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Death row is a special placement in a prison that houses inmates awaiting execution after being convicted of a capital crime. The term is also used figuratively to describe the state of awaiting execution ("being on death row"), even in places where no special facility or separate unit for condemned inmates exists. In the United States, after a person is found guilty of a capital offense in death penalty states, the judge will give the jury the option of imposing a death sentence or life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. It is then up to a jury to decide whether to give the death sentence; this usually has to be an unanimous decision. If the jury agrees on death, the defendant will remain on death row during appeal and habeas corpus procedures, which may continue for several years.

Opponents of capital punishment claim that a prisoner's isolation and uncertainty over his or her fate constitute a form of mental cruelty and that especially long-time death row inmates are liable to become mentally ill, if they do not already suffer such a condition. This is referred to as the death row phenomenon. Some inmates may attempt to commit suicide.

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At time of writing there are 2,738 inmates on death row in the United States. This number can change quite frequently, given that some prisoners of course might be executed, but others might have their sentence commuted, they might have their sentence overturned or someone else may join them on death row. Right now only two percent of people on death row are women. 42 percent of people are classed as white, 41 percent black, 13 percent Latino, 1.9 percent Asian, one percent Native American and the rest is stated as unknown. You can be on death row for a long, long time, and believe it or not the average time spent there from sentencing to the day in the execution chamber is 20 years. Let’s now see what happens on that final day. 8 pm: The inmate is taken from death row to another cell. This involves a drive from the prison to what one former official in a documentary called “The Death House.” That official said, “Prior to leaving death row and getting in the van to come to the death house the inmate will be searched really well.” He said this wasn’t only because a weapon might harm a guard, but mainly because they don’t want the prisoner committing suicide. Another guard interviewed said he once took a route to the death house where they couldn’t be ambushed. Tensions are high during these events. He also said, “The atmosphere in the van was solemn. We all knew where we were going and why…nobody said a whole lot.” Once the prisoner goes into the death house he won’t ever see the light of day again, unless some kind of appeal works for him. 9 pm: After booking in he can sleep until he is awakened, if indeed he can sleep. We managed to find the diary of one prisoner who described his move to this new cell. “They stripped me out with a female officer present,” he wrote. “Now, personally, I'm not the shy type, but having a female officer on death watch is just one more humiliation.” We are told that during this time the prisoner is on something called “Death Watch”. He is watched all the time in case he tries to take his own life. This cell is close to the execution chamber and it is very private, a space where the inmate can reflect on life as the hours count down. This might happen just one day before, but we found cases when it was a couple of days. Prisoners will also be given special clothes in most cases, much smarter than prison attire. The man who kept the diary wrote he was happy to have at last a pair of trousers with a button and zip. We don’t know how well he slept, but in his diary he comments about watching the guards sleep. This is what he wrote, “Good for them. I'm sure this has to be stressful to them. So a moment's relaxation is well earned. I also enjoy the irony... Exactly who is watching whom?” One other thing he says is that the death house is much cleaner than his death row cell. He remarks that there is not a bug in sight, whereas in his last cell it was like going on “safari.” 4.30 am: The inmate is woken up bright and early in his cell. We should add here times might change from place to place. Petitions might still be pending, and there is a phone right outside the cell. In the cell there is a shower, a toilet, a bed and a desk. During this last day the prisoner is allowed to see family and can be visited by a chaplain. As for calling people, the inmate can write down a list of phone numbers he intends to call and give that to the guards. One guard interviewed said, “We would dial the number for him and then allow him to make his call.” But after the prisoner has called the last person on his list, the only person he will have to talk to is the chaplain. We are told after this last call it can be a very traumatic time. One chaplain interviewed said, “I was to do everything and anything to help him face that last day, whatever it was, writing letters, making phones calls, singing songs, listening, listening and listening.” 8.00 am: We said they can have visitors, but 8 am is the cut-off time. After that the prisoner is on his own besides having prison staff around and of course anyone involved in his case should something change. The chaplain can still visit, too. At around this time in the actual death chamber it is very likely that the equipment will be tested. This might mean checking that the straps on the gurney work or even checking the phone to the governor’s office is working. Yep, imagine it wasn’t and there was a last minute reprieve. If the form of execution is the chair, then it’s electrical components have to be tested. In one case we found, the actual governor was the person who they strapped in to test if he could get out or move out of the straps. “I didn’t want my staff to get kicked in the face,” he remarked. 10.30 am: Now it’s lunchtime. Yes, this is an early lunch, but let’s not forget the inmate has been up a long time already. Lunch is not special, it’s not the last meal. From what we can see, it’s the same old prison food. The only difference is that the prisoner gets to eat it in a private setting. The inmate we talked about before said what he got for lunch was orange juice and what he called a prison issue doughnut. For quite a few hours now the prisoner has a lot of time to think, and as you know, they have a desk and can write any number of letters, goodbyes, or just reflect on life. 3 pm: If the inmate is to get the electric chair, he will have his head shaved around this time, but this might also happen later in the day. He might still talk to a spiritual advisor, but food might also be on his mind right now. Around this time, maybe an hour or so later, the inmate will also be asked to dress in those smart clothes he has been given. He will be asked to take a shower before he does this, a shower at least in total privacy. He will have already written down what he wants to eat, so in the kitchen the death house chef will be doing all the preparations. 4.00 pm: The inmate will receive his last meal. Contrary to popular belief, inmates can’t just order what they want. It makes sense, because it’s highly unlikely that authorities would splash out on the finest wagyu beef. In Florida for instance, the maximum this last meal can cost is forty bucks, but this will change from state-to-state. Those poor convicts over in Oklahoma only get a limit of $15, or at least when one documentary we watched was made. That is hardly enough to go crazy on your last meal. It’s still good, though, as one death house chef pointed out, this meal is the only choice of food they might have had in two decades. In some states though, prisoners no longer get a bespoke last meal and only get the usual prison food. To give you an idea of what inmates might choose, we will list some last meals. Serial killer John Wayne Gacy had 12 fried shrimp, an entire bucket of KFC, some French fries, and a whole load of strawberries. The man behind the Oklahoma bombing, Timothy McVeigh, just opted for two pints of mint chocolate chip ice cream. A Killer from Florida called Angel Nieves Diaz chose absolutely nothing. The terrible Ted Bundy did pretty much the opposite, ordering a steak cooked medium rare, eggs on the side, over easy, some hash browns, slices of toast and some milk and juice. The infamous female serial killer Aileen Wuornos was good with just a cup of coffee, while a murderer called Steven Woods must have been famished. We should add that many thought he was innocent and his last words were, “You're not about to witness an execution, you are about to witness a murder.” Before he said that, he asked to eat, according to the website Ranker, “Two pounds of bacon, a large four-meat pizza, four fried chicken breasts, two drinks each of Mountain Dew, Pepsi, root beer, and sweet tea, two pints of ice cream, five chicken fried steaks, two hamburgers with bacon, fries, and a dozen garlic bread sticks with marinara on the side.” That state must have had a big budget. 5 pm: The witnesses will likely arrive at the prison. This might be family of the victims, journalists, family of the condemned, friends of the condemned or whoever the condemned has asked to be witness. They will be told to try and stay quiet when they reach the witness room. Before that they will wait somewhere else. In most states, civilians who didn’t know anyone involved will be asked to witness the execution. 6-8 pm: The time of execution can vary from state to state, but it’s just about always in the early evening. At this point the prisoner will be taken to the execution room. The witnesses will soon be in the witness room. Prisoners for the most part will just walk right there and not give the guards any problems. In some states, this will be with a five man team, just in case there is a struggle. But that doesn’t happen often. One warden interviewed who had done 89 executions said he’d only had one prisoner that was hard to deal with. The walk to the chamber in most places is only about 10 feet, just over three meters. “These guys would usually walk right up to the electric chair. They weren't forced by the staff. By that point, they've already accepted what will happen,” a former death watch guard told Business Insider. Another guard in a separate interview said the same, “Inmates usually act very dignified. It's a very clean procedure, there's no hustling and bustling.” It’s not always this way, especially if the prisoner is protesting his innocence. In 2018, the BBC reported that one man in Florida was screaming and thrashing before he was executed, screaming to everyone that they were murdering an innocent man. One warden said, “The first thing that catches his eye is that gurney, which is the place he’s gonna die.” If it is lethal injection, which it often is, the prisoner is told to sit on the gurney and then lay down. There will be a tie-down team each responsible for a part of the prisoner’s body. Doctors will usually not be at the execution because this is not in line with their code of ethics, so there will be a special team to administer the drugs. This is not always easy as veins tend to hide during this stressful time. “Some of them had burnt veins from drugs which would make the process longer and more painful” said one former warden. When the catheters are in place the inmate will be secured again. There is about 15 minutes before the execution. Believe it or not, some inmates have got a “stay”, which means a call to stop the execution, during these last minutes. If that doesn’t happen, the witnesses are brought into the main room and the curtains are undrawn. Some inmates might make a final statement. It depends on the state, but some prisoners might be given a few minutes and others just allowed to make a brief statement. Kentucky gives two minutes, but in Pennsylvania you can’t talk at all and the statement can only be written. Here are some fairly recent examples of last words: “I'm ready to roll. Time to get this party started.” “My last words will be, 'Hoka hey, it's a good day to die.” “Somebody needs to kill my trial attorney.” “I think that governor's phone is broke. He hasn't called yet.” These are of course unusual ones, and most people will just say their goodbyes to loved ones or give an apology for what they did. At this point the chaplain might lay a hand on the prisoner, sometimes where there is a pulse. The warden will give the signal to the executioner and then it’s time. The end of the day, the end of a life. All we are going to ask you, is what do you think about this? Do you think this is what criminals deserve? Tell us in the comments. Also, be sure to check out our other video Man So Violent Even Other Prisoners Fear Him. Thanks for watching, and as always, please don’t forget to like, share and subscribe. See you next time.


United States

United States Penitentiary, Terre Haute houses the male death row prisoners sentenced by the U.S. federal government
United States Penitentiary, Terre Haute houses the male death row prisoners sentenced by the U.S. federal government
San Quentin State Prison houses the male death row prisoners sentenced by the U.S. state of California
San Quentin State Prison houses the male death row prisoners sentenced by the U.S. state of California
Allan B. Polunsky Unit houses the male death row prisoners sentenced by the U.S. state of Texas
Allan B. Polunsky Unit houses the male death row prisoners sentenced by the U.S. state of Texas
Louisiana State Penitentiary, which houses the male death row prisoners sentenced by the State of Louisiana
Louisiana State Penitentiary, which houses the male death row prisoners sentenced by the State of Louisiana
The Mississippi State Penitentiary, which houses male death row prisoners sentenced by the State of Mississippi
The Mississippi State Penitentiary, which houses male death row prisoners sentenced by the State of Mississippi
Oklahoma State Penitentiary, which houses male death row prisoners sentenced by the state of Oklahoma
Oklahoma State Penitentiary, which houses male death row prisoners sentenced by the state of Oklahoma

In the United States, prisoners may wait many years before execution can be carried out due to the complex and time-consuming appeals procedures mandated in the jurisdiction. The time between sentencing and execution has increased relatively steadily between 1977 and 2010, including a 22% jump between 1989 and 1990 and a similar jump between 2008 and 2009. In 2010, a death row inmate waited an average of 178 months (roughly 15 years) between sentencing and execution.[1] Nearly a quarter of inmates on death row in the U.S. die of natural causes while awaiting execution.[2]

There were 3,125 people on death row in the United States on January 1, 2013.[3] Since 1977, the states of Texas (464), Virginia (108) and Oklahoma (94) have executed the most death row inmates.[1] As of 2010, California (683), Florida (390), Texas (330) and Pennsylvania (218) housed more than half of all inmates pending on death row. As of 2008, the longest-serving prisoner on death row in the US who has been executed was Thomas Knight who served over 39 years. He was executed in Florida in 2014.[4][5] While Knight was the longest-serving executed inmate, Gary Alvord arrived on Florida's death row in 1974 and died 39 years later on May 19, 2013 from a brain tumor, having spent more time on death row than any American.[6] Brandon Astor Jones spent 36 years on death row (with a brief period in the general prison population during his re-sentencing trial) before being executed for felony murder by the state of Georgia in 2016, at the age of 72.[7] The oldest prisoner on death row in the United States was Leroy Nash, age 94, in Arizona. He died of natural causes on February 12, 2010.[8]

Death row locations in the United States

Men's death row Women's death row
Civilian Federal United States Penitentiary, Terre Haute, Terre Haute, Indiana , ADX Florence, Colorado and USMCFP Springfield, Springfield, Missouri[9] Federal Medical Center, Carswell, Fort Worth, Texas[10][11][12]
Military United States Disciplinary Barracks, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Naval Consolidated Brig, Miramar, San Diego, California[A]
State Men's death row Women's death row
Alabama Holman Correctional Facility, Atmore[13] and William E. Donaldson Correctional Facility, Bessemer[14] Julia Tutwiler Prison for Women, Wetumpka[15]
Arizona Arizona State Prison Complex - Eyman, Florence, Arizona and Arizona State Prison Complex – Florence , Florence, Arizona[16] Arizona State Prison Complex - Perryville, Goodyear[16]
Arkansas Varner Unit, Varner[17] McPherson Unit, Newport[18]
California San Quentin State Prison, San Quentin and Corcoran State Prison, Corcoran[19] Central California Women’s Facility, Chowchilla[19]
Colorado No designated death row
Currently all condemned prisoners are at Sterling Correctional Facility, Sterling[20]
Denver Women's Correctional Facility, Denver
Florida Union Correctional Institution, Union County and Florida State Prison, Bradford County[21] Lowell Correctional Institution Annex, Marion County[21]
Georgia Georgia Diagnostic and Classification Prison, Butts County[22] Arrendale State Prison, Habersham County[23]
Idaho Idaho Maximum Security Institution, Kuna Pocatello Women's Correctional Center, Pocatello
Indiana Indiana State Prison, Michigan City Indiana Women's Prison, Indianapolis
Kansas El Dorado Correctional Facility, El Dorado Topeka Correctional Facility, Topeka
Kentucky Kentucky State Penitentiary, Eddyville[24] Kentucky Correctional Institute for Women, Shelby County[25]
Louisiana Louisiana State Penitentiary, West Feliciana Parish[26] Louisiana Correctional Institute for Women, St. Gabriel[27]
Mississippi Mississippi State Penitentiary, Sunflower County[28] Central Mississippi Correctional Facility, Rankin County[28]
Missouri Potosi Correctional Center, Washington County[29] Women's Eastern Reception, Diagnostic and Correctional Center, Vandalia[citation needed]
Montana Montana State Prison, Deer Lodge Montana Women's Prison, Billings
Nebraska Tecumseh State Correctional Institution, Tecumseh Nebraska Correctional Center for Women, York
Nevada Ely State Prison, Ely[30] Florence McClure Women's Correctional Center, North Las Vegas[31]
New Hampshire New Hampshire State Prison for Men, Concord New Hampshire State Prison for Women, Goffstown
New Mexico Penitentiary of New Mexico, Santa Fe County Northwest New Mexico Correctional Facility, Grants
North Carolina Central Prison, Raleigh[32] North Carolina Correctional Institution for Women, Raleigh[32]
Ohio Chillicothe Correctional Institution, Ross County,[33] Ohio State Penitentiary, Youngstown[33] and Franklin Medical Center, Columbus[33] Ohio Reformatory for Women, Marysville[33]
Oklahoma Oklahoma State Penitentiary, McAlester Mabel Bassett Correctional Center, McLoud, Oklahoma
Oregon Oregon State Penitentiary, Salem[34] Coffee Creek Correctional Facility, Wilsonville[34]
Pennsylvania SCI-Greene, Franklin Township
and SCI-Phoenix, Skippack Township[35]
SCI-Muncy, Clinton Township[35]
South Carolina Broad River Correctional Institution, Columbia[36] Camille Griffin Graham Correctional Institution, Columbia[37]
South Dakota South Dakota State Penitentiary, Sioux Falls South Dakota Women's Prison, Pierre
Tennessee Riverbend Maximum Security Institution, Nashville[38] and Morgan County Correctional Complex, Wartburg[38] Tennessee Prison for Women, Nashville[38]
Texas Polunsky Unit, West Livingston & Jester IV Unit, Fort Bend[39][40] Mountain View Unit, Gatesville[40]
Utah Utah State Prison, Draper Central Utah Correctional Facility, Gunnison
Virginia Sussex I State Prison, Sussex County[41][42] Fluvanna Correctional Center for Women, Troy[43][44]
Wyoming Wyoming State Penitentiary, Rawlins Wyoming Women's Center, Lusk


  1. ^ Naval Consolidated Brig, Miramar is the only facility in the United States Department of Defense designated to house female Level III inmates.

Other countries

When the United Kingdom had capital punishment, sentenced inmates were given one appeal. If that appeal was found to involve an important point of law it was taken up to the House of Lords, and if the appeal was successful, at that point the sentence was changed to life in prison.[45] The British Home Secretary had the power to exercise the Sovereign's royal prerogative of mercy to grant a reprieve on execution and change the sentence to life imprisonment.

In some Caribbean countries that still authorize execution, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is the ultimate court of appeals. It has upheld appeals by prisoners who have spent several years under sentence of death, stating that it does not desire to see the death row phenomenon emerge in countries under its jurisdiction.

See also


  1. ^ a b "Department of Justice: Capital Punishment, 2010 Figures". Journalist's
  2. ^ "United States Department of Justice". Archived from the original on 2007-08-21. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ "Jack Alderman Executed". Archived from the original on 2008-09-26. Retrieved 2008-09-23.
  6. ^ "A man too crazy to be executed". Tampa Bay Times.
  7. ^
  8. ^ "BBC News - Oldest US death row inmate dies aged 94". Retrieved 2016-11-01.
  9. ^ "Special Confinement Unit Opens at USP Terre Haute." Federal Bureau of Prisons. July 13, 1999. Retrieved on October 3, 2010.
  10. ^ Marshall, John. "Lisa Montgomery gets death penalty for killing pregnant woman." Associated Press at the Southeast Missourian. Friday April 4, 2008. Retrieved on October 3, 2010. "Department of Justice spokesman Don Ledford said Montgomery will likely be sent to the Federal Medical Center Carswell in Fort Worth, Texas, a women's correctional facility that has medical services for inmates."
  11. ^ "Lisa M Montgomery." Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on October 3, 2010.
  12. ^ "Angela Johnson." Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on October 14, 2010.
  13. ^ "Annual Report Fiscal Year 2003." Alabama Department of Corrections. 33/84. Retrieved on August 15, 2010. "which also included a cellblock for 20 death row inmates."
  14. ^ "Annual Report Fiscal Year 2003." Alabama Department of Corrections. 21/84. Retrieved on August 15, 2010. "Donaldson has a death row unit with a capacity of 24 inmates."
  15. ^ "Annual Report Fiscal Year 2003." Alabama Department of Corrections. 45/84. Retrieved on August 15, 2010. "Tutwiler also has a death row,"
  16. ^ a b "Death Row Information and Frequently Asked Questions." Arizona Department of Corrections. Retrieved on December 20, 2018.
  17. ^ "State Capitol Week in Review." State of Arkansas. June 13, 2008. Retrieved on August 15, 2010. "Executions are carried out in the Cummins Unit, which is adjacent to Varner."
  18. ^ Haddigan, Michael. "They Kill Women, Don't They?" Arkansas Times. April 9, 1999. Retrieved on August 15, 2010.
  19. ^ a b "History of Capital Punishment in California Archived July 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine." California Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 16, 2010. "All male prisoners on condemned status are housed at a maximum-security custody level in three units at San Quentin State Prison. Females are housed in a maximum-security unit at Central California Women’s Facility in Chowchilla."
  20. ^ "Death Row FAQ." (Archive) Colorado Department of Corrections. Retrieved on April 19, 2012.
  21. ^ a b "Death Row Fact Sheet." Florida Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 15, 2010.
  22. ^ "Georgia Diagnostic and Classification Prison." Georgia Department of Corrections. Retrieved on July 18, 2010.
  23. ^ "Inmates Under Death Sentence January 1, 2012 Changes to UDS Population During 2011." (Archive) Georgia Department of Corrections. Retrieved on November 18, 2012.
  24. ^ Barrouquere, Brett. "Inmate challenges sedatives used in lethal injections Wilson also claims state doesn't provide enough information to inmates." The Harlan Daily Enterprise. November 24, 2007. Retrieved on September 8, 2010.
  25. ^ "Kentucky State Penitentiary Prepares For 165th Execution." WLKY. Retrieved on September 8, 2010.
  26. ^ "Life After Death Row." CBS News. April 25, 2010. Retrieved on August 16, 2010. "Rideau was sent to Louisiana's Angola Prison, where he spent a decade waiting to be executed."
  27. ^ "Louisiana Correctional Institute for Women." Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections. Retrieved on August 16, 2010.
  28. ^ a b "Division of Institutions State Prisons Archived 2002-12-06 at the Wayback Machine." Mississippi Department of Corrections. April 21, 2010. Retrieved on May 21, 2010.
  29. ^ Lombardi, George, Richard D. Sluder, and Donald Wallace. "The Management of Death-Sentenced Inmates: Issues, Realities, and Innovative Strategies." Missouri Department of Corrections. 8-9. Retrieved on September 18, 2010.
  30. ^ "Organization." Nevada Department of Corrections. Retrieved on September 5, 2010.
  31. ^ "Lone woman on Nevada's death row dies in prison ." Associated Press at North County Times. January 31, 2005. Retrieved on September 5, 2010.
  32. ^ a b "Death Row and Death Watch." North Carolina Department of Correction. Retrieved on September 1, 2010.
  33. ^ a b c d "CCI death row receives final inmates." Chillicothe Gazette. Retrieved on February 2, 2012.
  34. ^ a b "Capital Punishment in Oregon." Oregon Department of Corrections. Retrieved on December 28, 2012.
  35. ^ a b "Death Penalty FAQ." Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. 2 (2/4). Retrieved on July 26, 2010.
  36. ^ "Death Row/Capital Punishment." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on July 8, 2018.
  37. ^ "Graham (Camille Griffin) Correctional Institution." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010. "The institution also functions as a major special management unit with the ability to house female death row inmates and county safekeepers."
  38. ^ a b c "Death Row Facts." Tennessee Department of Correction. Retrieved on August 25, 2010.
  39. ^ "West Livingston CDP, Texas Archived June 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 9, 2010.
  40. ^ a b "Death Row Facts Archived August 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on August 15, 2010.
  41. ^ "Sussex I State Prison Archived 2013-11-06 at the Wayback Machine." Virginia Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  42. ^ "DOC Appoints New Warden at Sussex I State Prison Archived 2013-11-06 at the Wayback Machine." Virginia Department of Corrections. March 9, 2006. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  43. ^ "Virginia Death Row/Execution Facts." My FOX DC. Tuesday November 10, 2009. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  44. ^ "Fluvanna Correctional Center for Women (female institution) Archived 2013-08-13 at the Wayback Machine." Virginia Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  45. ^ "History of Capital Punishment".

External links

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