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Culture of Mexico

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The culture of Mexico reflects the country's complex history and is the result of the gradual blending of native culture (particularly Mesoamerican) with Spanish culture and other immigrant cultures.

First inhabited more than 10,000 years ago, the cultures that developed in Mexico became one of the cradles of civilization. During the 300-year rule by the Spanish, Mexico became a crossroad for the people and cultures of Europe, Africa and Asia. The government of independent Mexico actively promoted shared cultural traits in order to create a national identity.

The culture of an individual Mexican is influenced by their familial ties, gender, religion, location and social class, among other factors. In many ways, contemporary life in the cities of Mexico has become similar to that in neighboring United States and Europe, with provincial people conserving traditions more so than the city dwellers.

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Transcription

The nearly 2,000 mile (3,201 kilometer) United States border with Mexico is the most frequently crossed border in the entire world. According to the BBC, the border between Tijuana and San Diego is the busiest land border crossing anywhere. You might think this close proximity and the fact that people are continually moving between the countries should mean the two nations have a lot in common, but that’s not exactly the case. The U.S. probably has more in common with the UK, a country that lies over 4,000 miles across the ocean. Mexico’s many indigenous civilizations were colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century, while the USA was a colony of Great Britain. This made all the difference. And today we will discuss these many differences, in this episode of the Infographics Show, The Average American vs. the Average Mexican. Don’t forget to subscribe and click the bell button so that you can be part of our Notification Squad. First of all, let’s have a quick look at the two countries our citizens call home. The USA is the third (some sources say 4th) largest country in the world with a landmass of 3,796,742 square miles (9,833,520 kilometers squared). Today it has a population of 325,365,189 people, making it the third most populated country on the planet. Mexico has a land mass of 761,610 square miles (1,972,550 kilometers squared) making it the 13th largest country in the world. The population is 129,669,477 people, making it the 10th most populated country in the world. So, who are these people? The USA is said to be 72.4 percent white. Other sources have put this estimate as high as 77 percent. What we do know is that most of these white Americans identify as having ancestry from England, Scotland, Ireland, Germany, France, Italy, Poland and the Netherlands, among many other European countries. The U.S. Census Bureau states that the next largest ethnic group is Hispanic or Latino, at around 17.6 percent of the population, followed by black - 13.3 percent; Asian – 5.6 percent; and native American – 1.2 percent. Multiracial, meaning people that identify as having mixed ancestry, is around 2.6 percent. U.S. Census Bureau data also stated in 2016 that 5.6 million Mexican nationals were residing in the U.S. without authorization. As for Mexico, the largest ethnic group there identify as Mestizo. Mestizo is a group – around 62 percent of the country – that are of mixed ethnicity between the indigenous people of the country and Europeans. This would include someone that has blood from Spanish colonists as well as Mexico’s indigenous peoples. The next largest group at 27 percent of the population are Amerindians, which can draw comparisons to Native American Indians. Think of the Mayas from the Yucatan or Chiapas or the Náhuas, descendants of the Aztecs. White (or European) Mexicans make up 9 percent of the population, while black Mexicans and Arabic Mexicans are thought to make up about 1 percent each of the population. With mixed ethnicity comes mixed religions, and the USA has quite a few on the go. Nonetheless, the USA is said to be the world’s biggest Christian population, many of whom are still quite devout compared to their European counterparts. More than 70 percent of Americans say they are Christian, and the next largest group at around 23 percent aren’t really anything at all. Much smaller groups of people are Muslim, Jewish, Hindu and Buddhist. Mexico is quite similar in this respect, with 93% percent of the population identifying as Christian. The only difference is that 82.7 percent say they are Catholic, while other Christian denominations make up around 12 percent. It’s thought that only 20.8% of Americans are Catholics. About 4.7 percent of Mexicans have taken the “don’t believe” or “don’t know what to think” route, while Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and native religions make up a very small percentage. Mexicans predominantly speak Spanish, but some people are bilingual or even trilingual, speaking also English and/or a native language. The vast majority of Americans are English speakers, although almost 40 million people say they’re mother tongue is Spanish. Smaller groups state that they are Chinese, French, Tagalog, Vietnamese, Korean and German speakers, in that order in terms of numbers. What about the demographics of these people? Well, the median age in the USA is currently 37.8 years old. Life expectancy in the U.S. is currently 79.8 for both sexes, which is the 42nd highest in the world. The highest is Monaco, at the ripe old age of 89.5. Average life expectancy in Mexico is 75.9, the 93rd highest in the world. The median age in Mexico is 27.9 years old. As for what we look like, the average American man is 5 feet 9 or 9 and a half inches (178.8 or 179.8 cm). He weighs 195.5 pounds (88.6 kilos), according to the Center for Disease Control. The average American woman according to the same source is five feet four inches (164.5 cm) and she weighs on average 168.5 pounds (76.5 kilos). The average Mexican man stands at 5 feet 5 1⁄2 inches (167 cm) and weighs around 165 pounds (74.8 kilos). We must point out here that sources are all over the place on this average. The average Mexican woman stands at around 5 feet 2 inches (158.4 cm) and weighs 151 pounds (68.4 kilos). Both countries are considered fat. According to the World Health Organization in 2017, 33 percent of American adults were obese and in Mexico 32.1 percent of adults were obese. It’s seems one thing these nations have in common is a love of over-eating. As for how we live, we know that the USA is a far richer country and we know from all our other shows on the topic that the USA has the most billionaires in the world. But what about the average Joe? The median annual individual income in the U.S. with both men and women taken into account for a 40 hour work week is $44,148 per year, according to a 2017 Bureau of Labor statistics report. Mexico’s median income was closer to 12,000 dollars per year. Mexico may have 15 billionaires (some sources say 16) but the country has widespread poverty. A 2015 report stated that 20% of Mexicans are worth no more than 80 dollars, with half of the population living in poverty. That 20 percent, it was reported, don’t have the money to eat three meals a day. The same report stated that, “From 34 member countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, the gap between wages and hours worked is larger in Mexico than in any other member country.” To rub salt in the wounds, according to OECD, that year Mexicans worked on average 2,327 hours, while Americans worked 1,796 hours. The United States is seen as a very hardworking country, too, in terms of hours worked and holidays taken. According to the Center for Poverty Research in 2015, the official poverty rate in the U.S. was 13.5 percent. Financially, Mexicans seem to have it much harder, but what about happiness levels? According to the World Happiness Index in 2016, which takes into account money, work, lifestyle, safety, freedom, etc., Denmark is the place to be. The USA came 13th on the list and Mexico came 21st on the list. That isn’t bad, considering that Mexico ranked higher than the UK. In 2017, though, Mexico and the UK basically changed places and United States dropped one place. In spite of low wages and some parts of Mexico being notoriously dangerous, it does seem that “subjective well-being” is pretty good. And that’s what counts, right? In fact, in 2014, a Pew research study found that Mexicans were the happiest people of the 43 participating countries, which included Germany, France, South Korea, Japan, the US, and the UK. One Mexican news media outlet wrote a story with the headline, “Mexicans: fat and happy, hard-working.” People have actually addressed this phenomenon and said one factor is that Mexicans have much stronger family ties, but also live a more active public life. While we hear a lot of negative news about Mexico, we don’t generally hear about the warm climate, community spirit, rich history, beautiful beaches; the streets often full of music and celebrations, the general daily joie de vivre. Speaking of living the good life, be sure to check out and subscribe to our new Youtube channel called Fuzzy and Nutz! This week, Fuzzy wins the lottery, and as you might expect, his arch-nemesis Nutz laughs and looks on as chaos ensues! Give it a watch and learn a thing or two, cos we think you’re gonna love the show just as much as we loved making it. See ya next time!

Contents

Religion

Our Lady of Guadalupe, the patron saint of Mexico.
Our Lady of Guadalupe, the patron saint of Mexico.

The Spanish arrival and colonization brought Roman Catholicism to the country, which became the main religion of Mexico. Mexico is a secular state, and the Constitution of 1917 and anti-clerical laws imposed limitations on the church and sometimes codified state intrusion into church matters. The government does not provide any financial contributions to the church, and the church does not participate in public education.

95.6% of the population were Christian in 2010.[1] Roman Catholics are 89%[2] of the total, 47% percent of whom attend church services weekly.[3] In absolute terms, Mexico has the world's second largest number of Catholics after Brazil.[4] According to the Government's 2000 census, approximately 87 percent of respondents identified themselves as at least nominally Roman Catholic.

Other religious groups for which the 2000 census provided estimates included evangelicals, with 1.71 percent of the population; other Protestant evangelical groups, 2.79 percent; members of Jehovah's Witnesses, 1.25 percent; "Historical" Protestants, 0.71 percent; Seventh-day Adventists, 0.58 percent; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 0.25 percent; Jews, 0.05 percent; and other religions, 0.31 percent. Approximately 3.52 percent of respondents indicated no religion, and 0.86 percent did not specify a religion.

Arts

Mural by Diego Rivera at the National Palace depicting the history of Mexico from the Conquest to early 20th century.
Mural by Diego Rivera at the National Palace depicting the history of Mexico from the Conquest to early 20th century.

Mexico is known for its folk art traditions, mostly derived from the indigenous and Spanish crafts. Pre-Columbian art thrived over a wide timescale, from 1800 BC to AD 1500. Certain artistic characteristics were repeated throughout the region, namely a preference for angular, linear patterns, and three-dimensional ceramics.

Notable handicrafts include clay pottery from the valley of Oaxaca and the village of Tonala. Colorfully embroidered cotton garments, cotton or wool shawls and outer garments, and colorful baskets and rugs are seen everywhere. Mexico is also known for its pre-Columbian architecture, especially for public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures.

El Valle de México, s. XIX
El Valle de México, s. XIX

Following the conquest, the first artistic efforts were directed at evangelization and the related task of building churches. The Spanish initially co-opted many indigenous stonemasons and sculptors to build churches, monuments and other religious art, such as altars. The prevailing style during this era was Baroque. In the period from independence to the early 20th century, Mexican fine arts continued to be largely influenced by European traditions.

After the Mexican Revolution, a new generation of Mexican artists led a vibrant national movement that incorporated political, historic and folk themes in their work. The painters Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, and David Siqueiros were the main propagators of Mexican muralism. Their grand murals often displayed on public buildings, promoted social ideals. Rufino Tamayo and Frida Kahlo produced more personal works with abstract elements. Mexican art photography was largely fostered by the work of Manuel Álvarez Bravo.[5]

Literature

A late 18th-century painting of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, poet and writer.
A late 18th-century painting of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, poet and writer.

Mexican literature has its antecedents in the literature of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica. The most well known prehispanic poet is Netzahualcoyotl. Modern Mexican literature is influenced by the concepts of the Spanish colonialization of Mesoamerica. Outstanding colonial writers and poets include Juan Ruiz de Alarcón and Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz.

Other notable writers include Alfonso Reyes, José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi, Ignacio Manuel Altamirano, Maruxa Vilalta, Carlos Fuentes, Octavio Paz (Nobel Laureate), Renato Leduc, Mariano Azuela ("Los de abajo"), Juan Rulfo ("Pedro Páramo") and Bruno Traven.

Language

Mexico is the most Spanish-speaking country in the world.[6] Although the overwhelming majority of Mexicans today speak Spanish, there is no de jure official language at the federal level. The government recognizes 62 indigenous Amerindian languages as national languages.[7]

Some Spanish vocabulary in Mexico has roots in the country's indigenous languages, which are spoken by approximately 6% of the population.[7] Some indigenous Mexican words have become common in other languages, such as the English language. For instance, the words tomato, chocolate, coyote, and avocado are Nahuatl in origin.[8]

Architecture

Detail of the Puuc façade of a building in the Nunnery Quadrangle of Uxmal.
The Palacio de Bellas Artes is built in a primarily Art Nouveau exterior and an Art Deco interior, a result of interruptions during construction caused by the Mexican Revolution
The main façade of the Zacatecas Cathedral, considered a masterpiece of Churrigueresque
Corridor of the Luis Barragán House and Studio showing some of Barragán's characteristics; usage of natural light, geometric forms, clean colors and staircases without railings.

With thirty-four sites, Mexico has more sites on the UNESCO World Heritage list than any other country in the Americas, most of which pertain to Mexico's architectural history. Mesoamerican architecture in Mexico is best known for its public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures, several of which are the largest monuments in the world. Mesoamerican architecture is divided into three eras, Pre-Classic, Classic, and Post-Classic. Architect Frank Lloyd Wright is reputed to have declared the Puuc-style architecture of the Maya as the best in the Western Hemisphere.[9]

The New Spanish Baroque dominated in early colonial Mexico. During the late 17th century to 1750, one of Mexico's most popular architectural styles was Mexican Churrigueresque, which combined Amerindian and Moorish decorative influences.

The Academy of San Carlos, founded in 1788, was the first major art academy in the Americas. The academy promoted Neoclassicism, focusing on Greek and Roman art and architecture. Notable Neoclassical works include the Hospicio Cabañas, a world heritage site, and the Palacio de Minería, both by Spanish Mexican architect Manuel Tolsá.

From 1864 to 1867, during the Second Mexican Empire, Maximilian I was installed as emperor of Mexico. His architectural legacy lies in the redesigning of the Castillo de Chapultepec and creating the Paseo de la Reforma. This intervention, financed largely by France, was brief, but it began a period of French influence in architecture and culture. The style was emphasized during the presidency of Porfirio Diaz who was a pronounced francophile. Notable works from the Porfiriato include the Palacio de Correos and a large network of railways.

After the Mexican Revolution in 1917, idealization of the indigenous and the traditional symbolized attempts to reach into the past and retrieve what had been lost in the race toward modernization.

Functionalism, expressionism, and other schools left their imprint on a large number of works in which Mexican stylistic elements have been combined with European and American techniques, most notably the work of Pritzker Prize winner Luis Barragán. His personal home, the Luis Barragán House and Studio, is a World Heritage Site.

Enrique Norten, the founder of TEN Arquitectos, has been awarded several honors for his work in modern architecture. His work expresses a modernity that reinforces the government's desire to present a new image of Mexico as an industrialized country with a global presence.

Other notable and emerging contemporary architects include Mario Schjetnan, Michel Rojkind, Isaac Broid Zajman, Bernardo Gómez-Pimienta, and Alberto Kalach.

Cinema

The history of Mexican cinema dates to the beginning of the 20th century when several enthusiasts of the new medium documented historical events – most particularly the Mexican Revolution. The Golden Age of Mexican cinema is the name given to the period between 1935 and 1959, where the quality and economic success of the cinema of Mexico reached its peak. An era when renowned actors such as Cantinflas and Dolores del Río appeared on the silver screen.

Present-day film makers include Alejandro González Iñárritu (Amores perros, Babel), Alfonso Cuarón (Children of Men, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban), Guillermo del Toro (Pan's Labyrinth), Carlos Reygadas (Stellet Licht), screenwriter Guillermo Arriaga and owners Guillermo Navarro and Emmanuel Lubezki.

National holidays

Municipal president giving the "grito" of "Viva México" at the commencement of Independence Day festivities in 2008
Municipal president giving the "grito" of "Viva México" at the commencement of Independence Day festivities in 2008

Mexicans celebrate their Independence from Spain on September 16, and other holidays with festivals known as "Fiestas". Many Mexican cities, towns, and villages hold a yearly festival to commemorate their local patron saints. During these festivities, the people pray and burn candles to honor their saints in churches decorated with flowers and colorful utensils. They also hold large parades, fireworks, dance competitions, beauty pageant contest, party and buy refreshments in the marketplaces and public squares. In the smaller towns and villages, soccer, and boxing are also celebrated during the festivities.

Skulls made of amaranto, given during the Day of the Dead festival.
Revolution Day marking the start of what became the Mexican Revolution.

Other festivities include Día de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe ("Our Lady of Guadalupe Day"), Las Posadas ("The Shelters", celebrated on December 16 to December 24), Noche Buena ("Holy Night", celebrated on December 24), Navidad ("Christmas", celebrated on December 25) and Año Nuevo ("New Years Day", celebrated on December 31 to January 1).

"Guadalupe Day" is regarded by many Mexicans as the most important religious holiday of their country. It honors the Virgin of Guadalupe, the patron saint of Mexico, which is celebrated on December 12. In the last decade, all the celebrations happening from mid-December to the beginning of January have been linked together in what has been called the Guadalupe-Reyes Marathon.

Epiphany on the evening of January 5 marks the Twelfth Night of Christmas and is when the figurines of the three wise men are added to the nativity scene. Traditionally in Mexico, as with many other Latin American countries, Santa Claus doesn't hold the cachet that he does in the United States. Rather, it is the three wise men who are the bearers of gifts, who leave presents in or near the shoes of small children.[10] Mexican families also commemorate the date by eating Rosca de reyes.

The Day of the Dead incorporates pre-Columbian beliefs with Christian elements. The holiday focuses on gatherings of family and friends to pray for and remember friends and family members who have died. There is an idea behind this day that suggests the living must attend to the dead so that the dead will protect the living.[11] The celebration occurs on November 2 in connection with the Catholic holidays of All Saints' Day (November 1) and All Souls' Day (November 2). Traditions connected with the holiday include building private altars honoring the deceased using sugar skulls, marigolds, and the favorite foods and beverages of the departed, and visiting graves with these as gifts. The gifts presented turn the graveyard from a dull and sorrowful place to an intimate and hospitable environment to celebrate the dead.[11]

In modern Mexico and particularly in the larger cities and in the North, local traditions are now being observed and intertwined with the greater North American Santa Claus tradition, as well as with other holidays such as Halloween, due to Americanization via film and television, creating an economy of gifting tradition that spans from Christmas Day until January 6.

A piñata is made from papier-mache. It is created to look like popular people, animals, or fictional characters. Once made it is painted with bright colors and filled with candy or small toys. It is then hung from the ceiling. The children are blindfolded and take turns hitting the piñata until it breaks open and the candy and small toys fall out. The children then gather the candy and small toys.

Cuisine

Chiles en nogada, a popular dish from Mexico
Mole poblano is considered Mexico's plato nacional
Bottles of artisanal mezcal

Mexican cuisine is known for its blending of Indigenous and European cultures. The cuisine was inscribed in 2010 on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO.[12] Traditionally, the main Mexican ingredients consisted of maize, beans, both red and white meats, potatoes, tomatoes, seafood, chili peppers, squash, nuts, avocados and various herbs native to Mexico.

Popular dishes include tacos, enchiladas, mole sauce, atole, tamales, and pozole. Popular beverages include water flavored with a variety of fruit juices, and cinnamon-flavored hot chocolate prepared with milk or water and blended until it becomes frothed using a traditional wooden tool called a molinillo. Alcoholic beverages native to Mexico include mescal, pulque, and tequila. Mexican beer is also popular in Mexico and are exported. There are international award-winning Mexican wineries that produce and export wine.[13]

The most important and frequently used spices in Mexican cuisine are chili powder, cumin, oregano, cilantro, epazote, cinnamon, and cocoa. Chipotle, a smoked-dried jalapeño pepper, is also common in Mexican cuisine. Many Mexican dishes also contain onions and garlic, which are also some of Mexico's staple foods.

Next to corn, rice is the most common grain in Mexican cuisine. According to food writer Karen Hursh Graber, the initial introduction of rice to Spain from North Africa in the 14th century led to the Spanish introduction of rice to Mexico at the port of Veracruz in the 1520s. This, Graber says, created one of the earliest instances of the world's greatest Fusion cuisine's.[citation needed]

In southeastern Mexico, especially in the Yucatán Peninsula, spicy vegetable and meat dishes are common. The cuisine of Southeastern Mexico has quite a bit of Caribbean influence, given its geographical location. Seafood is commonly prepared in the states that border the Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico, the latter having a famous reputation for its fish dishes, à la veracruzana.

In contemporary times, various world cuisines have become popular in Mexico, thus adopting a Mexican fusion. For example, sushi in Mexico is often made by using a variety of sauces based on mango and tamarind, and very often served with serrano-chili blended soy sauce, or complemented with vinegar, habanero peppers, and chipotle peppers.[citation needed]

Chocolate originated in Mexico and was prized by the Aztecs. It remains an important ingredient in Mexican cookery.[citation needed]

Music and dance

Danza de los Voladores, a ritual dance performed by the Totonacs.
Danza de los Voladores, a ritual dance performed by the Totonacs.

The foundation of Mexican music comes from its indigenous sounds and heritage. The original inhabitants of the land used drums (such as the teponaztli), flutes, rattles, conches as trumpets and their voices to make music and dances. This ancient music is still played in some parts of Mexico. However, much of the traditional contemporary music of Mexico was written during and after the Spanish colonial period, using many old world influenced instruments. Many traditional instruments, such as the Mexican vihuela used in Mariachi music, were adapted from their old world predecessors and are now considered very Mexican.

Mexican society enjoys a vast array of music genres, showing the diversity of Mexican culture. Traditional music includes Mariachi, Banda, Norteño, Ranchera and Corridos. Mexicans also listen to contemporary music such as pop and Mexican rock. Mexico has the largest media industry in Latin America, producing Mexican artists who are famous in the Americas and parts of Europe.

Folk songs called corridos have been popular in Mexico since the early nineteen hundreds. It may tell the story of the Mexican Revolution, pride, Mestizaje, romance, poverty, politics or crime. Notable Afro-Mexican contributions to the country's music are the Son Jarocho and the marimba.

Jarabe Tapatío in the traditional China Poblana dress.
Jarabe Tapatío in the traditional China Poblana dress.

Mariachis perform along streets, festivals and restaurants. A common Mariachi group can include singers, violins, a guitarrón, a guitarra de golpe, vihuela, guitars, and trumpets. The most prominent Mariachi group is Vargas de Tecalitlán, which was originally formed in 1897.

Other styles of traditional regional music in México: Huapango or Son Huasteco (Huasteca, northeastern regions, violin and two guitars known as quinta huapanguera and jarana), Tambora (Sinaloa, mainly brass instruments) Duranguense, Jarana (most of the Yucatán peninsula) and Norteña (North style, redoba and accordion).

Folk dances are a feature of Mexican culture. Significant in dance tradition is the "Jarabe Tapatío", known as "Mexican hat dance". Traditional dancers perform a sequence of hopping steps, heel and toe-tapping movements.

Among the most known "classical" composers: Manuel M. Ponce ("Estrellita"), Revueltas, Jordá (Elodia), Ricardo Castro, Juventino Rosas ("Sobre las olas"), Carrillo (Sonido 13), Ibarra, Pablo Moncayo (Huapango) and Carlos Chávez.

Popular composers includes: Agustín Lara, Consuelo Velázquez ("Bésame mucho"), José Alfredo Jiménez, Armando Manzanero, Álvaro Carrillo, Joaquín Pardavé and Alfonso Ortiz Tirado.

Traditional Mexican music has influenced the evolution of the Mexican pop and Mexican rock genre. Some well-known Mexican pop singers are Luis Miguel and Alejandro Fernández. Latin rock musicians such as Carlos Santana, Café Tacuba and Caifanes have incorporated Mexican folk tunes into their music. Traditional Mexican music is still alive in the voices of artists such as Lila Downs.

Sport

Club América vs Cruz Azul at the Estadio Azteca.
Club América vs Cruz Azul at the Estadio Azteca.

The traditional national sport of Mexico is Charreria, which consists of a series of equestrian events. The national horse of Mexico, used in Charreria, is the Azteca. Bullfighting, a tradition brought from Spain, is also popular. Mexico has the largest venue for bullfighting in the world - the Plaza México in Mexico City which seats 48,000 people.

Football is the most popular team sport in Mexico. Most states have their own representative football teams. Among the country's significant teams include Chivas de Guadalajara, Club América, Cruz Azul, and Pumas de la UNAM. Notable players include Hugo Sánchez, Claudio Suárez, Luis Hernández, Francisco Palencia, Cuauhtémoc Blanco, Memo Ochoa, Jared Borgetti, Rafael Márquez, Pável Pardo, and Javier Hernández.

The country hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1968 and the FIFA World Cup in 1970 and 1986, and was the first country to host the FIFA World Cup twice.

See also

References

  1. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
  2. ^ "Religión" (PDF). Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2000. INEGI. 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2005. Retrieved 2 August 2009.
  3. ^ "Church attendance". Study of worldwide rates of religiosity. University of Michigan. 1997. Archived from the original on 2006-09-01. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
  4. ^ "The Largest Catholic Communities". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2007-11-10.
  5. ^ "Mexican muralists: the big three - Orozco, Rivera, Siqueiros. : Mexico Culture & Arts". www.mexconnect.com.
  6. ^ "Learn Spanish in Mexico - Spanish Courses in Mexico - Spanish Schools in Mexico". Spanish-Language.com. Archived from the original on 2010-09-17. Retrieved 2010-02-18.
  7. ^ a b "Mexico - General country information". MoveOnNet.eu. Retrieved 2010-02-18.
  8. ^ "Amerindian Words in English". Zompist.com. Retrieved 2010-02-18.
  9. ^ "Betraying the Maya". Archeology Magazine. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
  10. ^ Ricardo Botto. "Dia de Reyes, the story of Los Tres Reyes Magos". Mexonline.com. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  11. ^ a b Franco, Gina; Poore, Christopher (1 November 2017). "Day of the Dead is not "Mexican Halloween"—it's a day where death is reclaimed". America Magazine. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  12. ^ "Traditional Mexican cuisine - ancestral, ongoing community culture, the Michoacán paradigm". UNESCO. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
  13. ^ "Mexico Wine Routes & Regions - Vineyards & Wineries of Baja". chiff.com. Retrieved 2010-02-18.

External links

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