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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dakar Rally
Dakar Rally.jpg
CategoryRally raid
RegionEurope and Africa (1979–2007)
South America (2009–present)
Inaugural season1979
Drivers' championAustria Matthias Walkner (Bikes)
Chile Ignacio Casale (ATV/Quads)
Spain Carlos Sainz (Cars)
Russia Eduard Nikolaev (Trucks)
Brazil Reinaldo Varela (UTV)
Constructors' championKTM (Bikes)
Yamaha (ATV/Quads)
Peugeot (Cars)
Kamaz (Trucks)
Can-Am (UTV)
Official websitewww.Dakar.com
Motorsport current event.svg
Current season
Countries the rally has been through from 1979 to 2007 (orange countries were only travelled through in the 1992 race to Cape Town).
Countries the rally has been through from 1979 to 2007 (orange countries were only travelled through in the 1992 race to Cape Town).
Countries through which the Dakar Rally has been from 2009 to 2018 since it was moved from the previous Paris-Dakar route due to security concerns. Cities included are major start/end points.
Countries through which the Dakar Rally has been from 2009 to 2018 since it was moved from the previous Paris-Dakar route due to security concerns. Cities included are major start/end points.
2011 Dakar Rally personal main prize (trucks T4)
2011 Dakar Rally personal main prize (trucks T4)
Cars on display in 1993 in Paris
Cars on display in 1993 in Paris
Toyota, 1993 in Paris
Toyota, 1993 in Paris
A support truck during the 2004 Dakar
A support truck during the 2004 Dakar
Tracks through the desert
Tracks through the desert

The Dakar Rally (or simply "The Dakar"; formerly known as the "Paris–Dakar Rally") is an annual rally raid organised by the Amaury Sport Organisation. Most events since the inception in 1978 were from Paris, France, to Dakar, Senegal, but due to security threats in Mauritania, which led to the cancellation of the 2008 rally, races since 2009 have been held in South America.[1][2][3] The race is open to amateur and professional entries, amateurs typically making up about eighty percent of the participants.

The race is an off-road endurance event. The terrain that the competitors traverse is much tougher than that used in conventional rallying, and the vehicles used are true off-road vehicles rather than modified on-road vehicles. Most of the competitive special sections are off-road, crossing dunes, mud, camel grass, rocks, and erg among others. The distances of each stage covered vary from short distances up to 800–900 kilometres (500–560 mi) per day.

History

The race originated in December 1977, a year after Thierry Sabine got lost in the Ténéré desert whilst competing in the Abidjan-Nice rally and decided that the desert would be a good location for a regular rally.[4] 182 vehicles took the start of the inaugural rally in Paris, with 74 surviving the 10,000-kilometre (6,200 mi) trip to the Senegalese capital of Dakar. Cyril Neveu holds the distinction of being the event's first winner, riding a Yamaha motorcycle. The event rapidly grew in popularity, with 216 vehicles taking the start in 1980 and 291 in 1981.[5] Neveu won the event for a second time in 1980, Hubert Auriol taking honours in 1981 for BMW. By this stage, the rally had already begun to attract the participation of famous names from elsewhere in motorsport, such as Henri Pescarolo and Jacky Ickx.

Now boasting 382 competitors, more than double the amount that took the start in 1979, Neveu won the event for a third time in 1982, this time riding a Honda motorcycle, while victory in the car class went to the Marreau brothers, driving a privately entered Renault 20, whose buccaneering exploits seemed to perfectly capture the spirit of the early years of the rally. Auriol captured his second bikes class victory in 1983, the first year that Japanese manufacturer Mitsubishi competed in the rally, beginning an association that would last all the way until 2009.

At the behest of 1983 car class winner Jacky Ickx, Porsche entered the Dakar in 1984, with the total number of entries now at 427.[5] The German marque won the event at their first attempt courtesy of René Metge, who had previously won in the car category in 1981, whilst Ickx finished sixth. Gaston Rahier meanwhile continued BMW's success in the motorcycle category with back-to-back wins in 1984 and 1985, the year of Mitsubishi's first victory of 12 in the car category, Patrick Zaniroli taking the spoils. The 1986 event, won by Metge and Neveu, was marred by the death of event founder Sabine in a helicopter crash, his father Gilbert taking over organisation of the rally.

Peugeot-Citroën domination

The 1987 rally marked the start of an era of increased official factory participation in the car category, as French manufacturer Peugeot arrived and won the event with former World Rally champion Ari Vatanen. The 1987 event was also notable for a ferocious head-to-head duel between Neveu and Auriol in the motorcycle category, the former taking his fifth victory after Auriol was forced to drop out of the rally after breaking both ankles in a fall.[5] The 1988 event reached its zenith in terms of entry numbers, with 603 starters. Vatanen's title defence was derailed when his Peugeot was stolen from the service area at Bamako. Though it was later found, Vatanen was subsequently disqualified from the event, victory instead going to compatriot and teammate Juha Kankkunen.[5]

Peugeot and Vatanen returned to winning ways in 1989 and 1990, the latter marking Peugeot's final year of rally competition before switching to the World Sportscar Championship. Sister brand Citroën took Peugeot's place, Vatanen taking a third consecutive victory in 1991. The 1991 event also saw Stéphane Peterhansel take his first title in the motorcycle category with Yamaha, marking the beginning of an era of domination by the Frenchman.

For the 1992 event, the finish line moved to Cape Town, South Africa in a bid to combat a declining number of competitors, where GPS technology was used for the first time.[5] Auriol became the first person to win in multiple classes after taking Mitsubishi's second victory in the car class, while Peterhansel successfully defended his motorcycle category title. The 1993 rally entry list slumped to 153 competitors, around half of the preceding year's figure and around a quarter of that of 1988. The event was the last to be organised by Gilbert Sabine and the Amaury Sport Organisation took over the following year. With the finish line now back in its traditional location of Dakar, Bruno Saby won a third title for Mitsubishi and Peterhansel took a third straight success in the motorcycle category.

The 1994 event returned to Paris after reaching Dakar, resulting in a particularly grueling event. Pierre Lartigue took Citroën's second win in acrimonious circumstances, as Mitsubishi's leading drivers were forced to withdraw from exhaustion after traversing some particularly demanding sand dunes in the Mauritanian desert that the Citroen crews had opted to skip.[6] Peterhansel's did not compete due to a disagreement between Yamaha and the race organizers over the regulations. Edi Orioli claimed a third title in the bikes category.[5] The 1995 and 1996 events begin in the Spanish city of Granada, with Lartigue racking up wins for Citroen in both years. Peterhansel returned to take a fourth bikes category win in 1995, but lost to Orioli in 1996 because of refuelling problems.[5]

Mitsubishi in the ascendancy

The 1997 rally ran exclusively in Africa for the first time, with the route running from Dakar to Agadez, Niger and back to Dakar. Citroen's withdrawal due to a rule change paved the way for Mitsubishi to take a fourth victory. Japan's Kenjiro Shinozuka became the first non-European to win the event. Peterhansel equalled Neveu's record of five motorcycle category wins in 1997, before going one better in 1998, when the event returned to its traditional Paris-Dakar route. 1998, Dakar veteran Jean-Pierre Fontenay posted another win for Mitsubishi in the car class.

1999 started in Granada and a maiden success for erstwhile Formula One and sports car driver Jean-Louis Schlesser, who had been constructing his own buggies since 1992. With the help of Renault backing, Schlesser overcame the works Mitsubishi and Nissan crews to win, whilst Peterhansel's decision to switch to the car category allowed Richard Sainct to take BMW's first title in the bikes category since 1985. Schlesser and Sainct both successfully defended their titles in 2000, traversing the route from Dakar to the Egyptian capital of Cairo.

2001 was the final time that the rally used the familiar Paris-Dakar route, and was notable for Mitsubishi's Jutta Kleinschmidt, as she was the first woman to win the rally - albeit only after Schlesser was penalised one hour for unsportsmanlike conduct.[7] Fabrizio Meoni took the first Dakar win for Austrian manufacturer KTM, beginning a winning streak that has lasted until the present day. The 2002 began in the French town of Arras and long-time Dakar participant Hiroshi Masuoka won the event for Mitsubishi (Masouka had led for much of the previous year's rally.) The 2003 rally featured an unorthodox route from Marseille to Sharm El Sheikh. Masuoka defend his title after teammate and long-time leader Peterhansel was plagued by mechanical problems in the penultimate stage.[8] Sainct meanwhile took honours in the motorcycle category, the third title for both him and KTM.

Security concerns

The mid-2000s saw the Dakar Rally reach the height of its popularity.[citation needed] The entry list by 2004 increased to 595, up from 358 in 2001, with a record 688 competitors starting in 2005.[5] Alongside Mitsubishi and Nissan, Volkswagen now boasted a full factory effort, while Schlesser's Ford-powered buggies and BMWs of the German X-raid team proved thorns in the side of the big budget works teams. The 2004 route was from Clermont-Ferrand to Dakar, and was the year Peterhansel emulated Hubert Auriol's feat of winning the rally on both two wheels and four. The Frenchman defended his title in 2005, when the rally began for the first time in Barcelona. In the bikes category, KTM continued their success with Nani Roma in 2004, who switched to the car category the following year, and Cyril Despres in 2005.

The 2006 event moved to Lisbon. Nissan pulled out having failed to provide effective opposition to Mitsubishi, who took a sixth consecutive victory, this time with former skiing champion Luc Alphand after Peterhansel committed a series of errors late in the rally.[9] Peterhansel made amends in 2007, however, taking his third title in the car category for Mitsubishi after a close contest with Alphand after the increasingly competitive Volkswagens retired with mechanical problems. In what would be the final African event of the Dakar, Despres took his second title in the bikes category, having conceded victory in 2006 to Marc Coma after suffering an injury.

The 2008 event, due to depart Lisbon as per the previous two years, was cancelled on 4 January 2008 amid fears of terrorist attacks in Mauritania, causing serious doubts over the future of the rally. Chile and Argentina offered to host subsequent events,[10][11] an offer later accepted by the ASO.[12] The ASO also decided to establish the Dakar Series competition, whose first event was the 2008 Central Europe Rally, located in Hungary and Romania, which acted as a replacement for the cancelled 2008 edition of the Dakar.

South America

The 2009 event, the first held in South America with a respectable entry of 501, saw Volkswagen finally take its first win in the Dakar as a works entrant courtesy of Giniel de Villiers. Teammate and former WRC champion Carlos Sainz had been leading comfortably until crashing out,[13] but seized the opportunity to win the event in 2010. After a poor showing in 2009, Mitsubishi withdrew from the competition and left Volkswagen as the sole works entrant. The German marque duly won the race for a third time in 2011, this time with Nasser Al-Attiyah, before they withdrew to focus on their upcoming WRC entry and leaving the Dakar with no factory participants in the car class. In the bikes, Despres and Coma stretched KTM's incredible unbroken run of success. Both tied on three victories apiece after Coma's third win in 2011.

In the 2012 rally, the X-raid team came to the fore, now using Minis in lieu of BMWs. Peterhansel had joined the team in 2010 after Mitsubishi's departure, but had been unable to challenge the Volkswagen drivers. Following Volkswagen's withdrawal, Peterhansel was able to secure his fourth win in the car category and his tenth in total, his main opposition coming from within his own team. Peterhansel successfully defended his title in 2013 as the Damen Jefferies buggies of Sainz and Al-Attiyah failed to last the distance. Despres also racked up a further two wins for KTM in the bikes class in 2012 and 2013, bringing his tally to five, aided by Coma's absence due to injury in the latter year. Coma struck back on his return to the Dakar in 2014, taking a comfortable fourth title and a 13th in succession for KTM, whilst Nani Roma emulated Auriol and Peterhansel by taking his maiden title in the cars class a decade on from his victory on two wheels - albeit only after team orders by X-raid slowed down Peterhansel.[14]

Peugeot returned for the 2015 event with an all-new, diesel-powered, two-wheel drive contender, but failed to make an impact as X-raid's Minis once more dominated. Al-Attiyah won the event in his second year for the team, while Coma racked up a fifth title in the bikes after the defection of long-time rival Despres to the car class and Peugeot. Peugeot did however see success in 2016 with Peterhansel behind the wheel, racking up his 6th win in the car category. The bike category saw the KTM works team rider, Australian Toby Price, take his first Dakar victory.

Vehicles and classes

The four major competitive groups in the Dakar are the motorcycles, quads, the cars class (which ranges from buggies to small SUVs), and the trucks class. Many vehicle manufacturers use the rally's harsh environment as both a testing ground and an opportunity to show off their vehicles' durability—though, in fact, most vehicles are heavily modified or purpose-built.

Motorbikes

As of 2011, the engine capacity limit for all motorbikes competing in the Dakar Rally is 450cc. Engines may be either single or twin cylinder. Riders are divided into two groups, "Elite" (Group 1) and Non-Elite (Group 2), with the latter subdivided into two further groups - the "Super Production" (Group 2.1) and "Marathon" (Group 2.2) classes. "Marathon" competitors are not permitted to change such key components as the engine (including the engine case, cylinders and cylinder heads), the frame, the forks or swinging arm, whereas those in the "Super Production" and "Elite" classes may replace these components.[15]

KTM has dominated the motorcycle class in recent years, although Honda, Yamaha, Sherco and Gas Gas also compete currently. BMW and Cagiva have also enjoyed success in the past.

Quads

Prior to 2009, Quads were a subdivision of the motorbike category, but they were granted their own separate classification in 2009 and are designated Group 3 in the current regulations. They are divided into two subgroups - Group 3.1, which features two-wheel drive quads with a single cylinder engine with a maximum capacity of 750cc, and Group 3.2, which permits four-wheel drive quads with a maximum engine capacity of 900cc, in either single or twin cylinder layout.[15]

Yamaha are unbeaten in the Quad category since 2009, with their main current opposition coming courtesy of Honda and Can-Am.

For the 2017 rally the SSV category was added which is defined as four-wheel side-by-side vehicles with 1000 cc maximum displacement.[16]

Cars

The car class is made up of vehicles weighing less than 3,500 kg (7,716 lb), which are subdivided into several categories. The T1 Group is made up of "Improved Cross-Country Vehicles", subdivided according to engine type (petrol or diesel) and drive type (two-wheel or four-wheel drive). The T2 Group is made up of "Cross-Country Series Production Vehicles", which are subdivided into petrol and diesel categories, while the T3 Group is for "Light Vehicles". There is also an "Open" category catering for vehicles conforming to SCORE regulations.[17]

Mini have been the most successful marque in the car category in recent years, thanks to the efforts of the non-factory X-raid team, with limited involvement currently coming from Toyota, Ford and Haval. Several constructors also produce bespoke buggies for the event, most notably SMG and Damen Jefferies.

Mitsubishi is historically the most successful manufacturer in the car class, with Volkswagen, Citroen, Peugeot and Porsche having all tasted success in the past with factory teams. Jean-Louis Schlesser has also won the event twice with his Renault-supported buggies. Factory teams from Nissan and SEAT have also won stages, as has BMW, courtesy of the X-raid team.

Trucks

The Truck class (Group T4), first run as a separate category in 1980, is made up of vehicles weighing more than 3,500 kg (7,716 lb). Trucks participating in the competition are subdivided into "Series Production" trucks (T4.1) and "Modified" trucks (T4.2), whilst Group T4.3 (formerly known as T5) trucks are rally support trucks - meaning they travel from bivouac to bivouac to support the competition vehicles.[17] These were introduced to the rally in 1998. The truck event was not run in 1989 after it was decided the vehicles, by this stage with twin engines generating in excess of 1000 horsepower, were too dangerous following the death of a DAF crew member in an accident during the 1988 rally.[5]

Kamaz has dominated the truck category since the turn of the century, although it has come under increasing pressure from rivals such as Iveco, MAN, Renault, and Tatra, which enjoyed much success in the 1990s. Hino, DAF, Perlini, and Mercedes-Benz have also been among the winners in the past. In the 21st century Kamaz almost always won the truck class, winning fourteen out of eighteen times.

List of winners

Cars, bikes and trucks

Year Route Cars Bikes Trucks
Driver
Co-driver
Make & model Rider Make & model Driver
Co-drivers
Make & model
2018 Lima
La Paz
Córdoba
Spain Carlos Sainz
Spain Lucas Cruz
Peugeot 3008 DKR Maxi Austria Matthias Walkner KTM 450 Rally Replica Russia Eduard Nikolaev
Russia Evgeny Yakovlev
Russia Vladimir Rybakov
Kamaz 4326
2017 Asunción
La Paz
Buenos Aires
France Stéphane Peterhansel
France Jean-Paul Cottret
Peugeot 3008 DKR United Kingdom Sam Sunderland KTM 450 Rally Russia Eduard Nikolaev
Russia Evgeny Yakovlev
Russia Vladimir Rybakov
Kamaz 4326
2016 Buenos Aires
Salta-
Rosario
France Stéphane Peterhansel
France Jean-Paul Cottret
Peugeot 2008 DKR Australia Toby Price KTM 450 Rally Netherlands Gerard de Rooy
Spain Moises Torrallardona
Poland Darek Rodewald
Iveco PowerStar
2015 Buenos Aires
Iquique-
Buenos Aires
Qatar Nasser Al-Attiyah
France Matthieu Baumel
Mini All 4 Racing Spain Marc Coma KTM 450 Rally Russia Ayrat Mardeev
Russia Aydar Belyaev
Russia Dmitriy Svistunov
Kamaz
2014 Rosario-
Salta
Valparaíso
Spain Nani Roma
France Michel Périn
Mini All 4 Racing Spain Marc Coma KTM 450 Rally Russia Andrey Karginov

Russia Andrey Mokeev
Russia Igor Devyatkin

Kamaz
2013 Lima
Tucumán
Santiago
France Stéphane Peterhansel
France Jean-Paul Cottret
Mini All 4 Racing France Cyril Despres KTM 450 Rally Russia Eduard Nikolaev
Russia Sergey Savostin

Russia Vladimir Rybakov

Kamaz
2012 Mar del Plata
Arica
Lima
France Stéphane Peterhansel
France Jean-Paul Cottret
Mini All 4 Racing France Cyril Despres KTM 450 Rally Netherlands Gerard de Rooy
Belgium Tom Colsoul
Poland Darek Rodewald
Iveco PowerStar
2011 Buenos Aires–
Arica–
Buenos Aires
Qatar Nasser Al-Attiyah
Germany Timo Gottschalk
Volkswagen Race Touareg 3 Spain Marc Coma KTM 450 Rally Russia Vladimir Chagin
Russia Sergey Savostin
Russia Ildar Shaysultanov
Kamaz
2010 Buenos Aires–
Antofagasta
Buenos Aires
Spain Carlos Sainz
Spain Lucas Cruz
Volkswagen Race Touareg 2 France Cyril Despres KTM 690 Rally Russia Vladimir Chagin
Russia Sergey Savostin
Russia Eduard Nikolaev
Kamaz
2009 Buenos Aires–
Valparaiso–
Buenos Aires
South Africa Giniel de Villiers
Germany Dirk von Zitzewitz
Volkswagen Race Touareg 2 Spain Marc Coma KTM 690 Rally Russia Firdaus Kabirov
Russia Aydar Belyaev
Russia Andrey Mokeev
Kamaz
2008 Not Held
2007 LisbonDakar France Stéphane Peterhansel
France Jean-Paul Cottret
Mitsubishi Pajero Evolution France Cyril Despres KTM 690 Rally Netherlands Hans Stacey
Belgium Charly Gotlib
Netherlands Bernard der Kinderen
MAN TGA
2006 Lisbon–Dakar France Luc Alphand
France Gilles Picard
Mitsubishi Pajero Evolution Spain Marc Coma KTM LC4 660R Russia Vladimir Chagin
Russia Semen Yakubov
Russia Sergey Savostin
Kamaz
2005 Barcelona–Dakar France Stéphane Peterhansel
France Jean-Paul Cottret
Mitsubishi Pajero Evolution France Cyril Despres KTM LC4 660R Russia Firdaus Kabirov
Russia Aydar Belyaev
Russia Andrey Mokeev
Kamaz
2004 Clermont-Ferrand
Dakar
France Stéphane Peterhansel
France Jean-Paul Cottret
Mitsubishi Pajero Evolution Spain Nani Roma KTM LC4 660R Russia Vladimir Chagin
Russia Semen Yakubov
Russia Sergey Savostin
Kamaz
2003 Marseille
Sharm el Sheikh
Japan Hiroshi Masuoka
Germany Andreas Schulz
Mitsubishi Pajero Evolution France Richard Sainct KTM LC4 660R Russia Vladimir Chagin
Russia Semen Yakubov
Russia Sergey Savostin
Kamaz
2002 ArrasMadrid
Dakar
Japan Hiroshi Masuoka
France Pascal Maimon
Mitsubishi Pajero Evolution Italy Fabrizio Meoni KTM LC8 950R Russia Vladimir Chagin
Russia Semen Yakubov
Russia Sergey Savostin
Kamaz
2001 Paris–Dakar Germany Jutta Kleinschmidt
Germany Andreas Schulz
Mitsubishi Pajero Evolution Italy Fabrizio Meoni KTM LC4 660R Czech Republic Karel Loprais
Czech Republic Josef Kalina
Czech Republic Petr Hamerla
Tatra 815
2000 Dakar–Cairo France Jean-Louis Schlesser
Andorra Henri Magne
Buggy Schlesser France Richard Sainct BMW F650RR Russia Vladimir Chagin
Russia Semen Yakubov
Russia Sergey Savostin
Kamaz
1999 Granada–Dakar France Jean-Louis Schlesser
France Philippe Monnet
Buggy Schlesser France Richard Sainct BMW F650RR Czech Republic Karel Loprais
Czech Republic Radomir Stachura
Czech Republic Josef Kalina
Tatra 815
1998 Paris–Granada–
Dakar
France Jean-Pierre Fontenay
France Gilles Picard
Mitsubishi Pajero Evolution France Stéphane Peterhansel Yamaha YZE850T Czech Republic Karel Loprais
Czech Republic Radomir Stachura
Czech Republic Jan Cermak
Tatra 815
1997 Dakar–Agades
Dakar
Japan Kenjiro Shinozuka
Andorra Henri Magne
Mitsubishi Pajero Evolution France Stéphane Peterhansel Yamaha YZE850T Austria Peter Reif
Austria Johann Deinhofer
Hino
1996 Granada–Dakar France Pierre Lartigue
France Michel Périn
Citroën ZX Italy Edi Orioli Yamaha YZE850T Russia Viktor Moskovskikh
Russia Anatoli Kouzmine
Russia Nail Bagavetdinov
Kamaz
1995 Granada–Dakar France Pierre Lartigue
France Michel Périn
Citroën ZX France Stéphane Peterhansel Yamaha YZE850T Czech Republic Karel Loprais
Czech Republic Radomir Stachura
Czech Republic Tomas Tomecek
Tatra 815
1994 Paris–Dakar–Paris France Pierre Lartigue
France Michel Périn
Citroën ZX Italy Edi Orioli Cagiva Elefant 900 Czech Republic Karel Loprais
Czech Republic Radomir Stachura
Czech Republic Josef Kalina
Tatra 815
1993 Paris–Dakar France Bruno Saby
France Dominique Serieys
Mitsubishi Pajero Evolution France Stéphane Peterhansel Yamaha YZE850T Italy Francesco Perlini
Italy Giorgio Albiero
Italy Claudio Vinante
Perlini
1992 Paris–Sirte
Cape Town
France Hubert Auriol
France Philippe Monnet
Mitsubishi Pajero Evolution France Stéphane Peterhansel Yamaha YZE850T Italy Francesco Perlini
Italy Giorgio Albiero
Italy Claudio Vinante
Perlini
1991 Paris–Tripoli
Dakar
Finland Ari Vatanen
Sweden Bruno Berglund
Citroën ZX France Stéphane Peterhansel Yamaha YZE750T France Jacques Houssat
France Thierry de Saulieu
Italy Danilo Bottaro
Perlini
1990 Paris–Tripoli–
Dakar
Finland Ari Vatanen
Sweden Bruno Berglund
Peugeot 405 T16 Italy Edi Orioli Cagiva Elefant 900 Italy Giorgio Villa
Italy Giorgio Delfino
Italy Claudio Vinante
Perlini
1989 Paris–Tunis–Dakar Finland Ari Vatanen
Sweden Bruno Berglund
Peugeot 405 T16 France Gilles Lalay Honda NXR800V Not held
1988 Paris–Alger–Dakar Finland Juha Kankkunen
Finland Juha Piironen
Peugeot 205 T16 Italy Edi Orioli Honda NXR800V Czechoslovakia Karel Loprais
Czech Republic Radomir Stachura
Czech Republic Tomas Muck
Tatra 815
1987 Paris-Alger–Dakar Finland Ari Vatanen
France Bernard Giroux
Peugeot 205 T16 France Cyril Neveu Honda NXR750V Netherlands Jan de Rooy
Belgium Yvo Geusens
Netherlands Theo van de Rijt
DAF
1986 Paris-Alger–Dakar France René Metge
France Dominique Lemoyne
Porsche 959 France Cyril Neveu Honda NXR750V Italy Giacomo Vismara
Italy Giulio Minelli
Mercedes-Benz
1985 Paris-Alger–Dakar France Patrick Zaniroli
France Jean Da Silva
Mitsubishi Pajero Evolution Belgium Gaston Rahier BMW R100GS Germany Karl-Friedrich Capito
Germany Jost Capito
Germany Klaus Schweikarl
Mercedes-Benz 1936 AK
1984 Paris-Alger–Dakar France René Metge
France Dominique Lemoyne
Porsche 911 (953) Belgium Gaston Rahier BMW R100GS France Pierre Laleu
France Daniel Durce
France Patrick Venturini
Mercedes-Benz 1936 AK
1983 Paris-Alger–Dakar Belgium Jacky Ickx
France Claude Brasseur
Mercedes 280 G France Hubert Auriol BMW R100GS France Georges Groine
France Thierry de Saulieu
France Bernard Malferiol
Mercedes-Benz 1936 AK
1982 Paris-Alger–Dakar France Claude Marreau
France Bernard Marreau
Renault 20 France Cyril Neveu Honda XR550 France Georges Groine
France Thierry de Saulieu
France Bernard Malferiol
Mercedes-Benz U 1700L
1981 Paris–Dakar France René Metge
France Bernard Giroux
Range Rover France Hubert Auriol BMW R80G/S France Adrien Villette
France Henri Gabrelle
France Alain Voillereau
ALM/ACMAT
1980 Paris–Dakar Sweden Freddy Kottulinsky
Germany Gerd Löffelmann
Volkswagen Iltis France Cyril Neveu Yamaha XT500 Algeria Zohra Ataouat
Algeria Hadj Daou Boukrif
Algeria Mahiedine Kaloua
Sonacome
1979 Paris–Dakar France Alain Génestier
France Joseph Terbiaut
France Jean Lemordant
Range Rover France Cyril Neveu Yamaha XT500 France Jean-François Dunac
France Jean-Pierre Chapel
France François Beau
Pinzgauer

Quads and UTV's

Year Route Quads UTV's
Rider Make & model Driver
Co-drivers
Make & model
2018 Lima
La Paz
Córdoba
Chile Ignacio Casale Yamaha Raptor 700 Brazil Reinaldo Varela
Brazil Gustavo Gugelmin
Can-Am
2017 Asunción
La Paz
Buenos Aires
Russia Sergey Karyakin Yamaha Raptor 700 Brazil Leandro Torres
Brazil Lourival Roldan
Polaris RZR 1000 XP
2016 Buenos Aires
Salta-
Rosario
Argentina Marcos Patronelli Yamaha Not held
2015 Buenos Aires
Iquique-
Buenos Aires
Poland Rafał Sonik Yamaha
2014 Rosario-
Salta
Valparaíso
Chile Ignacio Casale Yamaha
2013 Lima
Tucumán
Santiago
Argentina Marcos Patronelli Yamaha
2012 Mar del Plata
Arica
Lima
Argentina Alejandro Patronelli Yamaha Raptor 700
2011 Buenos Aires–
Arica–
Buenos Aires
Argentina Alejandro Patronelli Yamaha
2010 Buenos Aires–
Antofagasta
Buenos Aires
Argentina Marcos Patronelli Yamaha
2009 Buenos Aires–
Valparaiso–
Buenos Aires
Czech Republic Josef Macháček Yamaha

Source: "Dakar Retrospective 1979-2009" (PDF). Official website of the Dakar rally raid. Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.

Podium

Cars

Year 1st 2nd 3rd
Driver Car Driver Car Driver Car
1979 France Alain Génestier Range Rover V8 France Claude Marreau Renault 4 Sinpar Italy Cesare Giraudo Fiat Campagnola
1980 Sweden Freddy Kottulinsky Volkswagen Iltis France Patrick Zaniroli Volkswagen Iltis France Claude Marreau Renault 4 Sinpar
1981 France René Metge Range Rover V8 France Hervé Cotel Buggy Cotel France Jean-Claude Briavoine Lada Niva
1982 France Claude Marreau Renault 20 Turbo France Jean-Claude Briavoine Lada Niva France Jean-Pierre Jaussaud Mercedes 280 GE
1983 Belgium Jacky Ickx Mercedes 280 GE France André Trossat Lada Niva France Pierre Lartigue Range Rover V8
1984 France René Metge Porsche 911 France Patrick Zaniroli Range Rover V8 United Kingdom Andrew Cowan Mitsubishi Pajero
1985 France Patrick Zaniroli Mitsubishi Pajero United Kingdom Andrew Cowan Mitsubishi Pajero France Pierre Fougerouse Toyota FJ 60
1986 France René Metge Porsche 959 Belgium Jacky Ickx Porsche 959 France Pascal Rigal Mitsubishi Pajero
1987 Finland Ari Vatanen Peugeot 205 Turbo 16 France Patrick Zaniroli Range Rover V8 Japan Kenjiro Shinozuka Mitsubishi Pajero
1988 Finland Juha Kankkunen Peugeot 205 Turbo 16 Japan Kenjiro Shinozuka Mitsubishi Pajero France Patrick Tambay Range Rover V8
1989 Finland Ari Vatanen Peugeot 405 Turbo 16 Belgium Jacky Ickx Peugeot 405 Turbo 16 France Patrick Tambay Mitsubishi Pajero
1990 Finland Ari Vatanen Peugeot 405 Turbo 16 Sweden Björn Waldegård Peugeot 405 Turbo 16 France Alain Ambrosino Peugeot 405 Turbo 16
1991 Finland Ari Vatanen Citroën ZX Rallye-Raid France Pierre Lartigue Peugeot 405 Turbo 16 France Jean Pierre Fontenay Mitsubishi Pajero
1992 France Hubert Auriol Mitsubishi Pajero Germany Erwin Weber Mitsubishi Pajero Japan Kenjiro Shinozuka Mitsubishi Pajero
1993 France Bruno Saby Mitsubishi Pajero France Pierre Lartigue Citroën ZX Rallye-Raid France Hubert Auriol Citroën ZX Rallye-Raid
1994 France Pierre Lartigue Citroën ZX Rallye-Raid France Hubert Auriol Citroën ZX Rallye-Raid France Philippe Wambergue Buggy Bourgo
1995 France Pierre Lartigue Citroën ZX Rallye-Raid France Bruno Saby Mitsubishi Pajero Japan Kenjiro Shinozuka Mitsubishi Pajero
1996 France Pierre Lartigue Citroën ZX Rallye-Raid France Philippe Wambergue Citroën ZX Rallye-Raid France Jean Pierre Fontenay Mitsubishi Pajero
1997 Japan Kenjiro Shinozuka Mitsubishi Pajero France Jean-Pierre Fontenay Mitsubishi Pajero France Bruno Saby Mitsubishi Pajero
1998 France Jean-Pierre Fontenay Mitsubishi Pajero Japan Kenjiro Shinozuka Mitsubishi Pajero France Bruno Saby Mitsubishi Pajero
1999 France Jean-Louis Schlesser Buggy Schlesser Spain Miguel Prieto Mitsubishi Pajero Germany Jutta Kleinschmidt Mitsubishi Pajero
2000 France Jean-Louis Schlesser Buggy Schlesser France Stéphane Peterhansel Mega Desert France Jean-Pierre Fontenay Mitsubishi Pajero
2001 Germany Jutta Kleinschmidt Mitsubishi Pajero Japan Hiroshi Masuoka Mitsubishi Pajero France Jean-Louis Schlesser Buggy Schlesser
2002 Japan Hiroshi Masuoka Mitsubishi Pajero Germany Jutta Kleinschmidt Mitsubishi Pajero Japan Kenjiro Shinozuka Mitsubishi Pajero
2003 Japan Hiroshi Masuoka Mitsubishi Pajero France Jean-Pierre Fontenay Mitsubishi Pajero France Stéphane Peterhansel Mitsubishi Pajero
2004 France Stéphane Peterhansel Mitsubishi Pajero Japan Hiroshi Masuoka Mitsubishi Pajero France Jean-Louis Schlesser Buggy Schlesser
2005 France Stéphane Peterhansel Mitsubishi Pajero France Luc Alphand Mitsubishi Pajero Germany Jutta Kleinschmidt Volkswagen Race Touareg 2
2006 France Luc Alphand Mitsubishi Pajero South Africa Giniel de Villiers Volkswagen Race Touareg 2 Spain Nani Roma Mitsubishi Pajero
2007 France Stéphane Peterhansel Mitsubishi Pajero France Luc Alphand Mitsubishi Pajero France Jean-Louis Schlesser Buggy Schlesser
2008 not held
2009 South Africa Giniel de Villiers Volkswagen Race Touareg 2 United States Mark Miller Volkswagen Race Touareg 2 United States Robby Gordon Hummer H3
2010 Spain Carlos Sainz Volkswagen Race Touareg 2 Qatar Nasser Al-Attiyah Volkswagen Race Touareg 2 United States Mark Miller Volkswagen Race Touareg 2
2011 Qatar Nasser Al-Attiyah Volkswagen Race Touareg 3 South Africa Giniel de Villiers Volkswagen Race Touareg 3 Spain Carlos Sainz Volkswagen Race Touareg 3
2012 France Stéphane Peterhansel Mini All4 Racing Spain Nani Roma Mini All4 Racing South Africa Giniel de Villiers Toyota Hilux Dakar
2013 France Stéphane Peterhansel Mini All4 Racing South Africa Giniel de Villiers Toyota Hilux Dakar Russia Leonid Novitskiy Mini All4 Racing
2014 Spain Nani Roma Mini All4 Racing France Stéphane Peterhansel Mini All4 Racing Qatar Nasser Al-Attiyah Mini All4 Racing
2015 Qatar Nasser Al-Attiyah Mini All4 Racing South Africa Giniel de Villiers Toyota Hilux Dakar Poland Krzysztof Hołowczyc Mini All4 Racing
2016 France Stéphane Peterhansel Peugeot 2008 DKR Qatar Nasser Al-Attiyah Mini All4 Racing South Africa Giniel de Villiers Toyota Hilux Dakar
2017 France Stéphane Peterhansel Peugeot 3008 DKR France Sébastien Loeb Peugeot 3008 DKR France Cyril Despres Peugeot 3008 DKR
2018 Spain Carlos Sainz Peugeot 3008 DKR Qatar Nasser Al-Attiyah Toyota Hilux Dakar South Africa Giniel de Villiers Toyota Hilux Dakar

Bikes

Year 1st 2nd 3rd
Driver Bike Driver Bike Driver Bike
1979 France Cyril Neveu Yamaha XT 500 France Gilles Comte Yamaha XT 500 France Philippe Vassard Honda XL 250
1980 France Cyril Neveu Yamaha XT 500 France Michel Merel Yamaha XT 500 France Jean-Noël Pineau Yamaha XT 500
1981 France Hubert Auriol BMW R80 GS France Serge Bacou Yamaha XT 500 France Michel Merel Yamaha XT 500
1982 France Hubert Auriol Honda XR 550 France Philippe Vassard Honda XR 550 France Grégoire Verhaeghe Barigo 500
1983 France Hubert Auriol BMW R100 GS France Patrick Drobecq Honda XR 600 France Marc Joineau Suzuki DR 500
1984 Belgium Gaston Rahier BMW R100 GS France Hubert Auriol BMW R100 GS France Philippe Vassard Honda XLR 600
1985 Belgium Gaston Rahier BMW R100 GS France Jean-Claude Olivier Yamaha 660 Proto Italy Franco Picco Yamaha 600 XT
1986 France Cyril Neveu Honda NXR 780 France Gilles Lalay Honda NXR 780 Italy Andrea Balestrieri Honda XL 600
1987 France Cyril Neveu Honda NXR 750 Italy Edi Orioli Honda XL 600 Belgium Gaston Rahier BMW R80 GS
1988 Italy Edi Orioli Honda NXR 800V Italy Franco Picco Yamaha YZE 750 France Gilles Lalay Honda NXR 750
1989 France Gilles Lalay Honda NXR 800V Italy Franco Picco Yamaha YZE 750 France Marc Morales Honda NXR 750
1990 Italy Edi Orioli Cagiva Elefant 900 Spain Carlos Mas Yamaha YZE 750 Italy Alessandro De Petri Cagiva Elefant 900
1991 France Stéphane Peterhansel Yamaha YZE 750T France Gilles Lalay Yamaha YZE 750T France Thierry Magnaldi Yamaha YZE 750T
1992 France Stéphane Peterhansel Yamaha YZE 850T United States Danny Laporte Cagiva Elefant 900 Spain Jordi Arcarons Cagiva Elefant 900
1993 France Stéphane Peterhansel Yamaha YZE 850T France Thierry Charbonnier Yamaha YZE 850T Spain Jordi Arcarons Yamaha YZE 850T
1994 Italy Edi Orioli Cagiva Elefant 900 Spain Jordi Arcarons Cagiva Elefant 900 Italy Fabrizio Meoni Honda EXP-2
1995 France Stéphane Peterhansel Yamaha YZE 850T Spain Jordi Arcarons Cagiva Elefant 900 Italy Edi Orioli Cagiva Elefant 900
1996 Italy Edi Orioli Yamaha YZE 850T Spain Jordi Arcarons KTM LC4 Spain Carlos Sotelo KTM LC4
1997 France Stéphane Peterhansel Yamaha YZE 850T Spain Oscar Gallardo Cagiva Elefant 900 France David Castera Yamaha YZE 850T
1998 France Stéphane Peterhansel Yamaha YZE 850T Italy Fabrizio Meoni KTM LC4 Australia Andy Haydon KTM LC4
1999 France Richard Sainct BMW F650 RR France Thierry Magnaldi KTM LC4 South Africa Alfie Cox KTM LC4
2000 France Richard Sainct BMW F650 RR Spain Oscar Gallardo BMW F650 RR United States Jimmy Lewis BMW R900 GS
2001 Italy Fabrizio Meoni KTM LC4 660R Spain Jordi Arcarons KTM LC4 660R Chile Carlo de Gavardo KTM LC4 660R
2002 Italy Fabrizio Meoni KTM LC8 950R South Africa Alfie Cox KTM LC4 660R France Richard Sainct KTM LC4 660R
2003 France Richard Sainct KTM LC4 660R France Cyril Despres KTM LC4 660R Italy Fabrizio Meoni KTM LC8 950R
2004 Spain Nani Roma KTM LC4 660R France Richard Sainct KTM LC4 660R France Cyril Despres KTM LC4 660R
2005 France Cyril Despres KTM LC4 660R Spain Marc Coma KTM LC4 660R South Africa Alfie Cox KTM LC4 660R
2006 Spain Marc Coma KTM LC4 660R France Cyril Despres KTM LC4 660R Italy Giovanni Sala KTM LC4 660R
2007 France Cyril Despres KTM 690 Rally France David Casteu KTM 690 Rally United States Chris Blais KTM 660 Rally
2008 not held
2009 Spain Marc Coma KTM 690 Rally France Cyril Despres KTM 690 Rally France David Frétigné KTM 690 Rally
2010 France Cyril Despres KTM 690 Rally Norway Pål Anders Ullevålseter KTM 690 Rally Chile Francisco López Aprilia RXV 450
2011 Spain Marc Coma KTM 450 Rally France Cyril Despres KTM 450 Rally Portugal Hélder Rodrigues Yamaha WR 450F
2012 France Cyril Despres KTM 450 Rally Spain Marc Coma KTM 450 Rally Portugal Hélder Rodrigues Yamaha WR 450F
2013 France Cyril Despres KTM 450 Rally Portugal Ruben Faria KTM 450 Rally Chile Francisco López KTM 450 Rally
2014 Spain Marc Coma KTM 450 Rally Spain Jordi Viladoms KTM 450 Rally France Olivier Pain Yamaha WR 450F
2015 Spain Marc Coma KTM 450 Rally Portugal Paulo Gonçalves Honda CRF 450 Australia Toby Price KTM 450 Rally
2016 Australia Toby Price KTM 450 Rally Slovakia Štefan Svitko KTM 450 Rally Chile Pablo Quintanilla Husqvarna FR 450
2017 United Kingdom Sam Sunderland KTM 450 Rally Austria Matthias Walkner KTM 450 Rally Spain Gerard Farrés KTM 450 Rally
2018 Austria Matthias Walkner KTM 450 Rally Argentina Kevin Benavides Honda CRF 450 Australia Toby Price KTM 450 Rally

Records

Television coverage

Over 190 different countries take the international feed of the event with a roundup of every day being made into a 26-minute programme. This has been commentated on by Toby Moody for ten years, and most recently Ben Constanduros.

The organisers provide 20 edit stations for various countries to produce their own programmes. There are four TV helicopters, six stage cameras, and three bivouac crews to make over 1,000 hours of TV over the two-week period. In the United States, coverage can be seen on NBC Sports Network.

A 2006 television documentary Race to Dakar described the experiences of a team, including the English actor Charley Boorman, in preparation for and entry into the 2006 Dakar Rally.

Video Games

Release date Title Genre Platform Developer Publisher
2001 Paris-Dakar Rally Rally Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 2 Broadsword Interactive Acclaim Entertainment
2003 Paris-Dakar 2: The World's Ultimate Rally Rally PlayStation 2, Xbox, Gamecube Acclaim Studios Cheltenham Acclaim Entertainment
2018 Dakar 18 Rally Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, Xbox One Bigmoon Entertainment Deep Silver

Incidents

In 1982, Mark Thatcher, son of the then British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, along with his French co-driver Anne-Charlotte Verney and their mechanic, disappeared for six days. On 9 January the trio became separated from a convoy of vehicles after they stopped to make repairs to a faulty steering arm. They were declared missing on 12 January; after a large-scale search, a Lockheed L100 search plane from the Algerian military spotted their white Peugeot 504 some 50 kilometres (31 mi) off course. Thatcher, Verney, and the mechanic were all unharmed.

The organiser of the rally, Thierry Sabine, was killed when his Ecureuil helicopter ("Squirrel-copter") crashed at 7:30 p.m. on Tuesday 14 January 1986, into a dune at Mali during a sudden sand-storm. Also killed onboard was the singer-songwriter Daniel Balavoine, helicopter pilot François-Xavier Bagnoud, journalist Nathalie Odent, and Jean-Paul Lefur who was a radiophonic engineer for RTL.[18]

Six people were killed during the 1988 race, three participants and three local residents. In one incident, Baye Sibi, a 10-year-old Malian girl, was killed by a racer while she crossed a road. A film crew's vehicle killed a mother and daughter in Mauritania on the last day of the race. The race participants killed, in three separate crashes, were a Dutch navigator on the DAF Trucks team, a French privateer, and a French rider. Racers were also blamed for starting a wildfire that caused a panic on a train running between Dakar and Bamako, where three more people were killed.[19]

In 2003, French driver Daniel Nebot both rolled and crashed his Toyota heavily at high speed killing his co-driver Bruno Cauvy.[20][21] In 2005, Spanish motorcyclist José Manuel Pérez died in a Spanish hospital on Monday 10 January after crashing the week before on the 7th stage. Italian motorcyclist Fabrizio Meoni, a two-time winner of the event, became the second Dakar Rally rider to die in two days, following Pérez on 11 January on stage 11. Meoni was the 11th motorcyclist and the 45th person overall to die in the history of the race. On 13 January a five-year-old Senegalese girl was hit and killed by a service lorry after wandering onto a main road, bringing the total deaths to five.

In 2006, 41-year-old Australian KTM motorcyclist Andy Caldecott, in his third time in the Dakar, died on 9 January as a result of neck injuries sustained in a crash approximately 250 kilometres (160 mi) into stage 9, between Nouakchott and Kiffa, only a few kilometers (miles) from the location where Meoni had his fatal wreck the year before. He won the third stage of the 2006 event between Nador and Er Rachidia only a few days before his death. The death occurred despite efforts by the event organisers to improve competitor safety, including limiting speed, mandatory rest at fuel stops, and reduced fuel capacity requirements for the bike classes. On 13 January a 10-year-old boy died while crossing the course after being hit by a car driven by Latvian Māris Saukāns, while on 14 January a 12-year-old boy was killed after being hit by a support lorry.[22]

In 2007, 29-year-old South African motor racer Elmer Symons died of injuries sustained in a crash during the fourth stage of the Rally. Symons crashed with his bike in the desert between Er Rachidia and Ouarzazate, Morocco.[23] Another death occurred on 20 January, the night before the race's finish, when 42-year-old motorcyclist Eric Aubijoux died suddenly. The cause of death was initially believed to be a heart attack,[24] however it was later suggested that Aubijoux had died of internal injuries sustained in a crash earlier that day while competing in the 14th stage of the race.

The 2008 Dakar Rally was cancelled due to security concerns after al-Qaeda's murder of four French tourists on Christmas Eve in December 2007 in Mauritania (a country in which the rally spent eight days), various accusations against the rally calling it "neo-colonialist", and al-Qaeda's accusations against Mauritania calling it a supporter of "crusaders, apostates and infidels". The French-based Amaury Sport Organisation in charge of the 6,000-kilometre (3,700 mi) rally said in a statement that they had been advised by the French government to cancel the race, which had been due to begin on 5 January 2008 from Lisbon. They said direct threats had also been made against the event by al-Qaeda related organisations.[25][26]

Omar Osama bin Laden, the son of Osama bin Laden, attracted news coverage in 2008 by promoting himself as an "ambassador of peace" and proposing a 3,000-mile (4,800 km) horse race across North Africa as a replacement to the Dakar Rally, with sponsors' money going to support child victims of war, saying "I heard the rally was stopped because of al-Qaida. I don't think they are going to stop me."[27]

On 7 January 2009, the body of 49-year-old motorcyclist Pascal Terry from France was found. He had been missing for three days and his body lay on a remote part of the second stage between Santa Rosa de la Pampa and Puerto Madryn.

On 4 January 2010, a woman watching the Dakar Rally was killed when a vehicle taking part in the race veered off the course and hit her during the opening stage.

On 1 January 2012, motorcyclist Jorge Martinez Boero of Argentina died after suffering a cardiac arrest after a fall. He was treated by medical staff within five minutes of the accident, but died on the way to hospital.

On 7 January 2015, motorcycle rider Michal Hernik died from unknown circumstances during Stage 3 of the 2015 rally.[28]

Overall 70 people, including 28 competitors, have died in the Dakar Rally.

Criticism

When the race was held in Africa, it was subject to criticism from several sources, generally focusing on the race's impact on the inhabitants of the African countries through which it passed.

Some African residents along the race's course in previous years have said they saw limited benefits from the race; that race participants spent little money on the goods and services local residents can offer. The racers produced substantial amounts of dust along the course, and were blamed for hitting and killing livestock, in addition to occasionally injuring or killing people.[29]

After the 1988 race, when three Africans were killed in collisions with vehicles involved in the race, PANA, a Dakar-based news agency, wrote that the deaths were "insignificant for the [race's] organisers". The Vatican City newspaper L'Osservatore Romano called the race a "vulgar display of power and wealth in places where men continue to die from hunger and thirst."[30] During a 2002 protest at the race's start in Arras, France, a Green Party of France statement described the race as "colonialism that needs to be eradicated".[31]

The environmental impact of the race has been another area of criticism. This criticism of the race is notably the topic of the song "500 connards sur la ligne de départ" ("500 Arseholes at the Starting Line"), on the 1991 album Marchand de cailloux by French singer Renaud.

In 2014, the rally was criticised by damaging a 10,000 km route on the geoglyphs of chile and other chile's ancient heritage.[32]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "Motorcycle competitors race away as Dakar Rally leaves Buenos Aires". Clutch & Chrome. 2009-01-03. Archived from the original on January 20, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
  2. ^ "DAKAR IN ARGENTINA, CHILE AND PERU". ASO. 2009-02-24. Retrieved 2009-03-05.
  3. ^ "Dakar stays in South America for 2011". Autosport. 2010-03-23.
  4. ^ "History". Dakar.com. Retrieved 2014-01-07.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Dakar: Retrospective, 1979-2014" (PDF). Dakar.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-01-16.
  6. ^ "1994 Paris-Dakar-Paris". Mitsubishi Motors. Archived from the original on 2014-01-08. Retrieved 2014-01-07.
  7. ^ "Schlesser penalised after taking lead". BBC Sport. 20 January 2001. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
  8. ^ "Peterhansel's Dakar dream dies". BBC Sport. 18 January 2003. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
  9. ^ "Alphand takes charge with victory". BBC Sport. 12 January 2006. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
  10. ^ "world motorsport | dakar Chile offers to host Dakar 2008". motoring.iafrica.com. Archived from the original on 2012-02-25. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
  11. ^ "Index – Két pótvesennyel pótolnák idén a Dakart". Index.hu. Archived from the original on 2008-03-05. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
  12. ^ "Argentina, Chile to host 2009 Dakar Rally". Agence France-Presse. 2008-02-11.
  13. ^ "Sainz crashes out of Dakar Rally". autosport.com. 2009-01-15. Retrieved 2014-01-08.
  14. ^ Stephane Peterhansel frustrated by controversial finish autosport.com. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  15. ^ a b "Dakar Bike-Quad regulations" (PDF).
  16. ^ dakar.com, retrieved January 7, 2017
  17. ^ a b "Dakar Car-Truck regulations" (PDF).
  18. ^ The Motorsport Memorial Team, info@motorsportmemorial.org. "Motorsport Memorial". Motorsport Memorial. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
  19. ^ Brown, Robert Carlton (1988-02-01). "Disastrous days in the desert". Sports Illustrated. 68 (5): 20(4).
  20. ^ "Article: French Driver Dies in Paris-Dakar Rally – AP Online | HighBeam Research – FREE trial". Highbeam.com. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
  21. ^ The Motorsport Memorial Team, info@motorsportmemorial.org. "Motorsport Memorial". Motorsport Memorial. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
  22. ^ "Second boy dies during Dakar". motoring.co.za. 2006-01-14. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
  23. ^ "Symons dies after crash". eurosport.co.uk. January 1, 2007. Archived from the original on January 13, 2007. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  24. ^ "Dakar hit by second death on eve of finish". London: The Guardian. 2007-01-20.
  25. ^ "News – Africa". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2008-01-08.
  26. ^ The Times – Article Archived December 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  27. ^ Paul Schemm (2008-01-17). "Bin Laden Son Wants to Be Peace Activist". Bismarck Tribune.[permanent dead link]
  28. ^ "Polish rider dies in Argentina during Dakar Rally". Fox News. Archived from the original on 2015-01-12.
  29. ^ Doggett, Gina (2004-01-18). "Paris-Dakar rally brings 'little but dust', Senegalese villagers say". Agence France-Presse.
  30. ^ Brooke, James (1988-03-13). "Dangerous Paris-Dakar race is endangered". The New York Times. p. 8.
  31. ^ Paterne, Elodie (2001-12-28). "Protests overshadow start of Paris-Dakar race". Agence France-Presse.
  32. ^ Watts, Jonathan (16 January 2014). "Chile's Dakar Rally criticised by greens, archaeologists and indigenous groups". the Guardian.

External links

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