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List of rulers of Auvergne

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of the various rulers of Auvergne.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Most MYSTERIOUS Facts About The Knights Templar!
  • ✪ Second Crusade
  • ✪ Morganatic marriage

Transcription

From their hidden treasures around the world, to their escape to the Americas, here are 10 mysterious facts of the Knights Templar…. 10. Who were the Knights Templar? The first crusade was a military campaign organized by western rulers, the Pope, and the Byzantine Empire to take Jerusalem away from Muslim control. In the year 1099, the capture of Jerusalem led to thousands upon thousands of Christian pilgrims making the journey to the Holy Land. While the city itself was secure, the area around it, known as Outremer, was a place of bandits and marauders. Pilgrims were often robbed or killed as they passed through and, in 1119, Hugues de Payens, a French knight, suggested to Baldwin II of Jerusalem that they create an armed monastic order to protect those trying to reach Jerusalem. This request was granted, and the Poor Fellow Soldiers of Christ of the Temple of Solomon, also known as the Knights Templar, were formed. At first, they had very few resources, but following support from Pope Innocent II and Catholic noblemen across Europe, they quickly rose to prominence in a military capacity, and they played a crucial role in aiding the Crusader armies. By the end of the 13th century, though, Jerusalem had been lost to Muslim forces once again, and the Templars were forced to leave the Holy Land. The French King Philip IV had found himself deep in debt with the order and convinced the Catholic church to take action against them. But he wasn’t the only one! There were many who thought that they had way too much power and were now an inconvenience. In 1307, Templar Knights across France were arrested on charges of fraud, conspiracy, and paganism, with many of them paying for their supposed crimes with their lives. On the 18th March 1314, Jacques de Molay, the Templar Grand Master, was executed by French officials, and the order was officially disbanded. There are, however, many who believe that a number of the Knights Templar managed to evade capture, and went into hiding, along with the vast treasures they had managed to acquire. 9. The Temple of Solomon While in Jerusalem, the order set up their headquarters in the building that was formerly the Al Aqsa mosque, from where they organized their operations. There was more to this choice of location than many believed, as the Knights believed it to be the site of the Temple of Solomon. The building stood on the Temple Mount, which was where the vast temple of the Jews of the Old Testament once stood, and while the buildings atop the mount had long been destroyed, the Knights suspected there may still be hidden structures beneath. There’s a maze of tunnels beneath the Temple Mount, which in Islam is known as Haram al-Sharif. Some even think the reason for setting the order up in the first place was to guard the profound treasures that were found there following the Christian takeover of the city. Could it have been the hiding place for the Holy Grail, the shroud of Jesus, the head of John the Baptist or even the Ark of the Covenant? If this was the case, one question remains- what happened to the treasures that were discovered in the Temple of Solomon? Did the Knights ever find them? Did they take them away when they fled Jerusalem, and where might they be today? And now for number 8, but first, do you believe there is treasure hidden by the Knights Templar still out there? Let us know in the comments below! And be sure to subscribe if you are new here! We have lots of new videos coming up!! 8. Temple Church The Knights Templar had strongholds across Europe, but there’s actually one that you can visit today! In an area of London, England, known as ‘Temple’, you can walk through a stone archway onto Inner Temple lane where you’ll find yourself surrounded by gothic and Victorian architecture. It was here that the Knights Templar built monastic dormitories and chambers and, most significantly, the Temple Church. They built it in 1185, modelled after the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, to serve as the headquarters for their London chapter and, at the time, would perform a vital role to the people of the Middle Ages- it was the closest they could come to being in Jerusalem, without making the epic journey themselves. Effigies of the Knights can be found around the church, including one of William Marshal of Pembroke, who was integral to the creation of England’s Magna Carta- a document that would go on to influence the development of law across Europe and America. Following the dissolution of the Knight Templar, the premises went into the hands of the Knights Hospitaller, another order, who leased the land to lawyers in 1346. Nowadays it's the center of England's legal profession- but don't worry- you can still visit the church without fear of having to encounter an attorney! 7. Rosslyn Chapel The chapel in the town of Rosslyn, just to the south of Edinburgh in Scotland, is inconspicuous at first glance, but its links with the Knights Templar have led to theories suggesting it’s the hiding place of something incredibly significant. If the weather-worn gothic architecture seems familiar, then you may know this place from the movie, the Da Vinci Code, which featured the chapel. Dan Brown based his books on these legends, and it's clear to see why this site inspires mystery and awe. The mixture of Christian, Jewish, Egyptian, and Pagan symbology is unusual, all of which seem like pieces of a puzzle. From the eight Nordic dragons forming a ring around the base of a pillar to pagan deities looking out from the stonework, people dancing with skeletons, and a double-humped camel- there surely was something curious going on here. Many believe it was where the Templars hid their treasures that they had acquired through their work, and it's quite possible there's still a lot more to discover hidden deep within the vaults. 6. The 12 Who Escaped According to legend, during the rounding up and execution of the Knights Templar in France, it’s thought that 24 managed to escape. 12 of this group were named in a document from 1307, which suggests that they were, in particular, being searched for by the king, but what was so special about them? We actually know quite a lot about them. Humbert Blanc, for example, had been in the order for about 40 years and in 1299 became master of the Province of Auvergne. He spent his time between France and England, which is likely how he managed to evade capture but was finally arrested by English authorities and imprisoned on charges of Blasphemy. Pierre de Bouche was a younger Knight, no older than 25 years old at the time of the arrests, and he had even changed his clothes and shaved his beard to evade capture, but was finally found a few years later. The most interesting thing that comes from the documents of the 12 who escaped, though, is the confession of Jean de Chalon that suggests those who were never captured had fled with the Templar treasures. A passage of text that is stored in the Vatican archives recorded what he said, ‘The leaders of the order, expecting the trouble, have fled, and he himself met the brother Gerard de Villiers, who had 50 horses with him, and heard people talking that he put to sea with 18 galleys and the whole treasury of the brothers'. This is why everyone thinks there is still Templar treasure out there waiting to be found!! 5. Templar Towns As we have seen, the Knights Templar constructed buildings across Europe, and maintained a stronghold in Jerusalem for as long as possible, but did you know that they also built entire towns? Partly as a result of the wealth, they accumulated, and because they needed to provide their followers with secure places to live, these Templar outposts can be found throughout Europe, particularly in the hills on the border between Spain and Portugal. The town of Aracena was one of their strongholds, and their symbols can be seen everywhere- including in the town’s coat of arms. When they first arrived in the region, the Knights Templar rebuilt the fortress that they had found here, and they went on to build the Castle Church with influences from Christianity and Islam. Some believe there are underground tunnels connecting sites together in the region, to allow the order to hide and move between places. Especially because toward the end, they needed to remain hidden. 4. Did they Visit America? Following the arrest of most of the order, those who evaded capture fled to far-flung places, and some believe they may even have made it as far as the Americas. When the French authorities raided the Paris Temple, they found it to be completely empty. This is where the Templars had kept all that was valuable to them, and they had time to escape with it- with most scholars believing they fled to La Rochelle, where they commandeered ships to cross the channel to England. From here they journeyed across the land to Scotland, and it's believed they set sail again towards Iceland on the old Viking routes. Had they continued along this path, it’s very possible that they managed to reach Vinland, the settlement that had been established by the Vikings in the new world, and today is known as Nova Scotia. There's evidence for this, too, as the local peoples of the time spoke of white-skinned travelers who came from overseas in folklore, and there are numerous Templar crosses that have been found in buildings and rocks around the area. It's also thought that they may have taken their treasure to Canada, possibly burying their treasure in a new hiding place such as a chapel vault, or maybe even on Oak Island. Which would explain the mystery of the supposed treasure hidden there! 3. Supposed Worship of Baphomet One of the claims against the Templars, when they were arrested, was of blasphemy. While they disputed this, they certainly had some unusual rituals, one of which was supposedly the worship of Baphomet. You may recognize images of Baphomet from things ranging from heavy metal albums to religious propaganda, as the icon is often associated with Satanism. The roots of Baphomet aren’t actually so dark though, and even the links with the Templar’s worship of a goat’s head aren’t necessarily related. Since their formation, the Templars had a close understanding of Islam- after all, they were based in a mosque in Jerusalem, and it’s generally accepted that the true origin and meaning of Baphomet was Mohammed, the prophet of Islam. It makes perfect sense that the Knights Templar would have included parts of Islam in their beliefs- after all, the buildings and churches they built incorporated ideology from multiple religions. As for the head that the Templars worshipped, there are a number of theories on this, but the most interesting one is that it could have been the preserved skull of John the Baptist- one of the treasures they possibly found in the temple of Solomon. 2. There Were Female Members We only ever see depictions of the Knights Templar being men and, what with the way the world was, it would be a fair assumption to believe that the only members of the monastic order were male… but that’s not entirely true. While the Knights Templar were formed to fight battles, and the Order’s rule, set out by Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, explicitly forbade women from joining to prevent temptation, you know, distracting the men and all that, this particular rule was not strictly followed. In the Austrian town Mühlen, there was a Templar nunnery, that was officially labeled as such, which provided refuge for Templars that passed through. Furthermore, throughout the various Templar houses, there are countless records of female members, who mainly held the rank of Consoror or Donat – meaning those that were bound to the order as lay sisters, or as donors to the cause. One of the most prominent was Ermengarda of Oluja, who became a member along with her husband after donating land. She was unique, in that she was a full-fledged Sister of the Order, the equivalent rank to a Brother of the Order, and she is recorded as being a preceptrix, or commander, of the house of Rourell in Catalunya, Present day Spain. She was a serious force in the order and recruited many more women to join. 1. They Still Exist Today! Despite the order of the Knights Templar having been officially disbanded in 1314, their influence and teachings can still be felt today. Of course, it’s long been thought that Knights have continued to protect the legendary treasures that were hidden, but the truth behind this has so far evaded discovery. You can, however, join the Knights Templar yourself if you wish- as there are organizations around the world that exist in tribute to the original order. They are not in any way affiliated to the original Knights Templar but expect their members to adhere to their morals and beliefs. With ceremonies based around Templar traditions and the importance of assisting one another, these groups are an important part of their members' lives- despite seeming like no more than Monastic Order Cosplay to outsiders! Thanks for watching,Would you join the Knights Templar? Let us know in the comments below!! be sure to subscribe and see you next time!!! Byeee

Contents

History

In the 7th century Auvergne was disputed between the Franks and Aquitanians. It was later conquered by the Carolingians, and was integrated for a time into the kingdom of Aquitaine. The counts of Auvergne slowly became autonomous.

In the 10th century Auvergne became a disputed territory between the Count of Poitiers and the Counts of Toulouse.

In the Middle Ages Auvergne was broken into four feudal domains:

Auvergne was integrated in turn into the appanages of Alphonse, Count of Poitou and Count of Toulouse (1241–1271) and of John of Berry Duke of Berry, Duke of Auvergne, Count of Poitiers and Count of Montpensier (1360–1416).

During the Hundred Years' War Auvergne faced numerous raids and revolts, including the Tuchin Revolt.

In 1424 the Duchy of Auvergne passed to the House of Bourbon.

Quite contemporaneously, the County of Auvergne passed to the House of La Tour d'Auvergne, and upon its extinction in 1531 it passed to Catherine de' Medici before becoming a royal domain.

In 1434, the Dauphinate of Auvergne passed to the House of Bourbon-Montpensier.

Counts of Auvergne

Coat of arms of the counts and dukes of Auvergne.
Coat of arms of the counts and dukes of Auvergne.

List of Burgundian Dukes of the Roman era

  • Victorius (479–488)
  • Apollonarus (506)
  • Hortensius of Neustria (527)
  • Becco (532)
  • Sigivald (533)
  • Hortensius (534)
  • Evodius ?
  • Georgius ?
  • Britianus ?
  • Firminus (c. 555 or 558, deposed)
  • Sallustus (duke c. 555 or 558–560)
  • Firminus (restored, 560–571)
  • Venerandus (before 585)
  • Nicetius I (duke and count c. 585)
  • Nicetius II (c. 585)
  • Eulalius (duke 585–590)

List of Counts of the Frankish era

  • part of Austrasia (592–595)
  • part of Burgundy (595–613)
  • part of Austrasia (612–639)
  • Bobon of Neustria (639–656)
  • Hector of Neustria (c. 655–675)
  • Bodilon of Austrasia (c. 675)
  • Calminius of Neustria (c. 670s)
  • Genesius (c. 680s)
  • Haribert of Neustria (c. 690s)
  • part of Neustria until 751

List of Carolingian and French Counts

After the death of Acfred, who left the comital fisc completely diminished, there appeared no successor who could control the entire Auvergne, with Velay. Several relatives of surrounding regions made claims. Below are the dates of their effective control.

Appanage

Became part of the royal domain upon the ascension of Louis XIII of France, son of Henry IV and Marie de'Medici

Bishops of Clermont

The title of bishop of Clermont is used from 1160 onwards. Before then they were called bishop of Arvernes.[citation needed] In 2002 the Bishopric of Clermont was incorporated into the Archbishopric of Clermont-Ferrand.

List of Bishops of Arvernes

  • Saint Austromoine (3rd or 4th century)
  • Urbicus
  • Legonius
  • Saint Illidius (also called Allyre or Alyre) († 384)
  • Nepotianus
  • Artemius
  • Venerand
  • Rusticus
  • Namatius (also called Namacius or Namace)
  • Eparchius
  • Saint Apollinarius I (471–486)
  • Abrunculus
  • Euphrasius († 515)
  • Apollinarius II
  • Saint Quintien (about 523)
  • Gallus of Clermont (Gallus I) (about 486/525-551)
  • Cautin (about 554–572)
  • Saint Avitus (Avitus I) (572–594)
  • Caesarius (627)
  • Saint Gallus (Gallus II) (about 650)
  • Genesius († 662)
  • Gyroindus (660)
  • Felix
  • Garivaldus
  • Saint-Priest (also called Saint Prix) (666–676)
  • Avitus II (676–691)
  • Bonitus
  • Nordebertus
  • Proculus
  • Stephanus (Étienne I) (761)
  • Adebertus (785)
  • Bernouin (about 811)
  • Stabilis (823–860)
  • Sigon (about 863)
  • Egilmar of Clermont (875–891)
  • Adalard (910)
  • Arnold (about 912)
  • Bernard I
  • Étienne II of Clermont (about 945–976)
  • Begon (about 980–1010)
  • Étienne III of Clermont (about 1010–1014 / 1013)
  • Étienne IV (1014–1025)
  • Rencon (1030–1053)
  • Étienne V of Polignac (about 1053–1073)
  • Guillaume of Chamalières (Guillaume I) (1073–1076)
  • Durand (1077–1095)
  • Guillaume of Baffie (Guillaume II) (1096)
  • Pierre Roux (Pierre I) (1105–1111)
  • Aimeri (1111–1150)
  • Étienne VI of Mercœur (1151–1169)

List of Bishops of Clermont

  • Ponce of Clairvaux (1170–1189)
  • Gilbert I (1190–1195)
  • Robert of Auvergne (1195–1227)
  • Hughes of la Tour du Pin (1227–1249)
  • Guy of la Tour du Pin (1250–1286)
  • Aimar of Cros (1286–1297)
  • Jean Aicelin (Jean I) (1298–1301)
  • Pierre of Cros (Pierre II) (1302–1304)
  • Aycelin of Montaigut (also called Aubert) (1307–1328)
  • Arnaud Roger of Comminges (1328–1336)
  • Raymond of Aspet (1336–1340)
  • Étienne Aubert (Étienne VII) (was also Pope Innocent VI from 1352–1362) (1340–1342)
  • Pierre André (Pierre III) (1342–1349)
  • Pierre of Aigrefeuille (Pierre IV) (1349–1357)
  • Jean de Mello (Jean II) (1357–1376)
  • Henri of La Tour (1376–1415)
  • Martin Gouge de Charpaignes (1415–1444)
  • Jacques of Comborn (Jacques I) (1445–1474)
  • Antoine Allemand (Antoine I) (1475–1476)
  • Cardinal Charles II, Duke of Bourbon (Charles I) (1476–1488)
  • Charles of Bourbon (Charles II) (1489–1504)
  • Jacques of Amboise (Jacques II) (1505–1516)
  • Thomas Duprat (1517–1528)
  • Guillaume Duprat (Guillaume III) (1529–1560)
  • Cardinal Bernard Saliviati (Bernard II) (1561–1567)
  • Antoine of Saint-Nectaire (Antoine II) (1567–1584)
  • Cardinal François de La Rochefoucauld (François I) (1585–1609)
  • Antoine Rose (Antoine III) (1609–1614)
  • Joachim of Estaing (1614–1650)
  • Louis of Estaing (Louis I) (1650–1664)
  • Gilbert of Veiny d'Arbouze (Gilbert II) (1664–1682)
    • Michel of Castagnet (is appointed but does not get his bull and returns)
  • Claude II of Saint-Georges (1684–1687)
  • François Bochart of Saron (François II) (1687–1715)
  • Louis of Balzac Illiers d'Entragues (Louis II) (1716–1717)
  • Jean-Baptiste Massillon (1717–1742)
  • François-Marie Le Maistre de La Garlaye (1743–1775)
  • François of Bonnal (François III) (1776–1800)
  • Charles-Antoine-Henri Du Valk de Dampierre (1802–1833)
  • Louis-Charles Féron (1833–1879)
  • Jean-Pierre Boyer (1879–1892)
  • Pierre-Marie Belmont (1893–1921)
  • Jean-François-Étienne Marnas (1921–1932)
  • Gabriel-Emmanuel-Joseph Piguet (1933–1952)
  • Pierre-Abel-Louis Chappot de la Chanonie (1953–1973)
  • Jean Louis Joseph Dardel (1974–1995)

List of Archbishops of Clermont-Ferrand

  • Hippolyte Simon (1996–present)

Dauphins of Auvergne

Coat of arms of the dauphins of Auvergne.
Coat of arms of the dauphins of Auvergne.

What is by convenience called the Dauphinate of Auvergne was in reality the remnant of the County of Auvergne after the usurpation of Count William VII the Young around 1155 by his uncle Count William VIII the Old.

The young count was able to maintain his status in part of his county, especially Beaumont, Chamalières, and Montferrand. Some authors have therefore named William VII and his descendants Counts of Clermont, although this risks confusion with the County of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and the episcopal County of Clermont in Auvergne.

The majority of authors, however, anticipating the formalization of the dauphinate in 1302, choose to call William VII and his successors the Dauphins of Auvergne. Still others, out of convenience, choose to call these successors the Counts-Dauphins of Auvergne.

The title of Dauphin of Auvergne was derived from William VII's mother, who was the daughter of the Dauphin de Viennois, Guigues IV. This meant that William VII's male descendants were usually given Dauphin as a surname.

The numbering of the Counts-turned-Dauphins is complicated. Some authors create a new numbering starting with the first dauphins even though the dauphinate did not really begin until 1302. Others choose to reestablish, beginning with William the Young, the numbering of the viscounts of Clermont who became counts of Auvergne, particularly for the dauphins named Robert.

The parallel existence of the usurpers of the County of Auvergne and of the Counts-Dauphins, who often carried the same first names, also complicates things. To avoid confusion, the numbering system used here is continuous, and Dauphin is used as part of the name where applicable.

List of Dauphins of Auvergne

From 1525–1538 the Dauphinate was confiscated by the king and united with the royal domain.

At her death in 1693, the title returned to the royal domain. It was later given to.

Afterwards, the title returned to the royal domain and was claimed as a courtesy title by the Dukes of Orléans, and the modern Orleanist pretenders.

Dukes of Auvergne

Coat of arms of the counts and dukes of Auvergne.
Coat of arms of the counts and dukes of Auvergne.

The duchy of Auvergne was created in 1360 by John II of France, out of the former royal territory of Auvergne, confiscated by Philip II of France in 1209.

List of Dukes of Auvergne

After his death in 1527, the title was confiscated and passed to the royal domain.

Louise confronted Charles III's right to succession with the support of her son, king Francis I of France. After her death in 1531, the title passed to the royal domain.

Current heirs

The primogenitural heir to the Counties of Boulogne and Auvergne would be Franz, Duke of Bavaria.

As of 2007, the Bishop of Clermont is Hippolyte Simon, as Archbishop of Clermont-Ferrand.

Today, the primogenitural heir to the Dauphinate of Auvergne (Montpensier) would be The Dowager Archduchess of Austria-Este.

The primogenitural heir to the Duchy of Auvergne (Bourbon and the original dauphinate) would be The Dowager Duchess of Calabria .

Each of the three noblemen also happen to be pretenders of much larger former monarchies, too.

External links

This page was last edited on 29 March 2019, at 11:36
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