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David O. Selznick filmography

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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David O. Selznick

David O. Selznick (1902–1965) was an American motion picture producer whose work consists of three short subjects, 67 feature films, and one television production made between 1923 and 1957. He was the producer of the 1939 epic Gone with the Wind.[1] Selznick was born in Pittsburgh and educated in public schools in Brooklyn and Manhattan.[2] He began working in the film industry in New York while in his teens as an assistant to his father, jeweler-turned-film producer Lewis J. Selznick.[3] In 1923, he began producing films himself, starting with two documentary shorts and then a minor feature, Roulette (1924).[4] Moving to Hollywood in 1926, Selznick became employed at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), where he produced two films before switching to Paramount in early 1928.[5] After helping to guide Paramount into the sound era, Selznick moved to RKO Radio in 1931 where he served as the studio's executive producer. During his time at RKO he oversaw the production of King Kong (1933) and helped to develop Katharine Hepburn and Myrna Loy into major film stars.[6]

In 1933 Selznick returned to MGM, this time as a vice-president in charge of his own production unit. During his two years with the studio he produced elaborate versions of Leo Tolstoy's Anna Karenina and Charles Dickens' David Copperfield and A Tale of Two Cities. In 1935, he left MGM to form his own production company, Selznick International Pictures, where he produced adaptations of Robert Smythe Hichens' The Garden of Allah (1936), Frances Hodgson Burnett's Little Lord Fauntleroy (1936), Anthony Hope's The Prisoner of Zenda (1937), and Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1938). Selznick also became a pioneer in the use of Technicolor with the first and last of these films and also with his productions of A Star Is Born and Nothing Sacred (both 1937). In 1939, Selznick brought Swedish actress Ingrid Bergman to the United States to star in Intermezzo and the following year he brought Alfred Hitchcock over from England to direct Rebecca. Also in 1939, Selznick produced his epic version of Margaret Mitchell's Gone With the Wind, which became the most financially successful film of all time.[7]

Selznick liquidated his corporation in the early 1940s but returned to independent producing in 1943. His work from this period included two more Hitchcock films, Spellbound (1945) and The Paradine Case (1948) and several films starring Jennifer Jones, among them Since You Went Away (1944), Duel in the Sun (1946) and Portrait of Jennie (1948). Selznick ceased his independent productions in 1948. Beginning with Carol Reed's The Third Man (1949), he entered into a period of co-producing motion pictures with other filmmakers. In 1954, he made his sole venture into television with the production Light's Diamond Jubilee.[8] Selznick retired from filmmaking after producing an adaptation of Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms (1957).

Selznick's productions were the recipients of numerous Academy Award nominations. Two of his films—Gone With the Wind and Rebecca—won Academy Awards for Best Picture.[9][10] Six other films that he produced—Viva Villa! (1934), David Copperfield (1935), A Tale of Two Cities (1935), A Star is Born (1937), Since You Went Away (1944), and Spellbound (1945)—were nominated for Best Picture.[10][11][12][13][14][15] As of 2013, four of the films Selznick produced have been added to the National Film Registry: King Kong (1933), The Prisoner of Zenda (1937), Gone With the Wind (1939), and The Third Man (1949).[16] For his work in motion pictures, Selznick received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.[17]

"There are only two kinds of class: First class and no class."
— David O. Selznick[18]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • A Star is Born 1937
  • Since You Went Away (1944) - Full movie, audio fixed
  • David O. Selznick lived here
  • MGM/UA Home Video/Turner Entertainment/Selznick Properties (1988)
  • A Star Is Born (1937) | American Romantic Movie | Janet Gaynor, Fredric March



The release dates, titles, and names of the directors for Selznick's films are derived from the filmographies presented in the books Memo From David O. Selznick by Rudy Behlmer and David O. Selznick's Hollywood by Ronald Haver. The quotes are derived from Behlmer's book.[19][20]

Early shorts

Selznick began working in the film industry while in his early teens. He was employed—after school hours—by his father, film producer Lewis J. Selznick, initially as head of publicity and advertising and later as a newsreel film editor. When the elder Selznick went bankrupt in 1923, young David took a job as a promoter for a two-reel short about prizefighter Luis Firpo. Afterwards he convinced the Mineralava Beauty Clay Company to produce a two-reel film of a beauty contest they were sponsoring with actor Rudolph Valentino as the judge.[3]

Release date Title Director Notes
April 23, 1923 Will He Conquer Dempsey? (none credited) Silent
1923 Rudolph Valentino and His 88 American Beauties (none credited) Silent

Aetna-Selznick Distributing Corporation

I promoted and made for $17,000 a little picture called Roulette … As I recall, it didn't lose any money, but it didn't make any worth mentioning.

— David O. Selznick[4]
Release date Title Director Notes
January 19, 1924 Roulette S. E. V. Taylor Silent

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (I)

I become manager of the writer's department, then head of the writer's department, then assistant story editor, then associate story editor, then assistant stooge to Harry Rapf, and then finally was given my chance to make a Tim McCoy Western … I decided that … it would be just as easy to make two of them at a time as one.

— David O. Selznick[21]

In October 1926, Selznick secured a job at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a script reader for producer Harry Rapf.[21]

After the McCoy Westerns, Selznick was assigned as assistant to producer Hunt Stromberg on the film White Shadows in the South Seas (1928). Disagreements with Stromberg and senior producer Irving Thalberg over the choice of the film's director (W. S. Van Dyke or Robert J. Flaherty) led to Selznick's termination with the company.[22]

Release date Title Director Notes
March 12, 1928 Spoilers of the West W. S. Van Dyke Silent
March 24, 1928 Wyoming W. S. Van Dyke Silent

Paramount Pictures

In response to my question as to what will happen to Schulberg, he [Lasky] said, in effect, that they would be kicking him upstairs. … One of my rows with Paramount … was my insistence that no one man could possibly personally produce more than a few pictures per year.

— David O. Selznick[23]

In early 1928 Selznick accepted the position of assistant to producer B. P. Schulberg at Paramount Studios. The professional relationship between the two, however, eventually deteriorated after Schulberg went to Europe for several months in 1929. During his absence, studio head Jesse L. Lasky placed Selznick into Schulberg's position and decided to keep him there. Selznick remained with Paramount until his resignation in June 1931.

Selznick worked in a variety of jobs (i.e. supervisor, producer, associate producer, executive producer, or substantial contributor). The 13 films listed below were those whose production he was known to be heavily involved in.[24] Except where noted these films are all-talking.

Release date Title Director(s) Notes
August 5, 1928 Forgotten Faces Victor Schertzinger Silent
March 14, 1929 Chinatown Nights William A. Wellman Part talking
May 27, 1929 The Man I Love William A. Wellman
June 12, 1929 The Four Feathers Merian C. Cooper
Ernest B. Schoedsack
Lothar Mendes
Soundtrack with music and sound effects but no spoken dialogue
August 15, 1929 The Dance of Life John Cromwell
A. Edward Sutherland
Partly filmed in Technicolor
September 14, 1929 Fast Company A. Edward Sutherland
February 2, 1930 Street of Chance John Cromwell
March 14, 1930 Sarah and Son Dorothy Arzner
March 27, 1930 Honey Wesley Ruggles
May 1, 1930 The Texan John Cromwell
July 18, 1930 For the Defense John Cromwell
July 23, 1930 Manslaughter George Abbott
November 15, 1930 Laughter Harry d'Abbadie d'Arrast

RKO Pictures

I sold him [David Sarnoff, President of RCA, parent company at the time to RKO Radio and RKO Pathé] the idea of putting me in charge not only of production at RKO, but also his rival production unit, Pathé. In October 1931, I signed a contract to take over both and to merge them.[6] I stayed at RKO until my contract expired in 1933. My new contract … was about to be signed when "Deac" Aylesworth became head of the company. Aylesworth insisted upon the new but still unsigned contract being changed to the extent of giving him approval of everything connected with production. I refused to accept this.

— David O. Selznick[25]

In 1931 Selznick and director Lewis Milestone attempted to form their own production company. After several months, however, the two were unsuccessful in achieving financial backing. Milestone eventually accepted an offer to because head of production at United Artists while Selznick accepted a similar position at RKO Radio.[6]

As Vice-president in Charge of Production, Selznick was personally involved in the 22 RKO films listed here.[24]

Release date Title Director(s) Notes
March 10, 1932 The Lost Squadron George Archainbaud
April 14, 1932 Symphony of Six Million Gregory La Cava
May 5, 1932 State's Attorney George Archainbaud
June 3, 1932 Westward Passage Robert Milton
July 9, 1932 What Price Hollywood? George Cukor
August 12, 1932 The Age of Consent Gregory La Cava
September 2, 1932 Bird of Paradise King Vidor
September 9, 1932 The Most Dangerous Game Ernest B. Schoedsack
Irving Pichel
September 16, 1932 Thirteen Women George Archainbaud
October 2, 1932 A Bill of Divorcement George Cukor Film debut of Katharine Hepburn
November 4, 1932 Little Orphan Annie John S. Robertson
November 20, 1932 The Conquerors William A. Wellman
December 4, 1932 Rockabye George Cukor
December 25, 1932 The Half-Naked Truth Gregory La Cava
December 29, 1932 The Animal Kingdom Edward H. Griffith
February 9, 1933 Topaze Harry d'Abbadie d'Arrast
February 16, 1933 The Great Jasper J. Walter Rubin
February 23, 1933 Our Betters George Cukor
March 2, 1933 King Kong Merian C. Cooper
Ernest B. Schoedsack
Added to the National Film Registry in 1991[26]
March 9, 1933 Christopher Strong Dorothy Arzner
March 23, 1933 Sweepings John Cromwell
May 30, 1933 The Monkey's Paw Wesley Ruggles

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (II)

After refusing to sign a new contract with RKO, Selznick returned to MGM in 1933, this time in the position as vice-president in charge of his own unit.[27] During the next two years he personally produced 11 features for the studio before departing to form his own production company.[28]

Release date Title Director Notes
August 23, 1933 Dinner at Eight George Cukor
October 5, 1933 Night Flight Clarence Brown
October 27, 1933 Meet the Baron Walter Lang
December 2, 1933 Dancing Lady Robert Z. Leonard Film debut of Fred Astaire and an early appearance by Nelson Eddy
April 10, 1934 Viva Villa! Jack Conway
May 4, 1934 Manhattan Melodrama W. S. Van Dyke On July 22, 1934, gangster John Dillinger was gunned down by FBI agents after watching this film at the Biograph Theater in Chicago, Illinois[29]
January 18, 1935 David Copperfield George Cukor
March 22, 1935 Vanessa: Her Love Story William K. Howard
April 18, 1935 Reckless Victor Fleming
August 30, 1935 Anna Karenina Clarence Brown
December 25, 1935 A Tale of Two Cities Jack Conway

Selznick International Pictures

I simply had to fulfill my ambitions of starting my own company. It had always been an obsession of mine … that there be no interference with our work; that we must have authority.

— David O. Selznick[30]

In 1935 Selznick left MGM to form his own production company, Selznick International Pictures.[31] He also took over the operation of Pioneer Pictures, a production company designed to produce films in Technicolor and formed by his friend and ex-associate (at RKO) Merian C. Cooper.[30] Selznick International produced a total of 11 features, of which all but one were distributed by United Artists.[32] Gone with the Wind was released by MGM as part of a deal with Selznick in exchange for the loan of Clark Gable in the role of Rhett Butler.[33]

Release date Title Director Notes
April 2, 1936 Little Lord Fauntleroy John Cromwell
November 19, 1936 The Garden of Allah Richard Boleslawski Filmed in Technicolor
April 21, 1937 A Star Is Born William A. Wellman Filmed in Technicolor
September 2, 1937 The Prisoner of Zenda John Cromwell Originally released in sepiatone[34]
Added to the National Film Registry in 1991.[26]
November 25, 1937 Nothing Sacred William A. Wellman Filmed in Technicolor
February 17, 1938 The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Norman Taurog Filmed in Technicolor
November 3, 1938 The Young in Heart Richard Wallace
February 16, 1939 Made for Each Other John Cromwell
October 5, 1939 Intermezzo: A Love Story Gregory Ratoff First American film appearance of Ingrid Bergman
December 15, 1939 Gone with the Wind Victor Fleming Filmed in Technicolor
Added to the National Film Registry in 1989[35]
March 27, 1940 Rebecca Alfred Hitchcock Won the Academy Award for Best Picture

Vanguard Films, Selznick Releasing Organization

Following the highly successful releases of Gone With the Wind and Rebecca, Selznick began a three-year liquidation of Selznick International Pictures in order to draw profits for himself and his outside investors.[36] He developed and sold film projects to other producers and studios, and arranged loan outs of his contracted artists. Without outside backers he formed David O. Selznick Productions, Inc., which in 1941 became owner of one-fourth of United Artists.[37]

Selznick established a film production company, Vanguard Films (1943–1951).[38] The first three features for his new company were distributed by United Artists.[39] In 1946 Selznick broke with UA over the distribution of Duel in the Sun,[40] and founded his own distribution company, Selznick Releasing Organization.[41]

Release date Title Director Notes
May 18, 1944 Reward Unlimited Jacques Tourneur A one-reel short subject for the United States Public Health Service; distributed by the Office of War Information[42]
July 20, 1944 Since You Went Away John Cromwell Also writer
Released by United Artists
December 25, 1944 I'll Be Seeing You William Dieterle Released by United Artists
November 1, 1945 Spellbound Alfred Hitchcock One shot in color
Released by United Artists
February 7, 1946 The Spiral Staircase Robert Siodmak Produced by Vanguard Films and RKO Pictures; distributed by RKO[43]
December 30, 1946 Duel in the Sun King Vidor Filmed in Technicolor
Released by Selznick Releasing Organization
December 31, 1947 The Paradine Case Alfred Hitchcock Released by Selznick Releasing Organization
December 25, 1948 Portrait of Jennie William Dieterle Final reel tinted and final shot in Technicolor
Released by Selznick Releasing Organization

Final productions

I was tired … Additionally, it was crystal clear that the motion picture business was in for a terrible beating from television … My company financed itself with bank loans; and these loans, with interest, had been extended to a total of about $12,000,000 … as part of the plans for the liquidation of my company and its debts, we devised what has since become known as coproduction.

— David O. Selznick[44]

In 1949 Selznick closed down his production facilities and he greatly reduced the staff of Selznick Releasing Organization. He and Jennifer Jones began traveling in Europe and were married in July 1949.[45] For the remainder of his career he collaborated with other film producers and also made his sole venture into television.

Release date Title Director(s) Notes
September 30, 1948 The Fallen Idol Carol Reed U.S. release November 14, 1949[46]
Distributed in the Western Hemisphere by Selznick Releasing Organization[47]
September 2, 1949 The Third Man Carol Reed U.S. release February 2, 1950
A British film co-produced by Selznick and Alexander Korda and distributed in the U.S. by Selznick Releasing Organization. Selznick also provided some minor re-editing for the U.S. release.[48]
August 21, 1950 The Wild Heart Michael Powell
Emeric Pressburger
U.S. release May 28, 1952
U.K. title Gone to Earth
A British Lion production made in England, co-produced with Alexander Korda. Selznick supervised reshooting (by Rouben Mamoulian) of nearly one-third of the film for its U.S. release by RKO Radio under the title The Wild Heart.[49][50]
October 14, 1950 Walk Softly, Stranger Robert Stevenson Produced by Vanguard Films and RKO Pictures; distributed by RKO[51]
May 27, 1954 Stazione Termini
("Terminal Station")
Vittorio De Sica An Italian film co-produced by Selznick, who re-cut the film for its U.S. release by Columbia Pictures under the title Indiscretion of an American Wife[49]
October 24, 1954 Light's Diamond Jubilee King Vidor
Christian Nyby
William A. Wellman
A two-hour television special celebrating the 75th anniversary of Thomas Edison's invention of the incandescent lamp; aired simultaneously on the ABC, CBS, DuMont, and NBC television networks
December 19, 1957 A Farewell to Arms Charles Vidor Filmed in CinemaScope and color by DeLuxe
Produced by Selznick for Twentieth Century-Fox[52]

Academy Awards

Of the 68 features that Selznick produced 22 received a total of 82 Academy Award nominations with 21 wins.[20] In addition to these Selznick himself was twice nominated for the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award. He won the second of these two nominations.[53]

Title Category Nominee Result
3rd Academy Awards—1929/30[54]
Street of Chance Best Writing (Adapted Screenplay) Howard EstabrookI Nominated
4th Academy Awards—1930/31[55]
Laughter Best Story Harry d'Abbadie d'Arrast, Douglas Doty, Donald Ogden Stewart Nominated
5th Academy Awards—1931/32[56]
What Price Hollywood? Best Story Adela Rogers St. Johns, Jane Murfin Nominated
7th Academy Awards—1934[11]
Viva Villa! Best Picture Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Nominated
Best Assistant Director John Waters Won
Best Sound Douglas Shearer Nominated
Best Writing (Adapted Screenplay) Ben HechtII Nominated
Manhattan Melodrama Best Story Arthur Caesar Won
8th Academy Awards—1935[12]
David Copperfield Best Picture Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Nominated
Best Assistant Director Joseph NewmanII Nominated
Best Film Editing Robert J. Kern Nominated
9th Academy Awards—1936[13]
A Tale of Two Cities Best Picture Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Nominated
Best Film Editing Conrad A. Nervig Nominated
The Garden of Allah Best Assistant Director Eric G. Stacey Nominated
Best Original Score Max Steiner Nominated
Honorary Award W. Howard Greene and Harold RossonIII Won
10th Academy Awards—1937[14]
A Star Is Born Best Picture Selznick International Nominated
Best Actor Fredric March (as Norman Maine) Nominated
Best Actress Janet Gaynor (as Esther Blodgett / Vicki Lester) Nominated
Best Assistant Director Eric G. Stacey Nominated
Best Director William A. Wellman Nominated
Best Story William A. Wellman, Robert Carson Won
Best Writing (Adapted Screenplay) Dorothy Parker, Alan Campbell, Robert Carson Nominated
Honorary Award W. Howard GreeneIV Won
The Prisoner of Zenda Best Art Direction Lyle Wheeler Nominated
Best Original Score Alfred Newman Nominated
11th Academy Awards—1938[57]
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Best Art Direction Lyle Wheeler Nominated
The Young in Heart Best Cinematography Leon Shamroy Nominated
Best Original Score Franz Waxman Nominated
Best Scoring Nominated
Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award David O. Selznick NominatedV[53]
12th Academy Awards—1939[9]
Intermezzo: A Love Story Best Cinematography (Black-and-white) Gregg Toland NominatedVI
Best Scoring Lou Forbes Nominated
Gone with the Wind Best Picture Selznick International Pictures Won
Best Actor Clark Gable (as Rhett Butler) Nominated
Best Actress Vivien Leigh (as Scarlett O'Hara) Won
Best Supporting Actress Olivia de Havilland (as Melanie Hamilton) Nominated
Hattie McDaniel (as Mammy) Won
Best Art Direction Lyle Wheeler Won
Best Cinematography (color) Ernest Haller, Ray Rennahan Won
Best Director Victor Fleming Won
Best Film Editing Hal C. Kern, James E. Newcom Won
Best Original Score Max Steiner Nominated
Best Sound Thomas T. Moulton Nominated
Best Visual Effects John R. Cosgrove, Fred Albin, Arthur Johns Nominated
Best Writing (Adapted Screenplay) Sidney HowardVII Won
Honorary Award William Cameron MenziesVIII Won
Technical Achievement (Class III) multipleVIX Won
Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award David O. Selznick Won[53]
13th Academy Awards—1940[10]
Rebecca Best Picture Selznick International Pictures Won
Best Actor Laurence Olivier (as Maxim De Winter) Nominated
Best Actress Joan Fontaine (as Mrs. De Winter) Nominated
Best Supporting Actress Judith Anderson (as Mrs. Danvers) Nominated
Academy Award for Best Art Direction (Black-and-white) Lyle Wheeler Nominated
Best Cinematography (Black-and-white) George Barnes Won
Best Director Alfred Hitchcock Nominated
Best Film Editing Hal C. Kern Nominated
Best Original Score Franz Waxman Nominated
Best Visual Effects Jack Cosgrove (Photographic Effects)
Arthur Johns (Sound Effects)
Best Writing (Adapted Screenplay) Robert E. Sherwood, Joan Harrison Nominated
17th Academy Awards—1944[15]
Since You Went Away Best Picture Selznick International Pictures Nominated
Best Actress Claudette Colbert (as Anne Hilton) Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Monty Woolley (as Colonel Smollett) Nominated
Best Supporting Actress Jennifer Jones (as Jane Hilton) Nominated
Best Art Direction (Black-and-white) Mark-Lee Kirk (Art Direction)
Victor A.Gangelin (Interior Decoration)
Best Cinematography (Black-and-white) Stanley Cortez, Lee Garmes Nominated
Best Film Editing Hal C. Kern, James E. Newcom Nominated
Best Original Score Max Steiner Won
Best Visual Effects John R. Cosgrove (Photographic Effects)
Arthur Johns (Sound effects)
18th Academy Awards—1945[58]
Spellbound Best Picture Selznick International Pictures Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Michael Chekhov (as Dr. Alex Brulov) Nominated
Best Director Alfred Hitchcock Nominated
Best Cinematography (Black-and-white) George Barnes Nominated
Best Original Score Miklos Rozsa Won
Best Visual Effects Jack Cosgrove Nominated
19th Academy Awards—1946[59]
Duel in the Sun Best Actress Jennifer Jones (as Pearl Chavez) Nominated
Best Supporting Actress Lillian Gish (as Belle McCanles) Nominated
20th Academy Awards—1947[60]
The Paradine Case Best Supporting Actress Ethel Barrymore (as Lady Sophie Horfield) Nominated
21st Academy Awards—1948[61]
Portrait of Jennie Best Cinematography (Black-and-white) Joseph H. August Nominated
Best Visual Effects Paul Eagler, Joseph McMillan Johnson, Russell Shearman, Clarence Slifer (Special Visual Effects)
Charles L. Freeman, James G. Stewart (Special Audible Effects)
23rd Academy Awards—1950[62]
The Third Man Best Cinematography (Black-and-white) Robert Krasker Won
Best Director Carol Reed Nominated
Best Film Editing Oswald Hafenrichter Nominated
27th Academy Awards—1954[63]
Indiscretion of an American Wife Best Costume Design (Black-and-white) Christian Dior Nominated
^I For the Third Academy Awards no certificates of nomination were given out in this category, only the titles of the nominated films and their companies were listed. When the winners were revealed, only the names of the individuals involved with the winning achievements were announced.[54]
^II Named in third place.[53]
^III "For the color cinematography of the Selznick International Production, The Garden of Allah."[53]
^IV "For the color photography of A Star Is Born." (This award was recommended by a committee of leading cinematographers after viewing all the color pictures made during the year.)[53]
^V This is the only year that nominations were announced for the Thalberg award.[53]
^VI This was not an official nomination. The title was on a preliminary list of submissions/nominees from the studios from which the two official nominees (Stagecoach and Wuthering Heights) would be selected.[53]
^VII Awarded posthumously[53]
^VIII "For outstanding achievement in the use of color for the enhancement of dramatic mood in the production of Gone with the Wind."[53]
^VIX "For important contributions in cooperative development of new improved process Projection Equipment: F. R. Abbott, Haller Belt, Alan Cook and The Bausch & Lomb Optical Company For Faster Projection Lenses; The Mitchell Camera Company for a new type process Projection Head; Mole-Richardson Company for a new type automatically controlled projection arc lamp; Charles Handley, David Joy and the National Carbon Company for improved and more stable high-intensity carbons; Winton C. Hoch and the Technicolor Motion Picture Corp. for an auxiliary optical system; Don Musgrave and Selznick International Pictures, Inc. for pioneering in the use of coordinated equipment in the production, Gone with the Wind."[53]


  1. ^ "David O. Selznick, 63, Producer Of 'Gone With the Wind', Dies". The New York Times. June 23, 1965. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
  2. ^ Behlmer 1972, pp. 3–4
  3. ^ a b Behlmer 1972, pp. 4–6
  4. ^ a b Behlmer 1972, p. 6
  5. ^ Haver 1980, pp. 30, 36
  6. ^ a b c Behlmer 1972, pp. 42–43
  7. ^ "'Avatar' success still far behind 'Gone with the Wind'". International Business Times. 2010. Archived from the original on January 29, 2010. Retrieved May 29, 2010.
  8. ^ Behlmer 1972, p. 413
  9. ^ a b "The 12th Academy Awards (1940) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. 2011. Archived from the original on January 28, 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  10. ^ a b c "The 13th Academy Awards (1941) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. 2011. Archived from the original on March 21, 2016. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
  11. ^ a b "The 7th Academy Awards (1935) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. 2011. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
  12. ^ a b "The 8th Academy Awards (1936) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. 2011. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
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