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Cuman language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cuman
Native toHungary
RegionCumania
EthnicityCumans
Extinct1770, with the death of István Varró
Turkic
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3qwm
GlottologNone

Cuman (Kuman) was a Kipchak Turkic language spoken by the Cumans (Polovtsy, Folban, Vallany, Kun) and Kipchaks; the language was similar to today's various languages of the Kipchak-Cuman branch. Cuman is documented in medieval works, including the Codex Cumanicus, and it was a literary language in Central and Eastern Europe that left a rich literary inheritance. The language became the main language (lingua franca) of the Golden Horde.[1]

History

Codex Cumanicus
Codex Cumanicus

The Cumans were nomadic people who lived on the steppes of Eastern Europe, north of the Black Sea, before the Golden Horde. Many Turkic peoples including the Crimean Tatars, Karachays, Kumyks, and Balkars are descended from the Cumans. Today, the speakers of these various languages belonging to the Kipchak-Cuman branch speak variations closely related to the Cuman language.

The Cuman language became extinct in the early 17th century in the region of Cumania in Hungary, which was its last stronghold. Tradition holds that the last speaker of the Cuman language there was a person named István Varró, a resident of Karcag (Hungary) who died in 1770.

The Cuman-Kipchaks had an important role in the history of Kazakhstan, Russia, Georgia, Hungary, Romania (see, for example, the Besarab dynasty), Moldavia, Bessarabia and Bulgaria.[2]

Sample

From the book known as the Codex Cumanicus, a Cuman Kipchak Turkic Pater Noster:

Atamız kim köktesiñ. Alğışlı bolsun seniñ atıñ, kelsin seniñ xanlığıñ, bolsun seniñ tilemekiñ – neçik kim kökte, alay [da] yerde. Kündeki ötmegimizni bizge bugün bergil. Dağı yazuqlarımıznı bizge boşatqıl – neçik biz boşatırbız bizge yaman etkenlerge. Dağı yekniñ sınamaqına bizni quurmağıl. Basa barça yamandan bizni qutxarğıl. Amen![3]

In Oghuz, or Western, Turkish, same text is written as:

Atamız ki göktesin. Alkış olsun senin adın, gelsin senin hanlığın, olsun senin dilediğin – nice ki gökte, öyle de yerde. Bugün, gündelik ekmeğimizi bize ver. Günahlarımızı bağışla – nice ki bağışlarız biz, bize yamanlık edenleri. Ve bizi kötülüğün sınamasından kurtar. Tüm yamandan bizi kurtar. Amin!

See also

References

  1. ^ "Turkic written memorials". Old.unesco.kz. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  2. ^ Sun, Kevin (2019-04-07). "Sun Language Theory, Part 2: The Steppes of Tartary (Tatar, Bashkir, Kazakh, Kyrgyz)". Medium. Retrieved 2019-09-17.
  3. ^ "Kuun, Géza et al.: Codex cumanicus, Bibliothecae ad templum divi Marci Venetiarum primum ex integro editit prolegomenis notis et compluribus glossariis instruxit comes Géza Kuun, Budapest 1880, XLIX". Archive.org. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  • Güner, Galip (2013), Kıpçak Türkçesi Grameri, Kesit Press, İstanbul.
  • Mustafa Argunşah, Galip Güner (2015), Codex Cumanicus, Kesit Yayınları, İstanbul.

External links

This page was last edited on 10 December 2019, at 20:35
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