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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Davis Cup
Current season, competition or edition:
Current sports event 2018 Davis Cup
Davis Cup by BNP Paribas.svg
Sport Tennis
Founded 1900; 118 years ago (1900)
Founder Dwight F. Davis
No. of teams 16 (World Group)
130 (2016 total)
Countries ITF member nations
Continent Worldwide
Most recent
champion(s)
 France (10th title)
Most titles  United States (32 titles)
Official website DavisCup.com

The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis. It is run by the International Tennis Federation (ITF) and is contested annually between teams from competing countries in a knock-out format. It is described by the organisers as the "World Cup of Tennis", and the winners are referred to as the World Champion team.[1] The competition began in 1900 as a challenge between Great Britain and the United States. By 2016, 135 nations entered teams into the competition.[2] The most successful countries over the history of the tournament are the United States (winning 32 tournaments and finishing as runners-up 29 times) and Australia (winning 28 times, including four occasions with New Zealand as Australasia, and finishing as runners-up 19 times). The present champions are France, who beat Belgium to win their tenth title in 2017.

The women's equivalent of the Davis Cup is the Fed Cup. Australia, the Czech Republic, and the United States are the only countries to have held both Davis Cup and Fed Cup titles in the same year. The Hopman Cup, a third competition for mixed teams, carries less prestige, but is a popular curtain raiser to the tennis season.

History

Davis Cup
Davis Cup

The idea for a tournament pitting the best British and Americans in competition against one another was probably first conceived by James Dwight, the first president of the U.S. National Lawn Tennis Association when it formed in 1881. Desperate to assess the development of American players against the renowned British champions, he worked tirelessly to engage British officials in a properly sanctioned match, but failed to do so. He nevertheless tried to entice top international (particularly British) talent to the U.S. and sanctioned semi-official tours of the top American players to Great Britain.[3] Diplomatic relations between Great Britain and the United Stated on the tennis front had strengthened such that, by the mid 1890s, reciprocal tours were staged annually between players of the two nations, and an ensuing friendship between American William Larned and Irishman Harold Mahony spurred efforts to formalize an official team competition between the two nations.[4]

International competitions had been staged for some time before the first Davis Cup match in 1900. From 1892, England and Ireland had been competing in an annual national-team-based competition, similar to what would become the standard Davis Cup format, mixing single and doubles matches, and in 1895 England played against France in a national team competition.[5] During Larned's tour of the British Isles in 1896, where he competed in several tournaments including the Wimbledon Championships, he was also a spectator for the annual England vs. Ireland match. He returned to exclaim that Britain had agreed to send a group of three to the US the following summer, which would represent the first British lawn tennis "team" to compete in the U.S. Coincidentally, some weeks before Larned left for his British tour, the idea for an international competition was discussed also between leading figures in American lawn tennis - one of whom was tennis journalist E.P. Fischer - at a tournament in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario. Dwight F. Davis was in attendance at this tournament, and was thought to have got wind of the idea as it was discussed in the tournament's popular magazine, and Davis's name was mentioned as someone who might 'do something for the game … put up some big prize, or cup'.[6] Larned and Fischer met on several occasions that summer and discussed the idea of an international match to be held in Chicago the following summer, pitting six of the best British players against six of the best Americans, in a mixture of singles and doubles matches. This was discussed openly in two articles in the Chicago Tribune, but did not come to fruition.[7][8]

Nevertheless, the following summer, Great Britain - though not under the official auspices of the Lawn Tennis Association - sent three of its best players to compete in several US tournaments. Their relative poor performances convinced Dwight and other leading officials and figures in American lawn tennis that the time was right for a properly sanctioned international competition. This was to be staged in Newcastle in July 1898,[9] but the event never took place as the Americans could not field a sufficiently strong team. A reciprocal tour to the U.S. in 1899 amounted to just a single British player travelling overseas, as many of the players were involved in overseas armed conflicts.

It was at this juncture, in the summer of 1899, that four members of the Harvard University tennis team - Dwight Davis included - travelled across the States to challenge the best west-coast talent, and upon his return, it apparently occurred to Davis that if teams representing regions could arouse such great feelings, then why wouldn't a tennis event that pitted national teams in competition be just as successful. He approached James Dwight with the idea, which was tentatively agreed, and he ordered an appropriate sterling silver punchbowl trophy from Shreve, Crump & Low, purchasing it from his own funds for about $1,000.[10] They in turn commissioned a classically styled design from William B. Durgin's of Concord, New Hampshire, crafted by the Englishman Rowland Rhodes.[11] Beyond donating a trophy for the competition, however, Davis's involvement in the incipient development of the tournament that came to bear his name was negligible, yet a persistent myth has emerged that Davis devised both the idea for an international tennis competition and its format of mixing singles and doubles matches. Research has shown this to be a myth,[12] similar in its exaggeration of a single individual's efforts within a highly complex long-term development to the myths of William Webb Ellis and Abner Doubleday, who have both been wrongly credited with inventing rugby and baseball, respectively. Davis nevertheless went on to become a prominent politician in the United States in the 1920s, serving as US Secretary of War from 1925 to 1929 and as Governor-General of the Philippines from 1929 to 1932.

The first match, between the United States and Britain (competing as the "British Isles"), was held at the Longwood Cricket Club in Boston, Massachusetts in 1900. The American team, of which Dwight Davis was a part, surprised the British by winning the first three matches. The following year the two countries did not compete, but the US won the match in 1902 and Britain won the following four matches. By 1905 the tournament expanded to include Belgium, Austria, France, and Australasia, a combined team from Australia and New Zealand that competed together until 1914.

The tournament was initially titled the International Lawn Tennis Challenge although it soon became known as the Davis Cup, after Dwight Davis' trophy. The Davis Cup competition was initially played as a challenge cup. All teams competed against one another for the right to face the previous year's champion in the final round.

Beginning in 1923, the world's teams were split into two zones: the "America Zone" and the "Europe Zone". The winners of the two zones met in the Inter-Zonal Zone ("INZ") to decide which national team would challenge the defending champion for the cup. In 1955 a third zone, the "Eastern Zone", was added. Because there were three zones, the winner of one of the three zones received a bye in the first round of the INZ challenger rounds. In 1966, the "Europe Zone" was split into two zones, "Europe Zone A" and "Europe Zone B", so the winners of the four zones competed in the INZ challenger rounds.

From 1950 to 1967, Australia dominated the competition, winning the Cup 15 times in 18 years.[13]

Beginning in 1972, the format was changed to a knockout tournament, so that the defending champion was required to compete in all rounds, and the Davis Cup was awarded to the tournament champion.

Up until 1973, the Davis Cup had only ever been won by the United States, Great Britain/British Isles, France and Australia/Australasia. Their domination was eventually broken in 1974 when South Africa and India made the final; however the final was scratched and South Africa awarded the cup after India refused to travel to South Africa in protest at South Africa's apartheid policies. The following year saw the first actual final between two "outsider" nations, when Sweden beat Czechoslovakia 3–2, and since then, many other countries have gone on to capture the trophy.

In 1981, the tiered system of competition in use today was created, in which the 16 best national teams compete in the World Group and all other national teams compete in one of four groups in one of three regional zones. In 1989, the tiebreak was introduced into Davis Cup competition, and from 2016 it is used in all five sets.[14]

In 2018, the ITF voted to change the format of the competition from 2019 onwards, changing it to an 18-team event to happen at the end of the season, with 71% of ITF member federations voting in favour of the change. The new format, backed by footballer Gerard Pique and Japanese businessman Hiroshi Mikitani, was likened to a world cup of tennis and was designed to be more attractive to sponsors and broadcasters. Opposing federations included those from Australia, Germany, and Great Britain. Support for the reform was also mixed among current and former players, with some such as Novak Djokovic and Rafael Nadal being in favour of the new format, but others such as Rod Laver, Lucas Pouille and Roger Federer being opposed.[15][16][17][18]

Davis Cup games have been affected by political protests several times, especially in Sweden:

Format

Monument to the Davis Cup at Stade Roland Garros in Paris, France
Monument to the Davis Cup at Stade Roland Garros in Paris, France

Tournament

The 16 best national teams are assigned to the World Group and compete annually for the Davis Cup. Nations which are not in the World Group compete in one of three regional zones (Americas, Asia/Oceania, and Europe/Africa). The competition is spread over four weekends during the year. Each elimination round between competing nations is held in one of the countries, and is played as the best of five matches (4 singles, 1 doubles). The ITF determines the host countries for all possible matchups before each year's tournament.

The World Group is the top group and includes the world's best 16 national teams. Teams in the World Group play a four-round elimination tournament. Teams are seeded based on a ranking system released by the ITF, taking into account previous years' results. The defending champion and runner-up are always the top two seeds in the tournament. The losers of the first-round matches are sent to the World Group playoff round, where they play along with winners from Group I of the regional zones. The playoff round winners play in the World Group for the next year's tournament, while the losers play in Group I of their respective regional zone.

Each of the three regional zones is divided into four groups. Groups I and II play elimination rounds, with the losing teams facing relegation to the next-lower group. The teams in Groups III and those in Group IV play a round-robin tournament with promotion and relegation.

Structure

Level Group(s)
1 World Group

16 countries

2 Group One Americas Zone

6 countries

Group One Europe/Africa Zone

11 countries

Group One Asia/Oceania Zone

7 countries

3 Group Two Americas Zone

8 countries

Group Two Europe/Africa Zone

16 countries

Group Two Asia/Oceania Zone

8 countries

4 Group Three Americas Zone

9 countries

Group Three Europe Zone

15 countries

Group Three Africa Zone

10 countries

Group Three Asia/Oceania Zone

9 countries

5 Group Four Asia/Oceania Zone

11 countries

Note: The total number of nations in Group One is 24. However, the distribution among the three zones may vary each year, according to the number of nations promoted or relegated between Group One and the World Group. The number of nations in the World Group and Group One together is 22 from Euro/Africa Zone, 9 from Americas Zone and 9 from Asia/Oceania Zone.

Ties and rubbers

As in other cup competitions tie is used in the Davis Cup to mean an elimination round. In the Davis Cup, the word rubber means an individual match.

In the annual World Group competition, 16 nations compete in eight first-round ties; the eight winners compete in four quarterfinal ties; the four winners compete in two semifinal ties; and the two winners compete in the final tie.

Each tie consists of five rubbers, which are played in three days (usually on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday). The winner of the tie is the nation which wins three or more of the five rubbers in the tie. On the first day, the first two rubbers are singles, which are generally played by each nation's two best available singles players. On the second day, the doubles rubber is played. On the third day, the final two rubbers are typically reverse singles, in which the first-day contestants usually play again, but they swap opponents from the first day's singles rubbers. However, in certain circumstances, the team captain may replace one or two of the players who played the singles on Friday by other players who were nominated for the tie. For example, if the tie has already been decided in favour of one of the teams, it is common for younger or lower-ranked team members to play the remaining dead rubbers in order for them to gain Davis Cup experience.

Since 2011, if a nation has a winning 3–1 lead after the first reverse single match and that match has gone to four sets or more, then the remaining reverse single match which is a dead rubber is not played. All five rubbers are played if one nation has a winning 3–0 lead after the doubles match.[21]

Ties are played at a venue chosen by one of the competing countries. The right of choice is given on an alternating basis. Therefore, countries play in the country where the last tie between the teams was not held. In case the two countries have not met since 1970, lots are drawn to determine the host country.[22]

Venues in the World Group must comply with certain minimum standards, including a minimum seating capacity as follows:[23]

  • World Group play-offs: 4,000
  • World Group first round: 4,000
  • World Group quarterfinals: 6,000
  • World Group semifinals: 8,000
  • World Group final: 12,000

Captain

Prior to each tie, the captain (non-playing coach appointed by the national association) nominates a squad of four players and decides who will compete in the tie. On the day before play starts, the order of play for the first day is drawn at random. In the past, teams could substitute final day singles players only in case of injury or illness, verified by a doctor, but current rules permit the captain to designate any player to play the last two singles rubbers, provided that no first day matchup is repeated. There is no restriction on which of the playing team members may play the doubles rubber: the two singles players, two other players (usually doubles specialists) or a combination.

Each rubber is normally played as best of five sets. Since 2016, all sets use a tiebreak at 6–6 if necessary (formerly, the fifth set usually had no tiebreaker, so play continued until one side won by two games e.g. 10–8). However, if a team has clinched the tie before all five rubbers have been completed, the remaining rubbers may be shortened to best of three sets, with a tiebreak if necessary to decide all three sets.

In Group III and Group IV competitions, each tie consists only of three rubbers, which include two singles and one doubles rubber, which is played in a single day. The rubbers are in the best of three sets format, with a tie breaker if necessary to decide all three sets.

Records and statistics

Team

+ - also won Junior Davis Cup title

Country Years won Runners-up
 United States + 1900, 1902, 1913, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1937, 1938, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1954, 1958, 1963, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1978, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1990, 1992, 1995, 2007 (32) 1903, 1905, 1906, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1914, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1932, 1934, 1935, 1939, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1959, 1964, 1973, 1984, 1991, 1997, 2004 (29)
 Australasia
 Australia +
1907, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1914, 1919, 1939, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1973, 1977, 1983, 1986, 1999, 2003 (28) 1912, 1920, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1936, 1938, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1954, 1958, 1963, 1968, 1990, 1993, 2000, 2001 (19)
 France + 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2017 (10) 1925, 1926, 1933, 1982, 1999, 2002, 2010, 2014 (8)
 Great Britain + 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1912, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 2015 (10) 1900, 1902, 1907, 1913, 1919, 1931, 1937, 1978 (8)
 Sweden 1975, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1994, 1997, 1998 (7) 1983, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1996 (5)
 Spain + 2000, 2004, 2008, 2009, 2011 (5) 1965, 1967, 2003, 2012 (4)
 Czechoslovakia +
 Czech Republic +
1980, 2012, 2013 (3) 1975, 2009 (2)
 West Germany
 Germany +
1988, 1989, 1993 (3) 1970, 1985 (2)
 Russia + 2002, 2006 (2) 1994, 1995, 2007 (3)
 Italy + 1976 (1) 1960, 1961, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1998 (6)
 Argentina 2016 (1) 1981, 2006, 2008, 2011 (4)
 Croatia 2005 (1) 2016 (1)
 Serbia 2010 (1) 2013 (1)
  Switzerland 2014 (1) 1992 (1)
 South Africa 1974 (1) (0)
 Romania (0) 1969, 1971, 1972 (3)
 India (0) 1966, 1974, 1987 (3)
 Belgium (0) 1904, 2015, 2017 (3)
 Japan + (0) 1921 (1)
 Mexico (0) 1962 (1)
 Chile + (0) 1976 (1)
 Slovakia (0) 2005 (1)

Titles by country (since 1972)

Country Titles First Last
 United States 9 1972 2007
 Sweden 7 1975 1998
 Australia 6 1973 2003
 Spain 5 2000 2011
 France 4 1991 2017
 Czechoslovakia
 Czech Republic
3 1980 2013
 Germany 3 1988 1993
 Russia 2 2002 2006
 South Africa 1 1974
 Italy 1 1976
 Croatia 1 2005
 Serbia 1 2010
  Switzerland 1 2014
 Great Britain 1 2015
 Argentina 1 2016

Years in World Group

Most wins in World Group

Country #
1. United States USA 64
2. France France 58
3. Sweden Sweden 56
4. Australia Australia 50
5. Spain Spain 40
6. Argentina Argentina 39
7. Czech Republic Czech Republic 37
8. Germany Germany 33
9. Russia Russia 28
10. Italy Italy 22

World Group results by nation (last 20 years)

Country Years 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
 Argentina 16 SF SF QF SF F QF F QF SF F SF SF 1R SF W 1R
 Australia 14 W F F 1R W 1R QF SF 1R 1R SF 1R SF 1R
 Austria 10 1R 1R 1R 1R 1R 1R 1R 1R QF 1R
 Belarus 4 SF 1R QF 1R
 Belgium 14 SF 1R 1R 1R QF 1R 1R 1R 1R 1R F 1R F QF
 Brazil 7 QF SF QF 1R 1R 1R 1R
 Canada 8 1R 1R SF 1R QF 1R 1R 1R
 Chile 6 1R QF 1R 1R QF 1R
 Croatia 15 QF QF 1R W QF 1R SF QF 1R QF 1R 1R F 1R F
 Czech Republic 18 1R QF 1R QF 1R 1R 1R 1R QF F SF 1R W W SF 1R QF 1R
 Ecuador 2 1R 1R
 France 20 F 1R W F QF SF QF QF QF QF 1R F SF QF QF F QF SF W F
 Germany 18 1R QF QF 1R 1R 1R SF QF QF 1R QF 1R 1R QF 1R 1R 1R QF
 Great Britain 10 1R 1R 1R 1R 1R QF W SF QF 1R
 Hungary 1 1R
 India 2 1R 1R
 Israel 4 1R SF 1R 1R
 Italy 9 1R 1R 1R QF SF 1R QF QF QF
 Japan 6 1R QF 1R 1R 1R 1R
 Kazakhstan 7 QF 1R QF QF QF 1R QF
 Morocco 3 1R 1R 1R
 Netherlands 11 1R 1R SF 1R 1R QF QF 1R 1R 1R 1R
 Peru 1 1R
 Poland 1 1R
 Romania 9 1R 1R 1R QF 1R 1R 1R 1R 1R
 Russia 15 SF QF QF W QF 1R SF W F SF QF QF 1R 1R 1R
 Serbia 11 1R 1R W SF QF F 1R QF QF SF 1R
 Slovakia 6 QF QF 1R 1R F 1R
 South Korea 1 1R
 Spain 18 1R W 1R QF F W 1R 1R QF W W QF W F 1R 1R QF SF
 Sweden 13 1R SF QF QF QF 1R 1R SF QF 1R 1R QF 1R
  Switzerland 18 QF 1R QF 1R SF QF 1R 1R 1R 1R 1R 1R 1R W 1R 1R 1R 1R
 United States 20 QF SF 1R SF 1R F 1R SF W SF QF 1R QF SF QF 1R 1R QF QF SF
 Zimbabwe 2 1R 1R

Individual

1Players must now be aged 14 and over

Current ITF Davis Cup ranking

For more information, see ITF Rankings

ITF Davis Cup Nations Ranking,
as of 17 September 2018[25]
# Nation Points Move
1  France 34,637.50 Steady
2  Croatia 20,132.50 Increase 2
3  Argentina 18,185.00 Decrease 1
4  Belgium 14,941.25 Decrease 1
5  Great Britain 14,416.25 Steady
6  United States 9,849.38 Steady
7  Spain 9,149.38 Steady
8  Serbia 7,000.00 Increase 2
9  Australia 6,712.50 Decrease 1
10  Italy 5,826.25 Increase 1
11  Germany 4,343.75 Increase 1
12   Switzerland 4,156.25 Decrease 3
13  Kazakhstan 3,868.75 Steady
14  Czech Republic 3,412.50 Increase 1
15  Sweden 3,120.00 Increase 6
16  Austria 2,930.00 Increase 6
17  Canada 2,750.00 Decrease 3
18  Japan 2,562.50 Decrease 2
19  Colombia 2,032.50 Decrease 2
20  India 1,987.50 Steady

Change since previous ranking update

ATP points distribution (from 2009 to 2015)

Davis Cup
Rubber category Match win Match loss Team bonus Performance bonus Total achievable
Singles Play-offs 5 / 101 15
First round 40 102 80
Quarterfinals 65 130
Semifinals 70 140
Final 75 753 1254 150 / 2253 / 2754
Cumulative total 500 500 to 5353 6254 6254
Doubles Play-offs 10 10
First round 50 102 50
Quarterfinals 80 80
Semifinals 90 90
Final 95 355 95 / 1305
Cumulative total 315 3505 3505

ATP Points were distributed from 2009 to 2015.[26]

Glossary

Only World Group and World Group Play-Off matches and only live matches earn points. Dead rubbers earn no points. If a player does not compete in the singles of one or more rounds he will receive points from the previous round when playing singles at the next tie. This last rule also applies for playing in doubles matches.[26]

1 A player who wins a singles rubber in the first day of the tie is awarded 5 points, whereas a singles rubber win in tie's last day grants 10 points for a total of 15 available points.[26]

2 For the first round only, any player who competes in a live rubber, without a win, receives 10 ranking points for participation.[26]

3 Team bonus awarded to a singles player who wins 7 live matches in a calendar year and his team wins the competition.[26]

4 Performance bonus awarded to a singles player who wins 8 live matches in a calendar year. In this case, no Team bonus is awarded.[26]

5 Team bonus awarded to an unchanged doubles team who wins 4 matches in a calendar year and his team wins the competition.[26]

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ "Andy Murray wins Davis Cup for Great Britain - BBC Sport". BBC Sport. 
  2. ^ "Davis Cup Format". www.daviscup.com. Retrieved 20 January 2016. In 2016, 130 nations have entered Davis Cup by BNP Paribas 
  3. ^ Gillmeister, Heiner (1998). Tennis: A Cultural History. New York: New York University Press. pp. 213–214. ISBN 978-0-8147-3121-5. 
  4. ^ Eaves, Simon J.; Lake, Robert J. (2016). "The 'Ubiquitous Apostle of International Play', Wilberforce Vaughan Eaves: The Forgotten Internationalist of Lawn Tennis". The International Journal of the History of Sport. 33 (16): 1963–1981. doi:10.1080/09523367.2017.1295957. 
  5. ^ Lake, Robert J. (2015). A Social History of Tennis in Britain. London: Routledge. pp. 70–71. ISBN 978-0-415-68430-9. 
  6. ^ Gillmeister, Heiner (1998). Tennis: A Cultural History. New York: New York University Press. p. 258. ISBN 978-0-8147-3121-5. 
  7. ^ "Tennis of Two Nations". Chicago Tribune: 10. 3 September 1896. 
  8. ^ "Tennis from Far Shores". Chicago Tribune: 8. 28 September 1896. 
  9. ^ "American Players Abroad". American Lawn Tennis: 89. 27 April 1898. 
  10. ^ John Grasso (September 2011). Davis Cup. Historical Dictionary of Tennis. Scarecrow Press. p. 79. ISBN 9780810874909. Retrieved 8 December 2011. 
  11. ^ "Davis Cup Grows by a Third". daviscup.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  12. ^ Eaves, Simon J.; Lake, Robert J. (2018). "Dwight Davis and the Foundation of the Davis Cup in Tennis: Just Another Doubleday Myth?". Journal of Sport History. 45 (1): 1–23 – via Project MUSE. 
  13. ^ "History – Davis Cup - Pro Tournaments - News and Events - Tennis Australia". Tennis Australia. Retrieved 2018-03-07. 
  14. ^ "Davis Cup set for fifth set tiebreak in 2016". 
  15. ^ "Davis Cup reform: Nations vote for 18-team season-ending event". BBC Sport. 16 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018. 
  16. ^ Bodo, Peter (16 August 2018). "Here's everything you need to know about the massive Davis Cup overhaul". ESPN. Retrieved 17 August 2018. 
  17. ^ "Tennis greats tear into Davis Cup overhaul". news.com.au. 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018. 
  18. ^ Briggs, Simon (29 August 2018). "Davis Cup should not become the Pique Cup, warns Roger Federer". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 August 2018. 
  19. ^ 6,000 join Malmö Davis Cup protest. The Local 7 March 2009.
  20. ^ Crowd ban 'risks bolstering extremists' . The Local 7 March 2009.
  21. ^ "ITF revises Davis Cup dead rubber policy". DavisCup.com. Retrieved 6 March 2016. 
  22. ^ "Davis Cup Rules & Regulations – 2012 (English)". Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  23. ^ "Davis Cup Rules". Retrieved 20 September 2015. 
  24. ^ a b c d e "History - Records". Davis Cup. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  25. ^ "Nations Ranking". daviscup.com. International Tennis Federation. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g "The 2015 ATP® Official Rulebook" (pdf). 2015-01-18. Retrieved 2016-03-05. 

External links

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