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Declaration of Independence (Trumbull)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Declaration of Independence
About 50 men, most of them seated, are in a large meeting room. Most are focused on the five men standing in the center of the room. The tallest of the five is laying a document on a table.
ArtistJohn Trumbull
Yearcommissioned 1817; purchased 1819;
date of creation 1818;
1826 placed in the Rotunda
Dimensions3.7 m × 5.5 m (12 ft × 18 ft)
LocationU.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C., U.S.

Declaration of Independence is a 12-by-18-foot (3.7 by 5.5 m) oil-on-canvas painting by American John Trumbull depicting the presentation of the draft of the Declaration of Independence to Congress. It was based on a much smaller version of the same scene, presently held by the Yale University Art Gallery.[1] Trumbull painted many of the figures in the picture from life, and visited Independence Hall to depict the chamber where the Second Continental Congress met. The oil-on-canvas work was commissioned in 1817, purchased in 1819, and placed in the United States Capitol rotunda in 1826.

The painting is sometimes incorrectly described as the signing of the Declaration of Independence. The painting shows the five-man drafting committee presenting their draft of the Declaration to the Congress, an event that took place on June 28, 1776, and not the signing of the document, which took place later.[2]

The painting shows 42 of the 56 signers of the Declaration; Trumbull originally intended to include all 56 signers but was unable to obtain likenesses for all of them. He also depicted several participants in the debate who did not sign the document, including John Dickinson, who declined to sign. Trumbull had no portrait of Benjamin Harrison V to work with, but his son Benjamin Harrison VI was said to resemble his father, so Trumbull painted him instead. As the Declaration was debated and signed over a period of time when membership in Congress changed, the men featured in the painting never were in the same room at the same time.

In the painting, Thomas Jefferson appears to be stepping on John Adams' foot, which many thought was supposed to symbolize their relationship as political enemies. However, upon closer examination of the painting, it can be seen that their feet are merely close together. This part of the image was correctly depicted on the two-dollar bill version.

Three British ensigns and a single English ensign can be seen hanging on the farthest wall in the painting, though this is not depicted in all versions, most notably the one seen on the two-dollar bill.

Key to historical figures depicted in the painting

George WytheWilliam WhippleJosiah BartlettThomas Lynch, Jr.Benjamin HarrisonRichard Henry LeeSamuel AdamsGeorge ClintonWilliam PacaSamuel ChaseLewis MorrisWilliam FloydArthur MiddletonThomas Heyward, Jr.Charles CarrollGeorge WaltonRobert MorrisThomas WillingBenjamin RushElbridge GerryRobert Treat PaineAbraham ClarkStephen HopkinsWilliam ElleryGeorge ClymerWilliam HooperJoseph HewesJames WilsonFrancis HopkinsonJohn AdamsRoger ShermanRobert LivingstonThomas JeffersonBenjamin FranklinRichard StocktonFrancis LewisJohn WitherspoonSamuel HuntingtonWilliam WilliamsOliver WolcottCharles ThomsonJohn HancockGeorge ReadJohn DickinsonEdward RutledgeThomas McKeanPhilip Livingston
Trumbull's Declaration of Independence
Mano cursor.svg Clickable image: Point at a face to identify the person, click to go to the corresponding article.

Click anywhere else in the image to go to the image's file page and view a larger version.
U.S. government's key to the painting
U.S. government's key to the painting

The following key to the 47 figures in the painting follows the numbering used by the U.S. government publication "Art of the Capitol" (in the illustration of the key shown in this section) but provides a different (hopefully clearer) description of which figure is where in the painting, so numbers are not entirely in order.

Key to figures (in each group, listed from left to right):

Four men seated on the far left:

Seated at the table on the left:

Seated together to the right of Harrison and in front of the standing figures:

Five figures standing together on the left:

Three seated figures in the back between the two sets of standing figures:

Set of three figures standing together in the back:

Ten figures seated:

Five figures standing in front (the Committee of Five):

Four background figures seated together near the right corner of the room:

Two figures standing in the right corner of the room:

Two foreground figures at the central table:

Three figures standing at right:

Two figures seated at far right:

(Note: Not a signer of the final declaration, but is depicted in painting. - Not a signer of the final Declaration of Independence but depicted in painting. Although Charles Thomson was one of two members listed by name in the earlier Dunlap Broadside as having attested to the Declaration, and many historians believe he had signed the original document that was lost. Clinton was not present at the signing of the Declaration.)

Unpainted signers

There were 14 signers of the Declaration who did not appear in the painting:

On U.S. currency and postage stamps

The painting was pictured on an 1869 United States 24-cent definitive postage stamp
The painting was pictured on an 1869 United States 24-cent definitive postage stamp

Trumbull's Declaration of Independence signing scene painting has been depicted several times on United States currency and postage stamps. It was first used on the reverse side of the $100 National Bank Note that was issued in 1863.[3] The depiction was engraved by Frederick Girsch of the American Bank Note Company.[4] The same steel engraving was used on the 24¢ stamp issued six years later as part of the 1869 pictorial series of definitive U.S. postage stamps.[5]

Trumbull's painting is presently depicted on the reverse of the two-dollar bill. Featured in it are 40 of the 47 figures from Trumbull's painting. Cut out from the scene are: the farthest four figures on the left—George Wythe, William Whipple, Josiah Bartlett, and Thomas Lynch, Jr.; the farthest two figures on the right—Thomas McKean and Philip Livingston; and one of three figures seated in the left rear—George Walton. Additionally, two unrecognized figures were added: one in between Samuel Chase and Lewis Morris and another between James Wilson and Francis Hopkinson, bringing the total number of figures shown in this presentation scene to 42.

1863 United States 100-dollar National Bank Note (reverse)
1976 United States two-dollar bill (reverse)

Other versions

The Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776, John Trumbull, (1786–1820), Yale University Art Gallery
The Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776, John Trumbull, (1786–1820), Yale University Art Gallery

Trumbull painted a smaller version (only 20.875 by 31 inches (53.02 cm × 78.74 cm)) entitled The Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776 (1786–1820) that is now on view at the Yale University Art Gallery in New Haven, Connecticut.[1]

See also


  1. ^ a b Trumbull, John. "The Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776". Yale University Art Gallery.
  2. ^ John Hazelton, "The Historical Value of Trumbull's - 'Declaration of Independence' ", The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography - Volume 31, (Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1907), 38.
  3. ^ "History Timeline". Bureau of Engraving and Printing/Treasury Website. Archived from the original on 2014-01-14. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ Hessler, Gene (1993). The Engraver's Line – An Encyclopedia of Paper Money & Postage Stamp Art. BNR Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-931960-36-3.
  5. ^ Forster, Jeffrey (2012). "The Chronicle's Assistant Section Editor - 1869 Pictorial Issue". U.S. Philatelic Classics Society. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved November 3, 2015.

External links

Keys to the figures
This page was last edited on 6 May 2020, at 01:24
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