To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Crowne Plaza Times Square Manhattan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Crowne Plaza Times Square Manhattan
Crowne Plaza Hotel Times Square 20100618.JPG
General information
Location1601 Broadway, Manhattan, New York City
Coordinates40°45′39″N 73°59′06″W / 40.7607°N 73.9850°W / 40.7607; -73.9850
OpeningDecember 1, 1989
ClosedMarch 31, 2020
OwnerVornado Realty Trust
ManagementIntercontinental Hotel Group
Height480 feet (150 m)
Technical details
Floor count46
Design and construction
ArchitectAlan Lapidus
DeveloperKG Crowne Corp
Other information
Number of rooms795
Parking159 spaces

The Crowne Plaza Times Square Manhattan (originally the Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza Manhattan) was a hotel at 1601 Broadway, between 48th and 49th Streets, in the Theater District of Midtown Manhattan in New York City. The hotel was operated by Highgate (third party franchisee), and part of the Intercontinental Hotels Group Crowne Plaza chain, the hotel has 795 guestrooms.

The hotel was designed by Alan Lapidus and is 480 feet (150 m) tall with 46 floors. The facade was designed in glass and pink granite, with a 100-foot-tall (30 m) arch facing Broadway. The hotel was designed to comply with city regulations that required deep setbacks at the base, as well as large illuminated signs. In addition to the hotel rooms themselves, the Crowne Plaza Times Square contains ground-story retail space, nine stories of office space, and a 159-space parking garage. The hotel's tenants include the American Management Association, Learning Tree International, and formerly New York Sports Club (now closed).

Developer William Zeckendorf Jr. bought the hotel's site in 1985 and subsequently razed the existing structures there. Construction commenced in 1988, and the hotel opened on December 1, 1989. For the first several years of the hotel's operation, its office space and exterior signage was empty. Adam Tihany redesigned the interior in 1999. The City Investment Fund, a joint venture between Morgan Stanley Real Estate and Fisher Brothers, bought the Crowne Plaza in 2006 and renovated it again two years later. Vornado Realty Trust then acquired majority ownership of the hotel in 2015. The hotel rooms were closed in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City.

Site

The Crowne Plaza Times Square Manhattan occupies the eastern end of the city block bounded by Eighth Avenue to the west, 49th Street to the north, Broadway to the east, and 48th Street to the south. It is one block north of Times Square in the Theater District of Midtown Manhattan in New York City.[1][2] The mostly trapezoidal land lot covers 35,275 square feet (3,277.2 m2), with a frontage of 203 feet (62 m) on Broadway and a depth of 194.48 feet (59.28 m).[2] The surrounding area is part of Manhattan's Theater District and contains many Broadway theatres.[1] Nearby buildings include the St. Malachy Roman Catholic Church to the northwest; The Theater Center, Brill Building, and Ambassador Theatre to the north; 750 Seventh Avenue to the northeast; 1585 Broadway to the south; and the Longacre Theatre, Ethel Barrymore Theatre, and Samuel J. Friedman Theatre to the southwest.[2]

Historically, the site had contained Churchill's Restaurant, which had been built in 1910 and redesigned as a theater in 1937. The theater later became an adult movie theater called the Pussycat Cinema.[3] Just prior to the hotel's construction, the site had contained six pornographic businesses owned by Michael Zaffarano,[4] including the Pussycat Cinema and the Kitty Kat and Mardi Gras Topless Disco.[5][6] The Pussycat had contained a large neon sign; David W. Dunlap of The New York Times described the sign as an "exuberant cynosure of a naughtier, gaudier, vanishing Broadway".[6] There had also been some "pinball and souvenir shops" on the site.[7] Songwriter Irving Berlin had once also occupied a building on the site,[8][9] as the offices of Irving Berlin Inc. had been at 1607 Broadway between 1921 and 1933.[9]

Architecture

Daytime view from 49th Street and Broadway
Daytime view from 49th Street and Broadway

The Crowne Plaza Times Square was designed by Alan J. Lapidus,[1] son of modernist architect Morris Lapidus.[10] Operated by InterContinental Hotels Group as part of the Crowne Plaza chain, the hotel is 480 feet (150 m) with 46 floors.[11][12] In addition to the 795-key hotel, the Crowne Plaza Times Square's building contains 7,700 square feet (720 m2) of ground-story retail space, 197,000 square feet (18,300 m2) of office space, and a 159-space parking garage. The American Management Association's Executive Conference Center, is on the sixth through eighth floors with a total of 88,066 square feet (8,181.6 m2). Learning Tree International has 25,000 square feet (2,300 m2) and the New York Sports Club has 28,418 square feet (2,640.1 m2).[12]

Facade

The facade was designed with glass and pink granite.[8][13] Most of the facade is clad in reflective glass. The southeast and northeast corners are covered with granite, concealing the elevator shafts inside.[14] The center of the Broadway facade contains a granite arch measuring 100 feet (30 m) tall.[8][14][15] According to Lapidus, he wanted the arch's design to evoke the design of Wurlitzer organs from the 1930s and 1940s.[14][16] The New York Times compared the hotel to a "giant jukebox".[16]

The hotel was designed to comply with city regulations that required deep setbacks at the base, as well as large illuminated signs.[7] Accordingly, the hotel rooms are deeply set back from Broadway, and the first seven stories were initially planned to contain curving signs.[13] Lapidus wanted to include holographic displays, laser lighting displays, and waterfalls in the Crowne Plaza's design. At the time of the hotel's construction, light meter technology was not advanced enough to determine how much light these features emitted, so Lapidus left provisions so these features could be installed later. As built, the hotel had large billboards on its first 12 stories to comply with the regulations.[8][14] At the time of the hotel's opening, these signs had an annual maintenance cost of $100,000.[16] In 1995, a sign measuring 100 by 20 feet (30.5 by 6.1 m) was installed on the southern wall.[17]

Features

When the hotel was being built, it was variously cited as containing 765,[18][19] 770,[20][21] 778,[22] 780,[23] or 785 rooms.[4][7][24] A 1992 news article cited the hotel as having 770 rooms and 25 suites. The top four floors were known as the Crowne Plaza Club, which charged an additional fee.[25] Following a renovation in 2008, the 46th story was turned into a "butler floor" with 16 rooms; the floor was so named because guests were given complimentary services such as laundry and private transportation. In addition, the 128 rooms on the 41st through 45th floors were collectively labeled the "concierge levels".[26]

At ground level, escalators led to a lobby and reception area on the second floor.[15][27] The lobby area connected to a lounge and three restaurants.[27][28] Holiday Inn originally reserved six floors for business patrons, who would pay an additional fee for extra services such as complimentary breakfast.[29] To attract guests, each suite was designed with technologically advanced amenities of the time, such as modem connections and phone lines, as well as bathrooms clad with marble. In addition, there was a fitness center originally covering 8,800 square feet (820 m2).[21] The fitness center included a swimming pool measuring 50 feet (15 m) long.[25][26] The fitness center was expanded to two floors in 1992.[25] Following a renovation in 2008, the New York Sports Club started to operate the fitness center.[26]

The building was designed with approximately 200,000 square feet (19,000 m2) of office space on nine of the lower stories.[27][30] The office space was placed on the 6th through 14th floors, with hotel rooms above and below.[27] When it opened, the hotel had a business center with computers, stock quote machines, fax machines, and a secretarial service.[8] The hotel also had a ballroom and over 20 conference rooms,[28] which covered 18,000 square feet (1,700 m2).[27] By 2015, the ballroom could be rented as workspace.[31]

History

Times Square's Theater District had evolved into a business district after World War II.[32] Nonetheless, there were relatively few large developments there in the mid-20th century. Between 1958 and 1983, only twelve buildings with at least 100,000 square feet (9,300 m2) of space were developed in the 114-block area between Sixth Avenue, Times Square, Eighth Avenue, and Columbus Circle.[33] By the 1980s, there was high demand for office space in New York City.[34] During the decade, several hotels were developed around Times Square,[18][35] as well as in New York City in general, as a result of growing tourism.[36] These hotel developments were spurred by the success of the nearby New York Marriott Marquis, which had an occupancy rate of over 80 percent across nearly 2,000 rooms.[35] In addition, the city government had enacted a zoning bonus in 1982 for large new buildings in West Midtown, but the bonus was scheduled to expire in 1988.[35][37]

Construction

The main entrance arch
The main entrance arch

The block of Broadway between 48th and 49th Streets was owned by Michael Zaffarano, who for years resisted selling off his pornographic businesses, even as other landlords nearby were being cajoled to shutter their adult businesses. Zaffarano's son John inherited the sites in 1981 and was more agreeable to selling them after his father's death.[4] Developer William Zeckendorf Jr. bought the sites in 1985 and planned to replace them with a hotel.[4][38] The site had also been contemplated as a location for an office building.[39] In August 1986, Zeckendorf announced plans for the hotel, to be designed by Alan Lapidus.[40] The hotel was variously planned to be 44,[40] 45,[20] or 46 stories tall.[4][5][18] At the time, the New York City Planning Commission (CPC) was considering enacting regulations that would have forced new buildings along Times Square's northern section to include bright signage as well as deep setbacks.[41] Accordingly, Zeckendorf planned a hotel with five types of signs, including a horizontal zipper and five-story-high displays.[40] Zeckendorf demolished the pornographic businesses in October 1986[6] and developed the hotel with several partners.[18][42]

The Holiday Corporation (later Holiday Inn) agreed to operate the hotel in October 1986,[43] and the hotel became known as the Crowne Plaza Times Square.[4][7] It was to be the Holiday Corporation's first hotel in Manhattan[20] and would be the Crowne Plaza chain's flagship.[44] The hotel building was planned with 800,000 square feet (74,000 m2) of space,[45] of which about 200,000 square feet (19,000 m2) would be reserved for offices.[45][19] Zeckendorf received $227 million in financing for the hotel in August 1987,[20][44] with the Bank of Nova Scotia providing the loan.[46] The CPC approved a planning regulation that September, which required large new developments in Times Square to set aside about five percent of their space for "entertainment uses", such as broadcast studios or ground-floor stores.[47] The ordinance also required the developers of such buildings to install large signs facing Times Square.[48] The Crowne Plaza's design was directly influenced by this ordinance.[35][48]

When construction started in 1988, the Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza was one of four large new office projects being erected around Times Square,[45] as well as the largest of four hotels being erected there.[49][21] By that July, the hotel's superstructure was up to the fourth story.[18] The Crowne Plaza planned to charge a minimum of $175 per night for a single room, making it more expensive than its competitors nearby.[19][21] Nonetheless, Holiday Inn projected that the hotel would be profitable because the company already had a large number of frequent guests and business clients.[19] The Crowne Plaza was primarily targeted toward domestic business travelers, followed by international business clients and then leisure visitors.[27] As such, management planned to set aside 20 percent of its rooms for business clients, twice as much as in comparable hotels.[29] By 1989, the number of annual visitors to New York City had decreased for the first time in eight years due to the effects of Black Monday.[50][51] Nonetheless, the Crowne Plaza's manager Michael Silberstein expressed optimism that the decline was temporary.[50] Prior to the hotel's opening, Silberstein sent some of the Crowne Plaza's employees to Walt Disney World for training, saying that "Disney gives top-level service".[28]

Usage

Opening and early years

Seen from the ground on 48th Street
Seen from the ground on 48th Street

The Crowne Plaza opened on December 1, 1989,[16][52] at a cost of $300 million.[42][48][53] For the hotel's construction, Zeckendorf had received a municipal tax abatement that lowered his tax bill by several million dollars.[54] Only 200 rooms were completed at the time, but the hotel's operators wanted to uphold their promise of an "autumn 1989 launch".[52] According to Silberstein, 129 guests made reservations for New Year's Eve in the first twelve hours of its operation, even though the hotel did not conduct any advertising.[16] The Crowne Plaza was one of several new hotels in the Times Square area with a combined 4,200 rooms,[53] even as visitation rates in the city remained sluggish.[52][55] While the hotel was operated by Holiday Inn (then by Bass plc after early 1990), the building itself was owned by several partners.[16][a] A restaurant named Samplings Bar had opened within the Crowne Plaza by April 1990,[56] followed the next month by the Broadway Grill.[57][58] The Crowne Plaza was largely staffed by union workers, with the Broadway Grill being the only exception.[59]

Several months after the hotel opened, Zeckendorf had not leased the office space at the hotel's base.[60] Furthermore, there were no tenants for the signage, so parts of the exterior were covered up.[61] The amenity space was expanded by one story in 1992.[25][62] The same year, the Crowne Plaza was selected to host delegates for the 1992 Democratic Party presidential primaries from Arkansas, the home state of Bill Clinton, who eventually won the 1992 United States presidential election. The "relatively unknown" Crowne Plaza become more popular as a result.[63] The Crowne Plaza added a large sign on the southern wall in 1995, and the words "Holiday Inn" were removed from the signs on the hotel's exterior. The hotel's office space had also remained empty until the same year, when the American Management Association indicated its intent to sign a 150,000-square-foot (14,000 m2) lease there. The AMA was supposed to have been the original tenant of the space when the hotel was being developed.[17] Among the advertisers on the Crowne Plaza's facade was the Poland Spring Corporation, which in 1998 signed a three-year lease for a curved billboard at 48th Street and Broadway.[64]

The hotel also hosted events such as spirits expositions[65] and media conventions.[66] In addition, the Crowne Plaza was one of New York City's few hotels that accommodated sequestered jurors, as New York state law required jurors to remain sequestered during some types of criminal trials.[67] The hotel's operators hired Adam Tihany to redesign the interior in 1999.[68][69] The modifications included a renovation of the bar, which cost $2 million. The Crowne Plaza's manager, Drew Schlesinger, said the hotel's operators allowed management to refurbish the hotel "in tune with the whole gentrification of Times Square".[69]

Early 21st century

The hotel saw decreases in visitation following the September 11 attacks in 2001.[70][71] Around the same time, the area evolved into a business district and there was growing demand for meeting space, as well as numerous new restaurants. Consequently, the Crowne Plaza closed two of its restaurants and replaced them with a ballroom.[72] The Hershey Company announced plans to open a ground-level store and add a 15-story billboard in 2002.[73] The City Investment Fund, a joint venture between Morgan Stanley Real Estate and Fisher Brothers, acquired the Crowne Plaza in 2006 for $362 million.[74][75] By then, rising room rates had led to decreases in visitation.[76] Two years later, the hotel conducted an $85 million renovation on its lobby, restaurants, guest rooms, and meeting space.[26] The renovation was conducted in stages, with the hotel remaining open throughout.[77] The renovation was finished in 2009,[77][78] and the Brasserie 1605 restaurant opened that April.[79] After the renovation was completed, the Crowne Plaza saw a lower occupancy rate than other hotels, in part because of decreased tourism.[77]

Krispy Kreme location
Krispy Kreme location

Vornado Realty Trust acquired the $34 million junior mortgage in May 2011 and paid down some of the debt that December.[80] Vornado announced the next year that it would recapitalize the hotel and take over ownership of the 180,000 square feet (17,000 m2) of commercial space.[80][81] Vornado bought City Investment Fund's ownership stake for $39 million in 2015, increasing Vornado's ownership stake from 11 to 33 percent. Vornado then acquired majority ownership by buying another 24-percent ownership stake for $95 million.[82] Vornado sued Holiday Hospitality in July 2016 for $30 million, alleging that Holiday had run the hotel poorly.[83][84] In April 2018, Vornado refinanced the hotel with a $250 million loan from Deutsche Bank and Morgan Stanley.[12] The next year, Krispy Kreme Doughnuts began building a store in the retail space,[85][86] which opened in September 2020.[87][88] The Harrison, a restaurant by the BenMoha Group, was also announced for the hotel in 2019.[89]

The Crowne Plaza shuttered in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City, and Vornado stopped paying rent on the ground lease.[90][91] By that June, Vornado had gone into default on $330 million of debt.[91] The senior debt was placed for sale,[92] and Argent Ventures bought the $195 million senior mortgage that December for $90 million.[93][94] The Crowne Plaza remained closed because it was in foreclosure.[95] In September 2021, SL Green Realty bought a portion of the hotel site for $121 million from the Walber Broadway Company, which had owned that portion of the site since 1987.[96] Vornado claimed that the purchase violated its right of first refusal and sued SL Green.[91]

Reception

When the hotel was completed, Anne Kates of USA Today wrote that the "sense of adventure" in Lapidus's design had received mixed reception.[15] Jerry Adler of Newsweek wrote in 1989 that the hotel "may be the most gorgeous building in all Manhattan".[15][97] Inside the hotel, New York Times critic Terry Trucco wrote that the interior was "pleasingly anonymous, done in the pale colors and bland furnishings seen in big American hotels from coast to coast", though she found her 44th-story hotel room to be cramped.[98]

Paul Goldberger of The New York Times felt that the signs were more prominent than the building, saying that "it looks vastly better at night, when it is ablaze with neon, than it does during the day, when it seems only like a failed effort at elegance".[61] Goldberger further elaborated his dissent in a 1992 article, saying the facade "has ugly, unfinished brick waiting for a sign that may not come for years, a glaring offense at the pedestrian."[99] Eve M. Kahn of The Wall Street Journal described the Crowne Plaza as a "glitzy pink-granite-and-burgundy-glass jukebox" that sharply contrasted with the "restrained" design of 1585 Broadway.[100] Architect Robert A. M. Stern said that he would "prefer to say nothing" of the hotel, the only Lapidus design that Stern had experienced firsthand.[101]

References

Notes

  1. ^ In a 1989 filing with the New York State Liquor Authority, the listed owners included Zeckendorf, Jason D. Carter, Arthur G. Cohen, Elie Hirschfeld, Frank Stanton, and Zev Wolfson, as well as KG Crowne and KG Crowne Associates.[16]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot & Leadon, Fran (2010). AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-19538-386-7.
  2. ^ a b c "1601 Broadway, 10036". New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  3. ^ Stern, Fishman & Tilove 2006, pp. 647–648.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Adams, Anne L. (October 12, 1986). "Zeckendorf finds a way to skin a Pussycat". New York Daily News. pp. 55, 59. Retrieved February 20, 2022 – via newspapers.com.
  5. ^ a b Henican, Ellis (November 2, 1986). "Times Square's Sizzle Fizzling". Newsday. pp. 6, 27. Retrieved February 20, 2022 – via newspapers.com.
  6. ^ a b c Dunlap, David W. (October 9, 1986). "Column One: Changes". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
  7. ^ a b c d Gottlieb, Martin (November 1, 1986). "Surge of Times Sq. Projects Raises Questions on Effects". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
  8. ^ a b c d e Kates, Anne (July 14, 1989). "Big Apple hotel to mimic lights of Broadway". USA TODAY. p. 06B. ProQuest 306230794.
  9. ^ a b Collins, Glenn (December 23, 2005). "Dreaming of Irving Berlin in the Season That He Owned". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  10. ^ Roberts, Sam (October 21, 2021). "Alan Lapidus, Architect of Hotels and Casinos, Dies at 85". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
  11. ^ GmbH, Emporis. "Crowne Plaza Hotel, New York City | 115392 | EMPORIS". www.emporis.com. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  12. ^ a b c "Vornado Refis Times Square Crowne Plaza With $250M Loan". Commercial Observer. May 9, 2018. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  13. ^ a b Goldberger, Paul (January 30, 1987). "An Appraisal; New Times Sq. Zoning: Skyscrapers With Signs". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 10, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
  14. ^ a b c d Stern, Fishman & Tilove 2006, p. 648.
  15. ^ a b c d Kates, Anne (October 20, 1989). "Architect designs fantasy". USA TODAY. p. 09B. ProQuest 306274116.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Lyons, Richard D. (December 13, 1989). "Real Estate; A 'Jukebox' Hotel for Times Square". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
  17. ^ a b Dunlap, David W. (April 30, 1995). "Along Times Sq., Signs of New Life Abound". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  18. ^ a b c d e Dunlap, David W. (July 6, 1988). "From Dust of Demolition, a New Times Square Rises". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 7, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
  19. ^ a b c d Agovino, Theresa (February 8, 1988). "Building Rooms at the Top". Crain's New York Business. Vol. 4, no. 6. p. 3. ProQuest 219126061.
  20. ^ a b c d Lowenstein, Roger (August 4, 1987). "Zeckendorf Gets Loans to Build New York Hotel: Credit Totals $227.7 Million; Holiday Corp. Will Run Midtown Manhattan Site". Wall Street Journal. p. 18. ISSN 0099-9660. ProQuest 135280438.
  21. ^ a b c d Lander, Estelle (June 26, 1989). "Hotels Hope Times Square Hospitable". Newsday. p. 119. Retrieved February 20, 2022 – via newspapers.com.
  22. ^ Moss, Linda (August 31, 1987). "How Marriott Makes It Here: With Discounts". Crain's New York Business. Vol. 3, no. 35. p. 1. ProQuest 219094408.
  23. ^ "A Vibrant, Growing New York City". Wall Street Journal. May 23, 1988. p. b18. ISSN 0099-9660. ProQuest 135315142.
  24. ^ Selvin, Barbara W. (August 3, 1987). "The Changing Face of the Great White Way". Newsday. pp. 118, 125, 126. Archived from the original on February 14, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022 – via newspapers.com.
  25. ^ a b c d Shea, Barbara (September 27, 1992). "The New York Hotel Scene". Newsday. pp. 137, 138, 139, 140. Retrieved February 21, 2022 – via newspapers.com.
  26. ^ a b c d "Crowne Plaza Times Square Finishing Renovation". Hotel Business Review. August 26, 2008. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  27. ^ a b c d e f Schulz, David P. (March 13, 1989). "Manhattan Sprouts Another Upscale Inn". Crain's New York Business. Vol. 5, no. 11. p. 33. ProQuest 219160145.
  28. ^ a b c Metzler Lavan, Rosemary (July 24, 1989). "Hotelier hopes to wear the Crowne in midtown". New York Daily News. p. 21. Retrieved February 20, 2022 – via newspapers.com.
  29. ^ a b Berkowitz, Harry (July 4, 1988). "Manhattan's Poshest Hotels Are Competing in Extravagant Style". Newsday. p. 56. Retrieved February 20, 2022 – via newspapers.com.
  30. ^ McCain, Mark (May 21, 1989). "Commercial Property: New Times Square Hotels; 3 Hostelries to Join the Marquis, a Hit on Broadway". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
  31. ^ Kadet, Anne (May 15, 2015). "Rent a Desk, or Bathroom, in New York City With an App". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
  32. ^ Stern, Robert A. M.; Mellins, Thomas; Fishman, David (1995). New York 1960: Architecture and Urbanism Between the Second World War and the Bicentennial. New York: Monacelli Press. p. 441. ISBN 1-885254-02-4. OCLC 32159240.
  33. ^ Gottlieb, Martin (December 4, 1983). "Developers Looking West of Sixth Avenue". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 19, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
  34. ^ Deutsch, Claudia H. (May 2, 1993). "Waiting for Act 2 Around Times Square". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
  35. ^ a b c d Stern, Fishman & Tilove 2006, p. 647.
  36. ^ "Growing Big Apple Tourism Yields New Crop of Hotels". Wall Street Journal. May 23, 1988. p. B13. ISSN 0099-9660. ProQuest 135300041.
  37. ^ McCain, Mark (May 22, 1988). "Commercial Property: West Midtown Development; 15 Projects Rising as 6-Year Zoning Bonus Ends". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
  38. ^ Gottlieb, Martin (October 5, 1986). "Pornography's Plight Hits Times Square". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
  39. ^ Hughes, C. J. (January 20, 2008). "A City That Needs More Places to Sleep". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  40. ^ a b c Gottlieb, Martin (August 6, 1986). "Times Square To Stay Bright In City's Plan". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
  41. ^ Oser, Alan S. (December 14, 1986). "Perspectives: Great White Way; Planning for a Brighter Times Sq". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 14, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
  42. ^ a b Selvin, Barbara (March 9, 1990). "Scruffy West 40s Now Dressing For Wreckers' Ball". Newsday. pp. 7, 32. Archived from the original on February 10, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2022 – via newspapers.com.
  43. ^ Moritz, Owen (October 30, 1986). "Apple Sauce". New York Daily News. p. 336. Retrieved February 20, 2022 – via newspapers.com.
  44. ^ a b Meislin, Richard J. (August 10, 1987). "Times Sq. Development: Boom of Private Projects". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
  45. ^ a b c Oser, Alan S. (February 21, 1988). "Perspectives: Times Square; A Major Mall in a Broadway Building". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
  46. ^ McNatt, Robert (May 15, 1989). "In Real Estate, It's 'O, Canada'". Crain's New York Business. Vol. 5, no. 20. p. 1. ProQuest 219103113.
  47. ^ Dunlap, David W. (September 3, 1987). "New Rule for Times Sq. Space". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 10, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
  48. ^ a b c Lyons, Richard D. (December 27, 1989). "Real Estate; Mandating More Glitter On Times Sq". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
  49. ^ Lyons, Richard D. (April 10, 1988). "Manhattan Hotel Construction Surges". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
  50. ^ a b Hevesi, Dennis (August 20, 1989). "Fewer Travelers Place New York On the Itinerary". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
  51. ^ Tamarkin, Roxanne (August 15, 1989). "Gloom service as biz travelers are staying away". New York Daily News. pp. 401, 403. Archived from the original on October 25, 2021. Retrieved October 24, 2021 – via newspapers.com.
  52. ^ a b c Schulz, David P. (February 26, 1990). "Newest City Hotel Faces Test". Crain's New York Business. Vol. 6, no. 9. p. 17. ProQuest 219124807.
  53. ^ a b Span, Paula (December 31, 1990). "Times Square: Out with the Old;...and In With the New as Redevelopment Threatens to Dim Its Flashy Character". The Washington Post. p. D01. ISSN 0190-8286. ProQuest 307321483.
  54. ^ Fee, Walter (December 17, 1991). "Getting All of the Breaks Plan gives tax relief to richest". Newsday. pp. 7, 94. Archived from the original on February 14, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022 – via newspapers.com.
  55. ^ Navarro, Mireya (February 5, 1990). "Tourist Love For New York Grows Chilly". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  56. ^ Miller, Bryan (April 6, 1990). "Diner's Journal". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  57. ^ Miller, Bryan (May 4, 1990). "Diner's Journal". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  58. ^ Schwartz, Arthur (May 25, 1990). "Good food, bad mood". New York Daily News. p. 232. Retrieved February 21, 2022 – via newspapers.com.
  59. ^ Weber, Bruce (July 2, 1995). "In One Hotel, Exception Proves the Rule". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  60. ^ Dunlap, David W. (May 13, 1990). "Commercial Property: West Midtown; Zeckendorf Is Ready for Another Burst of Building". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  61. ^ a b Goldberger, Paul (August 15, 1990). "Once a Hotel Desert, Times Square Blooms". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  62. ^ McKinley, James C., Jr. (February 26, 1992). "Tax Incentive For Builders Is Extended". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  63. ^ Kramer, Louise (February 24, 2003). "Hotels vying for nods from top delegations". Crain's New York Business. Vol. 19, no. 8. p. 30. ProQuest 219144012.
  64. ^ Cropper, Carol Marie (July 10, 1998). "The Media Business: Advertising -- Addenda; A 'Corner of Maine' In Times Square". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  65. ^ Kirby, David (March 28, 1999). "Neighborhood Report: Times Square -- Buzz; A Night for Spirits, Both Dark and Light". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  66. ^ Elliott, Stuart (December 3, 1996). "Banner Ads On Internet Attract Users". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  67. ^ Cardwell, Diane (December 1, 2000). "12 Angry Guests (Well, Cranky, at Least); Sequestered Juries Help Revive a Hotel". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  68. ^ "Crowne Plaza Selects Fallon McElligott PR to Help Transform Times Square Property". PR Newswire (Press release). September 9, 1999. p. 1. ProQuest 449568677.
  69. ^ a b Kramer, Louise (June 12, 2000). "Times Sq. bed spread". Crain's New York Business. Vol. 16, no. 24. p. 3. ProQuest 219167863.
  70. ^ Howard, Theresa (October 8, 2001). "NYC tries to get tourism on track; Ads ask travelers: Come back, please". USA TODAY. p. B05. ProQuest 408914424.
  71. ^ Herman, Eric (September 28, 2001). "Big season gone bad for hotels". New York Daily News. p. 95. Retrieved February 21, 2022 – via newspapers.com.
  72. ^ Goff, Lisa (November 18, 2002). "Site for the times". Crain's New York Business. Vol. 18, no. 46. p. 19. ProQuest 219158333.
  73. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (June 8, 2002). "Sweet on Times Square, Hershey Is to Open Store". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  74. ^ Hinderer, Katie (November 17, 2006). "Crowne Plaza Sells for $362M". GlobeSt. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  75. ^ "In Brief". Newsday. November 18, 2006. p. 18. Retrieved February 21, 2022 – via newspapers.com.
  76. ^ Fickenscher, Lisa (October 2, 2006). "Rising hotel rates price visitors out". Crain's New York Business. Vol. 22, no. 40. p. 1. ProQuest 219197730.
  77. ^ a b c Pincus, Adam (January 28, 2009). "Crowne Plaza suffers more than others". The Real Deal New York. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
  78. ^ Fickenscher, Lisa (February 15, 2010). "Inn crowd grows in Times Square". Crain's New York Business. Vol. 26, no. 7. p. 2. ProQuest 219155044.
  79. ^ Fabricant, Florence (April 29, 2009). "Off the Menu". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  80. ^ a b Jones, David (February 17, 2012). "Vornado helps recap Crown Plaza Times Square". The Real Deal New York. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
  81. ^ "Vornado Drives Recap of Crowne Plaza Times Square". Commercial Real Estate Direct. February 17, 2012. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
  82. ^ Santani, Hiten; Pincus, Adam (January 30, 2015). "Vornado pays $39M to up stake in 1601 Broadway". The Real Deal New York. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  83. ^ "Vornado Realty Trust sues New York hotel operator over underperformance". Hotel Management. July 6, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  84. ^ Brenzel, Kathryn (July 6, 2016). "Vornado lobs $30M lawsuit against Times Square Crowne Plaza hotel operator". The Real Deal New York. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  85. ^ Rizzi, Nicholas (June 14, 2019). "Krispy Kreme to Open 24-Hour Doughnut Shop in Times Square". Commercial Observer. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
  86. ^ "Krispy Kreme bringing 'glaze waterfall' to new Times Square flagship". Crain's New York Business. June 10, 2019. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
  87. ^ Alter, Rebecca (September 17, 2020). "We Braved Times Square to Go to the New Flagship Krispy Kreme". Grub Street. Retrieved October 28, 2021.
  88. ^ "Huge Krispy Kreme shop opens Tuesday in Times Square in Manhattan". ABC7 New York. September 15, 2020. Retrieved October 28, 2021.
  89. ^ Gourarie, Chava (October 18, 2019). "BenMoha to Open Music-Inspired Restaurant in Crowne Plaza". Commercial Observer. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
  90. ^ Cuozzo, Steve (February 16, 2022). "Crowne Plaza Hotel in Times Square entangled in legal battle". New York Post. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  91. ^ a b c "Andrew Penson Disputes SL Green's Crown Plaza Hotel Buy". The Real Deal New York. November 17, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  92. ^ Cunningham, Cathy (August 3, 2020). "Senior Debt on Vornado's Crowne Plaza Hotel Hits the Market". Commercial Observer. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  93. ^ Bockmann, Rich (December 22, 2020). "Argent Ventures Buying Mortgage On Vornado Times Square Hotel". The Real Deal New York. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  94. ^ "Argent Ventures buys debt on 1605 Broadway - Daily Beat". December 23, 2020. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  95. ^ "'Sex and the City' hotel rebounds". Crain's New York Business. December 8, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  96. ^ "SL Green Buys a Stake in 1601 Broadway for $121M". The Real Deal New York. September 30, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  97. ^ Adler, Jerry (June 26, 1989). "The Temples of Lapidus: Forget mere beauty. What this architect aims for, in all he designs, is unparalleled gorgeousness". Newsweek. Vol. 113, no. 26. pp. 64, 65. ProQuest 1894151308.
  98. ^ Trucco, Terry (September 9, 1990). "Mid-Priced Perches". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  99. ^ Goldberger, Paul (February 10, 1991). "Architecture View; In Times Square, Dignity by Day, Glitter by Night". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
  100. ^ Kahn, Eve M. (June 9, 1992). "Architecture: Empty New High-Rises Preserve Anarchy of Broadway". The Wall Street Journal. p. A14. ISSN 0099-9660. ProQuest 398261212.
  101. ^ Barsky, Neil (September 13, 1990). "If the Garage Looks Like Ancient Rome, It's Atlantic City --- Architect Lapidus Ignores The Highbrows to Design Kitsch for High Rollers". The Wall Street Journal. p. A1. ISSN 0099-9660. ProQuest 398182171.

Sources

  • Stern, Robert A. M.; Fishman, David; Tilove, Jacob (2006). New York 2000: Architecture and Urbanism Between the Bicentennial and the Millennium. New York: Monacelli Press. ISBN 978-1-58093-177-9. OCLC 70267065. OL 22741487M.

External links

This page was last edited on 14 June 2022, at 14:07
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.