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County of Osona

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The county of Ausona at the start, united with the other counties of Borrell (in brown).
The county of Ausona at the start, united with the other counties of Borrell (in brown).

The County of Osona, also Ausona (Catalan: Comtat d'Osona, IPA: [kumˈtad duˈzonə]; Latin: Comitatus Ausonae), was one of the Catalan counties of the Marca Hispanica in the Early and High Middle Ages. It was based around the capital city of Vic (Vicus) and the corresponding diocese, whose territory was roughly the current comarca of Osona.

The ancient diocese of Osona was sacked by the Arabs in the mid eighth century (750-755 aprox). Its reconquest by Christian powers began in 798; in that year Louis of Aquitaine ordered a Goth Borrell to enter the abandoned region and repair the castles of Vic, Cardona, and Casserès.[1] Vic was in Frankish hands by 799. After the successful siege of Barcelona in 801, Borrell, already Count of Cerdanya and Urgell, received Osona as a countship from his liege lord, King Louis. On Borrell's death, Osona was granted to the Frankish Count of Barcelona, Rampon. After the rebellion of 826, during which Guillemó and Aissó succeeded in taking it with help from the Emirate of Córdoba, Osona remained depopulated and outside of Frankish control until 879.[2] It was considered to be part of the County of Barcelona throughout that period.

In 879, Wilfred the Hairy began the repopulation of the county with free minores, who cultivated the lands given them as aprisiones; they turned Osona into a central and important part of Catalonia.[3] There was a viscounty of Osona from 900.[4] The viscounts controlled the region on behalf of the counts, who were usually resident in Barcelona. The viscountship later changed its name to viscounty of Cabrera[citation needed]. Wilfred, who established the viscounty, also built new castles along the frontier of Osona, at Torelló (881), Montgrony (887), and Tarabaldi (892).[5] All these fortresses were controlled either directly by the count or by a castellan who also controlled the appendici or surrounding territory on certain specific terms.[6] The castle, in fact, and its mandamenta (commandment) were the central organising feature of Osona after its repopulation. Wilfred also reorganised the church in Osona — after the bishopric, Wilfred's foundation of the convent of Sant Joan de les Abadesses, originally under his daughter Emma, was the most important ecclesiastical institution in the county[7] — and introduced serfdom on a limited scale.

Throughout the tenth century, Osona remained tied to Barcelona, except for the brief rule of Ermengol from 939 to 943. In 990, the small pagus of Berga was detached from it and granted to Cerdanya. In 1035, Osona was detached from Barcelona for another brief period when Berenguer Ramon I left it to his widow, Guisla de Lluça, on his death. She ruled it with her son William until she remarried and he renounced it. After that it was reattached to Barcelona, but was augmented by the addition of the County of Manresa, which was subsumed within Osona and ceased to be a distinct polity in the region[citation needed].

Ramon Berenguer III ceded the county to his son-in-law Bernard III of Besalú, as dowry of his daughter Jimena in 1107. When both Jimena and Bernard died without heirs, Osona returned to Barcelona. This was to be the end for Osona as a nominally distinct county; the use of the terms "county" and "count" of Osona disappeared subsequently. From that point, its history was linked to the Principality of Catalonia. The title was revived for the Cabrera family in 1356 and it passed to the House of Montcada in 1574 and the Medinaceli in 1722, but none of these families ever controlled the feudal region.

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  • ✪ ESPAÑA 4: Edad Media (3ª parte) - El Reino de León y los C. Catalanes vs. el Califato de Córdoba


NOW ON SALE MY BOOK OF ANCIENT HISTORY The following story takes place between year 929 and 1085 BUT THAT IS ANOTHER STORY HISTORY OF SPAIN 4 - MIDDLE AGES III - The Kingdom of León and the Catalan Counties vs. The Caliphate of Cordoba THE KINGDOM OF LEÓN The Kingdom of León was born in the year 910 by the hand of Ordoño II, but as I mentioned in the previous video, it did not last long and his brother Fruela II was all in 924. Then there was moved between his children and the children of Ordoño until he finally reached the throne of Leon Ramiro II. This is important. His first great hit was to snatch the fortress of Magerit, the future Madrid, from the Caliphate of Cordoba, although his control did not last. It seems that around this time he ordered the construction of the Peñafiel Castle, located in Valladolid. You have to look at it head on, because on the side you lose a little. But his most epic hit was undoubtedly the coalition he made with the people of Pamplona to go for Abderramán III, who had gone up to Castilla to play the balls. His defeat at the Battle of Simancas was maximum. The Caliph escaped miraculously alive, and the Christians were able to advance from the Duero to the River Tormes, taking control of cities such as Salamanca or Sepúlveda. An important figure in this story is Fernán González de Lara, the most faithful warrior of the king and who was named Count of Castilla. But he wanted more territories, and absorbed other smaller condaditos: Lara, Lantarón, Álava, Burgos and Cerezo. But Fernán wanted even more, and Ramiro II, to prevent it from continuing to expand, put Ansur Fernández as a blockade as Conde de Monzón. "Oh, how scary" Fernan got angry mallet and began an independence revolution that took him to the dungeons of Leon for a while. After that, once free, he took refuge in Castile, and began to disturb the borders of the Leonese, with possible Muslim help. He returned to control a lot of territory and in the end Ramiro decided to restore his lost honor. After the death of Ramiro, Fernán managed to govern Castilla with great autonomy, but without becoming independent from León, although he turned his position into a hereditary one. Romantic stories aside, this autonomy must be understood more as a necessity than a whim, since being in border territories it was important to launch military operations without waiting for the authorization of the king. Hence, these people will accumulate power. Even Fernán and other nobles threw King Sancho I from the throne of León, because he must have been very fat. He had to go into exile in Pamplona, ​​where his grandmother Queen Toda Aznárez spoke with the Caliph, who was his nephew, and got him medical treatment to lose weight to the ex-king. So in 958 Sancho I, his wife Teresa, and the queen from Pamplona traveled to Córdoba for the reputed Spanish-Jewish doctor Hasday ibn Saprut to put a diet based on infusions. The thing must have worked and Sancho I, with Muslim help, managed to throw Ordoño IV out of Leon and restitute himself as king. Of course, now I would have to pay tribute to Abderramán III, of course. And now we have to talk about political-social organization. That is, feudalism. To know the origin of feudalism we have to go back to the year 877, when the Frankish king Carlos el Calvo decreed the Chapter of Quierzy. Thanks to this, the county charges and other shits could be inherited. This heritability of the Frankish fiefs also affected the Catalan counties, where Wifredo el Velloso ruled. Of course, to let you do this, the owner had to go to swear allegiance to the Frankish emperor every so often. In that, feudalism is summarized. The king distributes his territories among dukes, counts, marquises and others, and through a pact, they promise to serve their king and pay taxes, in exchange for protection. They also had the obligation to meet with their lord to give him advice in the courts or royal classroom ... or go to his birthday party. In turn, these counts have other servants and vassals, who are the ones who are going to cultivate their lands in semi-freedom regime paying a tithe in exchange for, like the superiors, protection. The protectors will be the low nobility, the medieval knights. These peasant servants were free to give themselves the piro and look for another feudal lord to serve. In the Christian kingdoms, the king was the highest authority, but in many towns the councils arose, a kind of self-government where all the inhabitants of the town had a voice and a vote. They elected mayors, magistrates, officials, town hawkers, scribes ... The need for communication between these councils and the king would give rise to the year 1188 to the Cortes. We'll see. At the moment the only thing that was there was the Royal Classroom Visigoth style. After the king those who were most popular were the Magnates (by order: duke, marquis, count, viscount, baron and lord); and then there was the low nobility (the infanzón knights and the hidalgos). Next to them was the clergy, led by the bishops, one by diocese or jurisdiction, although later there were many priests. A group of dioceses forms an ecclesiastical province, and was led by an archbishop, who is in an archdiocese. In palace palace officials stand out, of the palace, led by the mayordomo or chamberlain. Then there was the chaplain, who organized the religious ceremonies of the court; the stableman, who looked after the palace horses; and the notary or notary, who had control of communications. The army improved its equipment, especially in heavy cavalry. Horseshoes, stirrups and spurs were added. In the Catalan counties in each county the highest authority was the count, who chose the viscounts. But of course, there always used to be a Frankish Marquis controlling the land. Each county had its own episcopal see, with a bishop at the head, but like the Frankish marquis, the Catalan bishops were under the control of the Archdiocese of Narbonne. Thanks to Christian expansionism the towns and villages of the plateau were repopulated. Here appear the so-called Burgos, cities around a fortress that flourished economically. You could find many different trades: blacksmiths, carpenters, tailors, furriers, shoemakers, potters, merchants ... The best example of this is the city of Burgos, so called precisely for this. Around his castle they started to build shops, houses and everything began to grow. The city of León was also known for its weekly markets. In addition to the annual fairs were held, being the oldest of the Belorado. An important city was Avila, where a piece of impressive walls were built, which are still standing today. This time can be a little messy, because everyone took to calling themselves with fucking similar names. Among the Berengueres Ramón, Ramón Berengueres, Sanchos Garcés, Garcías Sánchez and Sanchos to study this period ends up becoming a martyrdom. As a curious fact, the surnames ending in -ez or -es mean "son of". Garcés, son of García; Sánchez, son of Sancho; Rodríguez, Rodrigo's son; Putez, son of ... Anyway, do not get overwhelmed with all this. THE CALIFATO OF CÓRDOBA Abderramán III had proclaimed the Umayyad caliphate of Córdoba in 929. Under his command, Al-Ándalus lived its period of greatest splendor, with a great economic, religious and cultural development. The caliph, as soon as he came to power, had to subdue the rebellious brands from Mérida to Lleida, and even subdued the Balearic Islands. He used a good combination of strength and diplomacy. He was not at all a religious fanatic, he gave many good positions to the Muladies and Mozarabs to win their favor, since they used to be the most unruly. The defeat after the Battle of Simancas supposed a balance of forces and a truce between Christians and Muslims. Abderramán III was a very intelligent and tolerant uncle, but he had his shit. In his harem he collected concubines as if they were chromos, and often mistreated them. It is said that one made her ugly and she poured boiling water on her face. He must also be a careful drunk, since at that time the Islamic law was not so strict with alcohol, and luxury was something that he loved. Al-Ándalus embellished everything he could. Cordoba was amazing, full of monuments and buildings that gave gustirrinín just to see them. He expanded the Mosque of Cordoba, and built a large study center and a medical school, as well as several libraries. In Zaragoza began to build the fortified palace of the Aljafería, although it would not end until the time of the Taifa kingdoms. It was built by the dynasty of the Banu Hud, the Hudi, and today this building is the seat of the Aragonese Cortes. The Andalusian cities were filled with mansions, country houses, aqueducts, fountains and botanical gardens. This type of city had different parts. The most crowded part was undoubtedly the Souk, a labyrinth of alleyways full of shops where commercial activities took place. "Come on, girl, to buy ... Come on!" The most typical coins were the silver dírhem and the golden dinar. If you wanted more quality products, especially silk, you had to find some Alcaicería. Not to be confused with the Alcazar, which used to be a fortress located at the highest point of the city, the fort where the ruler and the military resided. In the Alhóndigas the merchandise was stored, and the merchants who were passing through could stay in them. In the outer parts of the cities you could find the almunias, or pleasure farms; the suburbs, formed by the houses located outside the walls; and the Jewish quarters, where the Jews lived. In Algeciras and other places, shipyards were built, that is, shipyards and defensive ports to create a large fleet with which to fight. It turns out that in the south, in the Maghreb, the Berbers of the Fatimid Caliphate began a revolt and gave quite a bit. They were Shiites, while the Umayyads were Sunni, and I will talk more about this move. The fleet created also served to trade with Persia or Byzantium. The most important industries were textiles, where cotton, leather and leather clothing was manufactured; and the mining and metallurgy, oriented to the manufacture of weapons in its majority. In goldsmithing, works of different styles were created with gold, silver, ivory and precious stones. In the city of Játiva an important paper factory was installed, and glass also began to become fashionable. And finally, a really lucrative activity was the slave trade, generally of Sudanese Africans, from where they also brought large amounts of gold. Irrigated agriculture improved notably, and new crops from other parts of the world came to Al-Andalus, such as rice, durum wheat, sugar, oranges, watermelons, bananas, eggplants ... It also highlights the residential city of Medina Azahara, located near Córdoba and founded around 936. It became the playboy mansion of the Umayyad caliphs. In the highest part was the Alcazar, where the guy lived, and from where he could see his luxurious gardens and pools, with flowers and fruit trees. The Áurica Terrace is famous, where large audiences and receptions of ambassadors were held. There was the Rich Room, or the throne, with marble walls with polychrome horseshoe arches. The guests had their pepsicola asses. The place had three mosques, but the aljama or main mosque stands out, from whose minaret or tower the believers were called to pray. There was also a mint, a coin factory, and a large oven and kitchen where the filetillos were roasted for the caliph. The whole place was protected by huge walls and by the best soldiers, but that did not prevent this magnificent construction only lasted a century, since about 1010 a few angry Berbers reduced it to ashes. Abderramán III died in 961, and was succeeded by his son Al-Hakam II. At 40 he still had no children, so he had to throw himself into a Basque slave named Subh, or Aurora, to achieve an heir, and from there came Hisham II. It was a time of great social welfare, and equal rights were achieved among all the ethnic groups that populated Al-Ándalus. Although of course, this was not well seen by certain sectors, such as the Maliki, the most radical. Faced with these was Ibn Massarra and his Mutazilism, which promoted greater freedom of thought, and more rationality. Al-Hakam II died very young because of health problems, and then Hisham II came to the throne. He was a minor, and the kid would hardly see the power. The regents were Hayib Al-Mushafi, General Gálib, his mother Subh and his tutor, Muhammad ibn Abi-Amir, better known as Almanzor. This guy was charged to all his political rivals, he took the post of Hayib, and began the so-called Amiri dictatorship in 977. Once in command of the caliphate, Almanzor had a clear objective: to make the jihad against the Christians. Thus began a series of very successful campaigns in the north of the peninsula. His conquests began in 977, when he launched aceifas against Cuéllar in Segovia and against Salamanca, managing to recover the territory south of the Duero. During the next decade he would attack Navarra and the Catalan counties, even getting Sancho Garcés II to hand over his daughter Abda, with whom Almanzor had his son Abderramán Sanchuelo. The Barcelona count Suñer I had managed to conquer part of Tarragona a few years before, but Almanzor arrived and took it again, and even besieged Barcelona with great violence. In one of his last campaigns, by 997, he destroyed Astorga and reached Santiago de Compostela. He destroyed his church although he left the grave intact. Of course, as a trophy he took the bells, which seems to like him a lot. "This has no forgiveness from God, huh? ... It's just that this is very fat, huh?" The Count of Barcelona, ​​Gerona and Osona, Borrell II, was famous for how diplomatic he was. He managed to maintain good relations with the Franks, the Papacy and even with the Muslims, with whom he signed a weak peace. Peeero ... after the brutal siege of Barcelona, ​​the popularity of Borrell II was in tatters. He had been in favor of a good roll with Córdoba and looks. Disaster. This forced him to further strengthen relations with the Franks, to help them more. However, the Carolingians were giving each other wafers all the time. Borrell was calling them but they communicated. The count was alone, so he decided not to renew his ties with the Franks. The contact was broken, they were erased from whasap, and the Barcelona county house achieved a de facto independence, although the Catalan church was still under the control of the archdiocese of Narbonne, that is to say, of the gabachos. In addition, this autonomy was not recognized officially until the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. In 999 in León began the reign of a little boy named Alfonso V. The most important of his reign is the Charter of León, promulgated in 1017, in a council held in the primitive cathedral of León. This charter collected 48 laws that would be like a constitution for the whole kingdom and beyond. He also put a lot of money in the Basilica of San Isidoro de León, where the remains of the Sevillian bishop ended. Before that it was called Church of San Juan Bautista. According to the legend, Almanzor was defeated in Soria during the Battle of Calatañazor, from which he managed to escape with a miracle but died a few days later. He was succeeded by the inept children, who led the caliphate to disaster. In 1009 the great fitna begins, a civil war that ended the Caliphate. The situation was chaotic, and many governors and nobles became independent. Here began the First Kingdoms of Taifas. The last Umayyad caliph was Hisham III, and when he died in 1031, what remained of the Caliphate fell with him. THE EXPANSIONISM OF SANCHO III THE GREATER In the year 1004, Sancho III the Elder began to govern in Navarre, probably the greatest monarch that had this kingdom, great-grandson of the Castilian Count Fernán González. Their territories included Guipúzcoa, the county of Aragón and of course the Kingdom of Pamplona-Nájera, since the capital was now this city of La Rioja. His vital objective was a very concrete one: to unite all the Christian kingdoms into one. And he was quite close to achieving it. He began fantastic relations with Castile, and married Muniadona, the daughter of the Castilian Count Sancho García and Urraca Gómez, of the Banu Gómez family. Meanwhile managed to successfully annex the counties of Ribagorza and Sobrarbe, with whom he began several campaigns against the Taifa kingdom of Zaragoza, but could never take it. In addition Sancho III established relations with the Roman Papacy and with the French king, thus breaking 3 centuries of isolation. This and the way of Santiago was favoring the entry of monastic orders such as the Cistercian Order or Cluny, who brought new agricultural techniques in the cultivation of cereals or the Romanesque architectural style. Stresses the Romanesque castle of Loarre, in Huesca. Scribe monks traveled throughout Europe, from monastery to monastery, copying texts and old books, and taking them to other monasteries. A huge knowledge network was created, and thanks to this work hundreds of historical, scientific and philosophical works of antiquity were saved. With time, these monks would spread this knowledge with the foundation of the first universities two centuries later. Bermudo III was a minor, and the regency of Leon was occupied by Urraca Garcés, his stepmother, and sister of the king of Pamplona. This caused that the nobility was revolviese and the liara brown. The young Castilian Count García Sánchez, the heir, was going to marry Bermudo's sister, Sancha de León, to try to strengthen friendships with everyone, but members of the Vela family arrived and murdered him. Apparently it was a revenge because his father banished them from Castile long ago or something like that. The king of Pamplona, ​​who was entitled to the inheritance by his wife, ended up putting his son Ferdinand I the Great in command of Castile around the year 1030. With this Castile he stopped being under the command of Leon to become part of Pamplona. Leon, Gascony and the Catalan counties would also end up accepting their supreme authority, but poor Sancho III ended up dying of a sudden illness. But he gained authority over all the Christian kingdoms, you know what that means. Achievement unlocked. All his conquests were distributed among his children: his first-born García Sánchez III inherited the Kingdom of Pamplona-Nájera, which included much of Castile, the Basque Country and La Rioja, where he built the Monastery of San Millán de Yuso and the Monastery of Santa María la Real de Nájera. Ramiro I, a bastard Count of Aragon, stayed with that territory, thus becoming the first monarch of the Kingdom of Aragon, which would later become very powerful. For Gonzalo the counties of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza, that would end up being taken by Ramiro I in 1044. And as I have already said, Ferdinand I the Great took control of the county of Castile, and two years later he also acquired the Kingdom of León after being charged with a spear by his brother-in-law King Bermudo III at the Battle of Tamarón, with the help of his brother García Sánchez III. Apparently both monarchs were fighting over the lands of Carrión and Saldaña that Sancho III had eaten to Leon long ago. "Bad roll ... bad roll nooooo" With this, Castilla y León joined in a single entity. Later, Fernando I wanted to recover for his kingdom pieces of Navarre that Sancho III, his father, had cut at will. Thus, Fernando was loaded to his brother Garci'a Sanchez III in the Battle of Atapuerca and the small son of this one, Sancho IV, finished in the navarro throne without knowing very well what to do with his life. Fernando I not only gave milks with his relatives. He also expanded the Kingdom of León to the south, snatching lots of fortresses and towns from the taifas. The kings of Zaragoza, Badajoz, Toledo and Sevilla decided to pay the Castilian the "pariahs", a tax so that they would not attack them, they even returned the relics of San Isidoro. And of course, Fernando I was lined. He was a gangsta. He reformed the Regia Leonesa Curia and re-established the Roman liturgy in the Council of Coyanza, celebrated in 1055. In addition, Europeanist influences began to arrive through Navarra as the aforementioned Romanesque art. In the Catalan counties, during the government of Ramon Berenguer I the Elder, they began a series of revolts of nobles led by Viscount Mir Geribert, who were seen by the Barcelona counthouse. They took control of several castles in the Penedes and Llobregat to make them independent, since they also wanted their share of the pariahs charged to the taifas, because they saw that the only one that was lined was the Ramoncito. They claimed to be able to impose taxes on the people, and to be able to colonize valleys without the monastery of Sant Cugat del Vallés taking away their property from the old treaties with the Franks. The coup ended up failing. Meanwhile, the King of Aragón Ramiro I married Ermesinda de Bigorra, daughter of the French Count of Foix-Bigorra. Relations between both houses would be quite common. He also married his daughter Sancha with Ermengol III, from the county of Urgel, creating an alliance against the Barcelona count Ramon Berenguer I, who was expanding his domain bad, having managed to subjugate the neighboring Catalan counties. Later, in 1063, the Aragonese assaulted in Huesca the fortress of Graus, defended by the Taifa king of Saraqusta Al-Muqtadir. A contingent of Castilian troops led by the future Sancho II of Castile, son of Fernando, supported the taifa. Among the soldiers was a young Burgos named Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, who would shortly after become Cid Campeador. This battle was a defeat for the Aragonese, and Ramiro I ended with a spear stuck in the ass. THE TIME OF THE CID Fernando I died in 1065, and like his father he made the mistake of sharing his kingdom among his children. If ever you have kingdoms, never do that, it never goes well. The daughters Urraca and Elvira left them for their personal enjoyment monasteries and villas in Zamora and Toro respectively, but the children's was more complicated. Sancho II left him Castile and the pariahs of Zaragoza; Alfonso VI left him and the pariahs of Toledo; Garcia II left him Galicia and northern Portugal to Coimbra, and the pariahs of Badajoz and Seville. We have already seen several cases of this throughout the more than 80 videos of this channel. What do you think will happen? Well, this cast did not like among the children and they began to kill each other. "I think it's scary, so if those things happen in families, it's terrible." Navarra was also in the spotlight, so Sancho IV allied himself with his cousin Sancho Ramírez, king of Aragón, and began the War of the 3 Sanchos against Sancho II of Castile. None of the three had a decisive victory over the rest, although Sancho de Castilla, before retiring, annexed territories like Álava and La Rioja. Then he allied with Alfonso VI and together they took the Kingdom of Galicia, ruled by his other brother, García, who ended up imprisoned in Castillo de Luna. Three years later, Sancho II decided to betray Alfonso and sent his army, led by El Cid, to take Leon. After the Battle of Golpejera Sancho captured Alfonso and returned to unify the Kingdom of Castile and Leon. Yes, the joy lasted little. It turns out that Zamora had become strong infanta Magpie and the faithful to Alfonso. Sancho went to charge them, but it is said that one night a noble named Vellido Dolfos entered the Castilian camp and murdered Sancho while he pooped. "Gentlemen, this is a war ... and not very clean" Thanks to his fucking death, Alfonso VI was king again. It is famous the legend of the Jura de Santa Gadea, in Burgos, where allegedly the Cid forced Alfonso to swear that he had nothing to do with the death of his brother. Here began a beautiful friendship between the two, and in fact, the king gave in marriage to his niece Jimena Diaz, a very important noble. In Navarre, Sancho IV ended up being demolished in 1076 by his brother Ramón in Peñalén. "Paco killed himself" This wanted to be the new king, but the town threw him for murderer and put Sancho Ramírez I of Aragón and V of Pamplona, ​​who united the two kingdoms into one. This monarch made Jaca the capital of the kingdom, which until then had been a small town. There he built the Cathedral of San Pedro, and traveled to Rome to meet Pope Alexander II and lend him allegiance. Thanks to this, Aragón became a great trading partner throughout Europe. But let's go back to Alfonso VI. After the death of Sancho IV, the Leonese king annexed Álava, Vizcaya, part of Guipúzcoa and La Rioja, and adopted the title of Imperator totius Hispaniae, and is that his idea was to unify the entire peninsula under Leon's hegemony. He came very high and began the construction of a huge Basilica in Santiago de Compostela, soon it would be as we know it now. For his part, the Cid had been a very good soldier during those years, but he went to Seville to collect the pariahs and had a quarrel with the Muslims of Toledo. Apparently it exceeded and looted some lands toledanas under protection of Alfonso VI, reason why this one exiled to him in 1080. In the Cantar del Mío Cid his adventure is told under the orders of the Taifa king of Zaragoza Al-Mutamán. He ordered him to go against his brother Al-Mundir, governor of Lleida, who was allied with the Count of Barcelona Berenguer Ramón II El Fraticida. After the Battle of Almenar in 1082, the Cid succeeded in capturing the count, but then sent him to Jerusalem to participate in the 1st Crusade and there he palmed it. For its part, Alfonso VI conquered Toledo in 1085, the former Gothic capital. That was such a rush that he decided to install his court in the city, and began to expand the border of his kingdom to the Tagus River. Avila, Segovia, Salamanca, Madrid, Coria, Guadalajara, Talavera ... all these cities were repopulated and Christianized to the maximum; although in many places like Toledo it respected the Muslim cult conserving the most important mosques. These Muslims in Christian territory were called Mudéjares. But while in the Duero area the repopulation was due to hurry, here the council system will follow. While in the north the cities were governed by a feudal lord, a nobleman, a bishop or whatever, in these the king is going to grant its inhabitants a charter or Puebla Letters. What did this mean? That the cities were the king's, and they paid taxes directly to him, and he gave them economic and commercial privileges, and freedom to the council to elect their mayors, mayors and other magistrates. "It is the neighbor who chooses the mayor, and it is the mayor who wants the mayor to be the neighbors" THE FIRST KINGDOMS OF TAIFAS As I have already told you, Al-Ándalus experienced a time of great chaos that led to the appearance of the Taifa Kingdoms, independent lords governed by nobles. The Taifa of Seville was ruled by the Arabs of the Abbadi family. Other important taifas were Zaragoza, Toledo and Badajoz. The Berbers took control of the taifas of Málaga, Algeciras, Ronda and Granada, controlled by the family of the Ziríes. Almería, Murcia, Denia, Valencia and the Balearic Islands were taken by Slavic ethnic Muslims, the Amiríes. By the end of this eleventh century the abbeys of Seville led by Al-Mutadid took control of large numbers of the Taifas of Andalusia, and even took from Cordoba to Murcia during the reign of his son, the poet King Al-Mutamid. The truth is that despite the chaos and struggles, these kingdoms did very well in the cultural field. But in politics the thing left a lot to be desired. Apparently they could not pay armies, since they had to face the Christian pariahs. These little kings were forced to raise taxes while they gave themselves to the good life, violating many precepts of Islam. And of course, the alfaquíes, that clergy guardian of good manners, was fuming. What did you do? Ask for help from North Africa. They called the Almoravids, Muslim warriors very fanatical and radical, lovers of Allah and cutting heads. It was going to get very fat.

List of counts


  • Lewis, Archibald Ross. The Development of Southern French and Catalan Society, 718–1050. University of Texas Press: Austin, 1965.
  • Bolòs, Jordi and Víctor Hurtado. Atles del comtat d'Osona (798–993). Barcelona: Rafael Dalmau, 2001. ISBN 84-232-0632-7.


  1. ^ Lewis, 41.
  2. ^ Lewis, 47.
  3. ^ Lewis, 73.
  4. ^ Lewis, 117.
  5. ^ Lewis, 131.
  6. ^ Lewis, 133–134.
  7. ^ Lewis, 251.
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