancouver (census metropolitan area), knowledge of official languages

Language Population %
English only 2,130,565 87.3
French only 1,110 <0.1
English and French 172,140 7.1
Neither English nor French 136,320 5.6

Vancouver (census metropolitan area), population by mother tongue

Identified languages with 10,000+ speakers Population %
English 1,316,635 54.0
English + non-official language 69,885 2.9
Cantonese 184,370 7.6
Mandarin 174,920 7.2
Panjabi (Punjabi) 151,205 6.2
Tagalog (Filipino) 66,830 2.7
Korean 45,990 1.9
Persian (Farsi) 41,265 1.7
Spanish 36,625 1.5
French 25,000 1.0
Hindi 24,220 1.0
German 24,060 1.0
Vietnamese 22,950 0.9
Russian 18,170 0.7
Japanese 16,900 0.7
Italian 15,445 0.6
Arabic 14,320 0.6
Polish 12,040 0.5
Portuguese 11,950 0.5
Min Nan Chinese 10,655 0.4

Notes:

  • The figures for Cantonese, Mandarin and Min Nan do not include 8,485 speakers of "Chinese (not otherwise specified)", some of whom may speak Cantonese, Mandarin or Min Nan. The total number of speakers of all varieties of Chinese is 385,355.
  • The figure for Hindi does not include 8,880 speakers of Urdu, see Hindi–Urdu controversy.

Homelessness

The 2011 Metro Vancouver Homeless Count revealed that there were at least 2,650 people found to be homeless in Metro Vancouver.[62] This particular homeless count is and continues to be conducted once every three years, taking place over a brief 24-hour period. The report published on these results stated, "It is important to note that all Homeless Counts are inherently undercounts and that the 2011 Metro Vancouver Count was no exception."[62] Nonetheless, these counts can be used as indicators to determine homelessness trends within Metro Vancouver. Between 2002 and 2005, "the count revealed that homelessness in the region nearly doubled from 1121 to 2174 persons".[63] From 2005 to 2008, the count revealed a much smaller increase in homelessness, from 2174 to 2660 persons. Thus, it should be noted that the count conducted in 2011 implies that the homeless population has remained relatively stable between 2008 and 2011.

Of the homeless people surveyed in 2011, "71% were sheltered in either an emergency shelter, safe house, transition house or temporary facility such as a hospital, jail or detoxification centre...while 29% slept in outdoor locations or at someone else's place".[62] 74 of the 2,650 homeless persons counted were children – those under the age of 19 – who accompanied a parent who was also homeless. Furthermore, of the homeless youth surveyed, 102 individuals were under the age of 19, 221 between the ages of 19–24, and 74 whose ages could not be identified, for a total of 397 homeless. Adults constituted the largest cohort of homeless in Metro Vancouver with 275 individuals between the ages of 25–34, 328 between the ages of 35–44, and 397 between the ages of 45–54, for a total of 1,000 homeless. Lastly, seniors – those above the age of 55 – constituted 268 homeless people. Of the 2,650 people identified in the count, ages for 985 people could not be provided.

Homelessness doesn't occur suddenly, rather it is a progression wherein an individual becomes part of the group of 'at risk' individuals, remains in this group for some time, and then, finally, becomes homeless due to economic hardships and social dislocation.[64] "Contemporary definitions split homelessness into two broad groups: 'absolute' homelessness, which refers to persons or households literally without physical shelter, and 'relative' homelessness, which includes a range of housing situations characterized as being at-risk of homelessness."[63] Indeed, being classified as at-risk of homelessness does not imply that an individual or household will become homeless in the future, only that various pre-conditions exist that may lead to this.[65] These pre-conditions include, but are not restricted to the following: people living in SROs (Single Room Occupancy), people living in rooming houses, and people paying more than 50% of their net income towards housing costs.[64] "Two-thirds of responses from homeless individuals enumerated in a recent homeless count in Greater Vancouver cited economic reasons for their being homeless – with lack of income and cost of housing accounting for 44% and 22% of responses respectively."[65]

Housing affordability has and continues to be the top priority housing issue Vancouverites must resolve. In 1996, a study published by BC Housing revealed that 25% of renter households in Vancouver pay 50% or more of their incomes to rent.[64] The core housing need model, developed by the CMHC, uses a threshold of households spending at least 30% of their income on shelter costs to illuminate households experiencing acute housing affordability needs. "Moving from the 30% shelter cost-to-income ratio (STIR) used in the core housing need model, to a 50% threshold, typically reduces the number of households identified by more than half."[63] In 2001, Statistics Canada published a study using both the 30% and 50% thresholds to identify renters and homeowners facing unaffordable housing costs in Metro Vancouver. This study revealed that 8.1% of homeowners and 27.8% of renters exceeded the 30% threshold, while 4.0% of homeowners and 10.8% of renters exceeded the 50% threshold. More in depth still, this study also found that 18.5% of immigrants living in Vancouver exceeded the 30% threshold and 8.0% exceed the 50% threshold. Only 11.3% and 4.8% of Canadian born households exceeded the 30% and 50% thresholds, respectively.

Heather Smith and David Ley found that in Canada's gateway cities, "the appreciable growth of the low-income population during the 1990s was almost entirely attributable to the growing poverty of recent immigrants".[66] They go on to state, "adult immigrants who had landed in the previous decade endured a poverty rate of...37 percent in Vancouver".[66] Immigrants, recent and old, therefore constitute a large proportion of households in Metro Vancouver considered to be at-risk of homelessness. Analysis conducted by Robert Fiedler revealed that, in 2001, "29.1% of persons in households...in Greater Vancouver are below more than one CMHC housing standard, indicating that...some households not only must spend an unsustainably high proportion of their income on shelter costs, but must also live in overcrowded and/or substandard conditions to access housing".[65] Although many new immigrants to Canada come from educated backgrounds, many having bachelor's degrees, they are paid less on average than Canadian born individuals and "Over the past 25 years, the incomes of recent immigrants to Canada have progressively declined relative to the native-born."[67]

Recently, the City of Vancouver released a new strategy targeting homelessness and affordable housing. The strategy will be enacted in 2012 and will run until 2021, with the goal of ending street homelessness completely by 2015, as well as increasing affordable housing choices for all Vancouverites. The City of Vancouver indicates that from 2002 to 2011, "homelessness has increased nearly three-fold" from approximately 628 homeless in 2002, to 1,605 homeless in 2011.[68] The strategy goes on to report that SRO rooms are increasingly being lost to conversions and rent increases even though SRO hotels constitute a majority of Vancouver's lowest income housing stock. As Robert Fiedler noted in 2006, "renters are disproportionately located in the City of Vancouver, which contains only 27.8% of the area's total population, but 40.2% of all renters".[65] Furthermore, low vacancy rates in Vancouver's market rental stock, a decreasing new supply of apartments in recent decades, and a widening gap of household incomes and housing prices are just a few challenges that must be overcome. By 2021, the City of Vancouver hopes to enable 5,000 additional social housing units, 11,000 new market rental-housing units, and 20,000 market ownership units.[68]

Religion

Religion in Metro Vancouver (2011)[69]

  Christian (41.7%)
  Irreligious (41.5%)
  Sikh (6.8%)
  Buddhist (3.4%)
  Muslim (3.2%)
  Jewish (1.8%)
  Hindu (1.8%)
  Other (0.8%)

Vancouver, like the rest of British Columbia, has a low rate of church attendance compared with the rest of the continent and the majority of the population does not practice religion.[70][71] It has a significant Buddhist population, mostly adherents from China.[citation needed]

Vancouver Religious Profile from 2011 Census[72]
48.8% No religious affiliation, including agnostic, atheist, Humanist, and "no religion"
36.2% Christian
5.7% Buddhist
6.8% Sikh
2.2% Muslim
1.8% Jewish
1.8% Hindu
0.9% Other religions, including Pagan, Wicca, Unity, New Thought,
Pantheist, Scientology, Rastafarian, New Age, Gnostic, Satanist
0.1% Aboriginal spirituality

Notes

  1. ^ "Vancouver Public Library" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2007-02-06.
  2. ^ Data taken from: "British Columbia Regional District and Municipal Census Populations" (PDF). BC Stats.; "British Columbia Municipal and Regional District 1996 Census Results". BC Stats.[permanent dead link];"British Columbia Municipal and Regional District 2001 Census Results". BC Stats.[permanent dead link];Davis, Chuck (1997). The Greater Vancouver Book: An Urban Encyclopedia. Surrey, BC: Linkman Press. p. 780. ISBN 978-1-896846-00-2.
  3. ^ Bloemraad, Irene. "Diversity and Elected Officials in the City of Vancouver" (Chapter 2). In: Andrew, Caroline, John Biles, Myer Siemiatycki, and Erin Tolley (editors). Electing a Diverse Canada: The Representation of Immigrants, Minorities, and Women. UBC Press, July 1, 2009. ISBN 0774858583, 9780774858588. Start p. 46. CITED: p. 68.
  4. ^ Walton-Roberts and Hiebert, Immigration, Entrepreneurship, and the Family Archived 2014-10-18 at WebCite, p. 124.
  5. ^ "The Vancouver Sun maps the ethnic makeup of Metro Vancouver (interactive)". Vancouver Sun. October 13, 2011.
  6. ^ a b "Metro’s 70,000 ethnic Koreans: Most turn to fervent, conservative Christianity." Vancouver Sun. March 2, 2014. Retrieved on December 24, 2014.
  7. ^ Baker p. 162-163 (PDF 9-10/26).
  8. ^ a b Baker p. 163 (PDF 10/26).
  9. ^ a b Baker, Don and Larry DeVries. "Introduction" (Archive). In: DeVries, Larry, Don Baker, and Dan Overmyer (editors). Asian Religions in British Columbia (Asian Religions and Society Series). University of British Columbia Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-7748-1662-5. p. 5.
  10. ^ "Ethnic mapping 6: Koreans, Poles, Scots, Ukrainians and more." Vancouver Sun. October 20, 2011. Retrieved on December 24, 2014.
  11. ^ Baker p. 159 (PDF 6/26).
  12. ^ Baker p. 160 (PDF 7/26).
  13. ^ Baker p. 160-161 (PDF 7-8/26).
  14. ^ a b Baker p. 162 (PDF 9/26).
  15. ^ Ahadi, Daniel and Catherine A. Murray (Simon Fraser University). "Urban Mediascapes and Multicultural Flows: Assessing Vancouver’s Communication Infrastructure" (Archive). Canadian Journal of Communication, Vol 34 (2009) p. 587-611. CITED: p. 596.
  16. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Vancouver [Census metropolitan area], British Columbia and British Columbia [Province] Ethnic Origin". Statistics Canada.
  17. ^ Profile of Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities for Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census Archived October 30, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ "Vancouver City".
  19. ^ "Surrey City".
  20. ^ "Burnaby City".
  21. ^ "Richmond City".
  22. ^ "Coquitlam City".
  23. ^ "Langley Township".
  24. ^ "Delta City".
  25. ^ "North Vancouver District".
  26. ^ "Maple Ridge".
  27. ^ "New Westminster".
  28. ^ "Port Coquitlam City".
  29. ^ "North Vancouver City".
  30. ^ "West Vancouver City".
  31. ^ "Port Moody City".
  32. ^ "Langley City".
  33. ^ "Vancouver Centre".
  34. ^ "Vancouver East".
  35. ^ "Vancouver Quadra".
  36. ^ "Vancouver-Kingsway".
  37. ^ "Vancouver Granville".
  38. ^ "Vancouver South".
  39. ^ "Surrey Centre".
  40. ^ "Surrey-Newton".
  41. ^ "South Surrey-White Rock".
  42. ^ "New Westminster-Burnaby".
  43. ^ "Burnaby South".
  44. ^ "Burnaby North-Seymour".
  45. ^ "Steveston-Richmond East".
  46. ^ "Richmond Centre".
  47. ^ "Coquitlam-Port Coquitlam".
  48. ^ "Port Moody-Coquitlam".
  49. ^ "Langley-Aldergrove".
  50. ^ "Cloverdale-Langley City".
  51. ^ "Fleetwood-Port Kells".
  52. ^ "Delta".
  53. ^ "Pitt Meadows-Maple Ridge".
  54. ^ "North Vancouver".
  55. ^ Census Profile, 2016 Census: Greater Vancouver, Regional district. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  56. ^ 1981 Census of Canada: British Columbia. Ethnic Origin. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  57. ^ "Statistics Canada: 2006 Community Profiles". 12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  58. ^ "Statistics Canada: 2006 Aboriginal Population Profile". 12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  59. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census: Greater Vancouver, Regional district". Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  60. ^ "Population by visible minority group, place of residence and projection scenario, Canada, 2011 and 2036". Retrieved 2018-10-02.
  61. ^ Vancouver (census metropolitan area) Profile, Vancouver 2016
  62. ^ a b c Regional Steering Committee on Homelessness (February 2012). Results of the 2011 Metro Vancouver Homeless Count (Report).
  63. ^ a b c Fiedler, Rob; Schuurman, Hyndman (8 May 2006). "Hidden homelessness: An indicator-based approach for examining the geographies of recent immigrants at-risk of homelessness in Greater Vancouver". Cities. 3. 23: 11. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2006.03.004.
  64. ^ a b c Eberle Planning and Research (April 2001). Homelessness - Causes and Effects: A Profile, Policy Review and Analysis of Homelessness in British Columbia (PDF) (Report).
  65. ^ a b c d Fiedler, Robert (2006). Geographies of Immigrants at Risk for Homelessness in Greater Vancouver (M.A. thesis). Simon Fraser University. p. 108.
  66. ^ a b Smith, Heather; Ley (25 June 2008). "Even in Canada? The Multiscalar Construction and Experience of Concentrated Immigrant Poverty in Gateway Cities". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 3. 98: 27. doi:10.1080/00045600802104509.
  67. ^ Moore, Eric; Pacey (25 June 2008). "Changing Income Inequality and Immigration in Canada, 1980-1995". Canadian Public Policy. 1. 29: 19. JSTOR 3552487.
  68. ^ a b City of Vancouver (June 2011). Vancouver's Housing and Homeless Strategy 2012-2021: A Home for Everyone (Report).
  69. ^ "Metro Vancouver Population by Religion, 2011 NHS" (PDF). Metrovancouver.org. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  70. ^ "Clark, Warren. "Patterns of Religious Attendance"" (PDF). Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  71. ^ Babych, Art. "Attendance Drops in Church". Western Catholic Reporter. Archived 2007-09-02 at the Wayback Machine
  72. ^ "2011 National Household Survey Profile - Census subdivision". 12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 27 May 2018.

References

Further reading

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