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Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) is an extension agency within the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), part of the executive branch of the federal government. The 1994 Department Reorganization Act, passed by Congress, created CSREES by combining the former Cooperative State Research Service and the Extension Service into a single agency.[1]

In 2009, CSREES was reorganized into the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA).[2] Sonny Ramaswamy serves as NIFA's director.[3]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Cooperative Extension Blueberry Research
  • ✪ Penn State Cooperative Extension
  • ✪ How does the UMaine Cooperative Extension support agriculture?
  • ✪ N.C. Cooperative Extension | Service Vision
  • ✪ Director's Update | N.C. Cooperative Extension Service (July 2016)


Narrator: “Blueberries will grow wild throughout Maine without ever having been planted. Even though they don’t need human input to grow, many fields are managed to increase yields. The Cooperative Extension at the University of Maine conducts extensive blueberry research on everything from fungi, insect pests and disease to weeds, pruning practices and beneficial insects.” Frank Drummond, professor of entomology: “It has to be squeezed through the holes in the screen. It knocks off some of the pollen loads that are on their back legs.” Seanna Annis, professor of mycology (fungi): “And I’m kind of looking around to see if I see any swimming spores, which I don’t.” Dave Yarborough, Cooperative Extension specialist: “The Cooperative Extension really got involved as a way to bring research-based knowledge to the wild blueberry growers.” Narrator: “Many growers have adopted integrated pest management, or IPM. This method takes the whole ecosystem into account, figuring out when to apply pesticide so it will kill the insect pests at a time when they’re most vulnerable.” Judith Collins, assistant specialist: “These are yellow sticky cards to monitor for blueberry thrips.” Yarborough: “By understanding the biology of the pest, we can reduce the amount of spray that we need by about 80 percent.” Collins: “We’re looking at better ways to time pesticide applications, because basically, by the time you can physically see the damage, it’s too late.” Narrator: “IPM is also about making sure the chemicals won’t harm the bees or other beneficial wildlife.” Drummond: “Well, we’re able to use the bees to sample the environment, so it’s a very efficient way to have a million individuals go out and sample the flowers within a radius of a couple of miles.” Narrator: “Sara Bushmann, a graduate student, is studying wild, native pollinators and their diversity in fields that are managed in different ways.” Sara Bushmann, graduate student, bioscience: “One thing we’ll try to look at is if there’s a difference in pollination level in relation to the diversity of wild bees that we find.” Narrator: “Another aspect of integrated pest management is studying the factors that are involved in the spread of disease.” Annis: “We’re collaborating with Frank Drummond on our project to look at how the monilinious spores get transferred from infected leaves and flowers to healthy flowers.” Narrator: “Monilinia also is known as Mummy Berry, because it makes the fruit shrivel up like mummies. Frank and Seanna are looking at how bees spread the fungus.” Drummond: “The bees are actually moving the pathogen around inadvertently. So the fungus is deceiving the bees, in terms of tricking them, making them think they’re just another flower. These silvery pieces on the leaves reflect UV light, and the fungus also produces sugar. The bees are attracted to the UV light because it mimics a flower. They land on it, and in so doing, they pick up the spores.” Annis: “The idea, though, is how well this transfer really is occurring. And are bumblebees better at it, because they’re better pollinators than honeybees? Is there a difference between the two of them? And also, just how much of this is really happening?” Drummond: “Yup, so we will put this one in there.” Narrator: “Researchers with the Cooperative Extension also study different pruning methods, determining which are the most effective at helping blueberries thrive.” Yarborough: “Well, burning was a practice that was used to prune the blueberries. The wild blueberry has about two-thirds of its biomass underneath the ground, so when we prune the plant, we’re really taking that top third off. You do this to invigorate the plant, to produce new stems that are more productive.” Narrator: “While burning is quite effective at killing insect and weed pests, UMaine researchers are helping growers to develop cheaper, more environmentally friendly methods.” Yarborough: “The type of burning originally done was putting down straw …” Narrator: “… which is extremely labor-intensive.” Unidentified male: “Strictly for the love, remember that, Dave.” Yarborough: “We did the research at the university. We found that if we pruned blueberry plants within an inch to the ground, this would be equivalent to burning for the pruning process.” Narrator: “The Cooperative Extension also works to bring scientific research to growers, holding informational sessions and gatherings throughout the growing season.” Yarborough: “I’m Dave Yarborough, blueberry specialist for the university. I’m also a weed scientist.” Annis: “I’m Seanna Annis, I’m a berry ecologist. I study blueberry diseases.” Yarborough: “And the ants and the spiders so far have been the two really predominant beneficial insects.” Yarborough: “Also to provide demonstration plots, because the growers will actually get to see the results of the work … The sulfur is on this half.” Narrator: “To see more results of the work on blueberries and to learn about one study in more detail, click on the ‘Blueberry Genetics’ video.”



CSREES' mission is to "advance agriculture, the environment, human health and well-being, and communities" by supporting research, education, and extension programs at land-grant universities and other organizations it partners with. CSREES doesn't conduct its own research; it provides funding and leadership to land-grant universities and competitively granted awards to researchers in partner organizations. CSREES' areas of involvement span across 60 programs in the biological, physical, and social sciences related to agricultural research, economic analysis, statistics, extension, and higher education.[4]


CSREES administers federal appropriations through three funding tools: competitive grants, formula grants, and congressionally directed funding.[5]

Competitive Grants

Competitive grants are awarded to applicants upon the recommendation of a peer-review panel. CSREES' competitive programs include the National Research Initiative, the Small Business Innovation Research Program, the Biotechnology Risk Assessment Program, and Outreach and Assistance for Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers.

Formula Grants

CSREES supports research and extension activities at land-grant institutions through federal funds that are appropriated to states on the basis of statutory, population-based formulas. CSREES' formula grants are directed to state experiment stations, the Cooperative Extension System, and Cooperative Forestry Programs. In most cases, the states are required to match the federal formula dollars with nonfederal contributions. The four CSREES research funding programs for land-grant universities are (1) Hatch, (2) Multistate Research (a subset of Hatch), (3) McIntire-Stennis, and (4) Animal Health.[6]

Congressional Directed Funding

Congress directs CSREES to fund and administer certain programs each year through special appropriations accounts. In general, the Executive Branch does not support the inclusion of these programs in the president's annual budget submission to Congress. Examples of projects include: the Expert Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Decision Support System; Global Change, UV-B Monitoring; IPM and Biological Control; Minor Crop Pest Management, IR-4; and Minor Use Animal Drugs.


CSREES is the USDA's extramural research agency, funding individuals; institutions; and public, private, and non-profit organizations. Its research programs address issues affecting 13 national emphasis areas:[7]

  • Agriculture and Food Biosecurity
  • Agricultural Systems
  • Animals & Animal Products
  • Biotechnology & Genomics
  • Economics & Commerce
  • Education
  • Families, Youth & Communities
  • Food, Nutrition & Health
  • International
  • Natural Resources & Environment
  • Pest Management
  • Plants & Plant Products
  • Technology & Engineering

Supported research falls into three categories:

  • Basic research: discovers the underlying processes and systems that make a plant, animal, ecosystem, community, or marketplace work.
  • Applied research: expands on basic research to uncover practical ways this knowledge can benefit individuals and society.
  • Integrated research: research is expected to generate new knowledge and/or apply existing knowledge quickly through dissemination of information on specific issues.


Education programs support all CSREES emphasis areas and promote teaching excellence, enhance academic quality, and help develop the scientific and professional workforce. CSREES continues a federal-state teaching partnership started in 1977 by strengthening agricultural and science literacy in K-12 education, improving higher education curricula, and increasing the diversity and quality of future graduates to enter the workforce.[8]

In 1981, Agriculture in the Classroom (AITC) was established to promote agricultural literacy in classrooms across the country. Today, AITC provides lesson plans, professional development opportunities, and teacher recognition programs for teachers, as well as maintains a national resource directory and other sources of public information on K-12 agricultural education issues.[9]

Cooperative Extension System

The Cooperative Extension System is a non-formal educational program implemented in the United States designed to help people use research-based knowledge to improve their lives. The service is provided by the state's designated land-grant universities. In most states, the educational offerings are in the areas of agriculture and food, home and family, environment, community economic development, and youth and 4-H. The National 4-H Headquarters is located within the Families, 4-H, and Nutrition unit of CSREES.

The Smith-Lever Act, which was passed in 1914, established the partnership between agricultural colleges and the USDA to support agricultural extension work. The act also stated that USDA provide each state with funds based on a population-related formula. Today, CSREES distributes these so-called formula grants annually in cooperation with state and county governments and land-grant universities.

Traditionally, each county of all 50 states had a local extension office. This number has declined as some county offices have consolidated into regional extension centers. Today, there are approximately 2,900 extension offices nationwide.

Since 2005, the Extension system has collaborated in developing (pronounced "e-extension"). eXtension is an Internet-based learning platform where Extension professionals and citizens nationwide and beyond have 24/7 access to unbiased, research-based, peer-reviewed information from land-grant universities on a wide range of topics. Information is organized into articles, professional development resources, news, frequently asked questions, and blog posts that provide a knowledge-to-action service that has become an integral part of the Cooperative Extension System. In 2015, the nonprofit, member-based eXtension Foundation was created to advance innovation and technology-enhanced professional development going forward.[10][11]

This table summarizes the cooperative extension programs in each state. (Under the 1890 amendment to the Morrill Act, if a state's land-grant university was not open to all races, a separate land-grant university had to be established for each race. Hence, some states have more than one land-grant university.)

Cooperative Extensions[12]
State University Extension website
Alabama Alabama A&M University
Auburn University
Tuskegee University[13]
Alabama Cooperative Extension System
Alaska University of Alaska University of Alaska Cooperative Extension
Arizona University of Arizona Arizona Cooperative Extension
Arkansas University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service
California University of California University of California Cooperative Extension
Colorado Colorado State University Colorado State Cooperative Extension
Connecticut University of Connecticut Cooperative Extension System
Delaware University of Delaware
Delaware State University
Delaware Cooperative Extension
DSU Cooperative Extension
District of Columbia University of the District of Columbia University of the District of Columbia Cooperative Extension Service
Florida University of Florida
Florida A&M University
University of Florida IFAS Extension
Georgia University of Georgia
Fort Valley State University
University of Georgia Cooperative Extension
Guam University of Guam University of Guam Cooperative Extension
Hawaii University of Hawaii University of Hawaii Cooperative Extension Service
Idaho University of Idaho University of Idaho Extension
Illinois University of Illinois University of Illinois Extension
Indiana Purdue University Purdue University Extension
Iowa Iowa State University Iowa State University Extension
Kansas Kansas State University Kansas State University Research & Extension
Kentucky University of Kentucky

Kentucky State University

University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service
Louisiana Louisiana State University
Southern University and A&M College
Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service
Maine University of Maine University of Maine Extension
Maryland University of Maryland
University of Maryland Eastern Shore
Maryland Cooperative Extension
Massachusetts University of Massachusetts Amherst University of Massachusetts Extension
Michigan Michigan State University Michigan State University Extension
Minnesota University of Minnesota University of Minnesota Extension
Mississippi Mississippi State University
Alcorn State University
Mississippi State University Extension
Missouri University of Missouri
Lincoln University
University of Missouri Extension
Montana Montana State University Montana State University Extension Service
Nebraska University of Nebraska University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension
Nevada University of Nevada University of Nevada Cooperative Extension
New Hampshire University of New Hampshire University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension
New Jersey Rutgers University Rutgers Cooperative Extension
New Mexico New Mexico State University New Mexico State University Cooperative Extension Service
New York Cornell University Cornell Cooperative Extension
North Carolina North Carolina State University
North Carolina A&T State University
North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service
North Carolina A&T State University Cooperative Extension Program
North Dakota North Dakota State University North Dakota State University Extension Service
Ohio Ohio State University The Ohio State University Extension
Oklahoma Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service
Oregon Oregon State University Oregon State University Extension Service
Pennsylvania Penn State Penn State Cooperative Extension
Rhode Island University of Rhode Island University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension
South Carolina Clemson University
South Carolina State University
Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service
South Dakota South Dakota State University South Dakota State University Extension
Tennessee University of Tennessee
Tennessee State University
University of Tennessee Extension
Tennessee State University Cooperative Extension Program
Texas Texas A&M University
Prairie View A&M University
Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service
Utah Utah State University Utah State University Extension
Vermont University of Vermont University of Vermont Extension System
Virginia Virginia Tech
Virginia State University
Virginia Cooperative Extension
Washington Washington State University Washington State University Extension
West Virginia West Virginia University

West Virginia State University

West Virginia University Extension Service

West Virginia State University Extension Service

Wisconsin University of Wisconsin-Extension University of Wisconsin Extension
Wyoming University of Wyoming University of Wyoming Cooperative Extension Service

See also


  1. ^ About CSREES Archived 2008-02-22 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "NIFA Guidelines" (PDF).
  3. ^ "Office of the Director | National Institute of Food and Agriculture". Retrieved 2017-10-24.
  4. ^ CSREES Overview Archived 2008-03-30 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Federal Assistance".
  6. ^ Retrieved 2007-10-22.
  7. ^ "Research".
  8. ^ Overview Archived May 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "Education Overview". CSREES website. Archived from the original on 2008-05-12. Retrieved 2008-04-26.
  10. ^ "Extension".
  11. ^ "New eXtension". The Association of Public and Land-grant Universities. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  12. ^ "Partners and Extension Map". National Institute of Food and Agriculture. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  13. ^ Although Tuskeegee University has been a private university, it began to receive Cooperative Extension funding in 1972.

External links

This page was last edited on 9 July 2019, at 15:58
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