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Cook Partisan Voting Index

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Map by state (after the 2020 election)
PVI map by state after the 2020 election

The Cook Partisan Voting Index (abbreviated CPVI or PVI) is a measurement of how strongly a United States congressional district or state leans toward the Democratic or Republican Party, compared to the nation as a whole, based on how that district or state voted in the previous two Presidential elections.[1][2][a]

The index is updated after each election cycle. The Cook Political Report introduced the PVI in August 1997 to better gauge the competitiveness of each district using the 1992 and 1996 presidential elections as a baseline.[3][4] The index is based on analysis by the Center for Voting and Democracy (now FairVote) for its July 1997 Monopoly Politics report.[5]

Calculation and format

The Cook PVI is displayed as a letter, a plus sign, and a number. The letter (either a D for Democratic or an R for Republican) reflects the major party toward which the district (or state) leans. The number reflects the strength of that partisan preference in rounded percentage points. A district or state that "performed within half a point of the national average in either direction" is designated as "Even".[4]

PVIs are calculated by comparing the lead candidate's average share of the two-party presidential vote in the past two presidential elections to the party's national average two-party share for those elections. For the current calculation, the national average for 2016 and 2020 was 51.7% Democratic to 48.3% Republican.[3] Thus, the state of Montana, where Donald Trump won 61.1% of the two-party vote in 2016 and 58.4% of the two-party vote in 2020, for an average of 59.75%, has a PVI of R+11.[4]

Prior to its April 2009 update, the PVI formula compared district-level results for the past two presidential elections to nationwide results for only the most recent election. Since then, local elections are compared to synchronic national elections.[6][better source needed]

By congressional district

House of Representatives districts map by PVI after the 2020 election
House of Representatives districts map by PVI after the 2020 election

The PVIs for congressional districts are calculated based on the 2016 and 2020 presidential elections. The party representations are based on the results for the most recent election in that district for the 117th Congress. The District of Columbia's at-large congressional district, represented by a non-voting delegate, is ranked by Cook PVI, as it participates in presidential elections – its PVI is D+43.[4] Territorial districts are not ranked on the Cook PVI, as they do not participate in presidential elections.

As of 2021, in the House, there are 226 districts more Republican than the national average, and 203 districts more Democratic than the national average. Virginia's 2nd congressional district (R+1 PVI) was determined to be the median congressional district, meaning that exactly 217 districts are more Democratic and 217 are more Republican than this district. The number of swing seats, defined as those between D+5 and R+5, is 78.[4]

District PVI Party of
Alabama 1 R+16 Republican
Alabama 2 R+17 Republican
Alabama 3 R+18 Republican
Alabama 4 R+34 Republican
Alabama 5 R+17 Republican
Alabama 6 R+22 Republican
Alabama 7 D+19 Democratic
Alaska at-large R+9 Republican
Arizona 1 R+2 Democratic
Arizona 2 D+2 Democratic
Arizona 3 D+13 Democratic
Arizona 4 R+22 Republican
Arizona 5 R+11 Republican
Arizona 6 R+5 Republican
Arizona 7 D+24 Democratic
Arizona 8 R+11 Republican
Arizona 9 D+9 Democratic
Arkansas 1 R+21 Republican
Arkansas 2 R+7 Republican
Arkansas 3 R+17 Republican
Arkansas 4 R+20 Republican
California 1 R+11 Republican
California 2 D+23 Democratic
California 3 D+5 Democratic
California 4 R+8 Republican
California 5 D+22 Democratic
California 6 D+21 Democratic
California 7 D+5 Democratic
California 8 R+8 Republican
California 9 D+8 Democratic
California 10 Even Democratic
California 11 D+24 Democratic
California 12 D+38 Democratic
California 13 D+40 Democratic
California 14 D+28 Democratic
California 15 D+22 Democratic
California 16 D+9 Democratic
California 17 D+24 Democratic
California 18 D+27 Democratic
California 19 D+23 Democratic
California 20 D+23 Democratic
California 21 D+5 Republican
California 22 R+6 Republican
California 23 R+12 Republican
California 24 D+10 Democratic
California 25 D+3 Republican
California 26 D+10 Democratic
California 27 D+18 Democratic
California 28 D+23 Democratic
California 29 D+27 Democratic
California 30 D+20 Democratic
California 31 D+9 Democratic
California 32 D+17 Democratic
California 33 D+19 Democratic
California 34 D+34 Democratic
California 35 D+17 Democratic
California 36 D+4 Democratic
California 37 D+36 Democratic
California 38 D+17 Democratic
California 39 D+3 Republican
California 40 D+31 Democratic
California 41 D+12 Democratic
California 42 R+7 Republican
California 43 D+29 Democratic
California 44 D+32 Democratic
California 45 D+3 Democratic
California 46 D+16 Democratic
California 47 D+14 Democratic
California 48 R+1 Republican
California 49 D+4 Democratic
California 50 R+8 Republican
California 51 D+20 Democratic
California 52 D+12 Democratic
California 53 D+17 Democratic
Colorado 1 D+24 Democratic
Colorado 2 D+12 Democratic
Colorado 3 R+6 Republican
Colorado 4 R+12 Republican
Colorado 5 R+12 Republican
Colorado 6 D+6 Democratic
Colorado 7 D+7 Democratic
Connecticut 1 D+11 Democratic
Connecticut 2 D+2 Democratic
Connecticut 3 D+8 Democratic
Connecticut 4 D+12 Democratic
Connecticut 5 D+2 Democratic
Delaware at-large D+6 Democratic
Florida 1 R+20 Republican
Florida 2 R+20 Republican
Florida 3 R+9 Republican
Florida 4 R+14 Republican
Florida 5 D+12 Democratic
Florida 6 R+10 Republican
Florida 7 D+3 Democratic
Florida 8 R+12 Republican
Florida 9 D+3 Democratic
Florida 10 D+12 Democratic
Florida 11 R+18 Republican
Florida 12 R+11 Republican
Florida 13 Even Democratic
Florida 14 D+7 Democratic
Florida 15 R+6 Republican
Florida 16 R+7 Republican
Florida 17 R+16 Republican
Florida 18 R+6 Republican
Florida 19 R+12 Republican
Florida 20 D+28 Democratic
Florida 21 D+8 Democratic
Florida 22 D+6 Democratic
Florida 23 D+9 Democratic
Florida 24 D+28 Democratic
Florida 25 R+8 Republican
Florida 26 D+1 Republican
Florida 27 D+4 Republican
Georgia 1 R+9 Republican
Georgia 2 D+4 Democratic
Georgia 3 R+16 Republican
Georgia 4 D+27 Democratic
Georgia 5 D+36 Democratic
Georgia 6 D+1 Democratic
Georgia 7 R+2 Democratic
Georgia 8 R+15 Republican
Georgia 9 R+30 Republican
Georgia 10 R+13 Republican
Georgia 11 R+12 Republican
Georgia 12 R+9 Republican
Georgia 13 D+23 Democratic
Georgia 14 R+28 Republican
Hawaii 1 D+14 Democratic
Hawaii 2 D+15 Democratic
Idaho 1 R+22 Republican
Idaho 2 R+15 Republican
Illinois 1 D+25 Democratic
Illinois 2 D+28 Democratic
Illinois 3 D+6 Democratic
Illinois 4 D+33 Democratic
Illinois 5 D+22 Democratic
Illinois 6 D+3 Democratic
Illinois 7 D+37 Democratic
Illinois 8 D+9 Democratic
Illinois 9 D+21 Democratic
Illinois 10 D+14 Democratic
Illinois 11 D+11 Democratic
Illinois 12 R+9 Republican
Illinois 13 R+4 Republican
Illinois 14 R+2 Democratic
Illinois 15 R+26 Republican
Illinois 16 R+10 Republican
Illinois 17 R+2 Democratic
Illinois 18 R+15 Republican
Indiana 1 D+4 Democratic
Indiana 2 R+13 Republican
Indiana 3 R+19 Republican
Indiana 4 R+18 Republican
Indiana 5 R+5 Republican
Indiana 6 R+22 Republican
Indiana 7 D+11 Democratic
Indiana 8 R+19 Republican
Indiana 9 R+15 Republican
Iowa 1 R+4 Republican
Iowa 2 R+4 Republican
Iowa 3 R+3 Democratic
Iowa 4 R+16 Republican
Kansas 1 R+24 Republican
Kansas 2 R+10 Republican
Kansas 3 D+1 Democratic
Kansas 4 R+15 Republican
Kentucky 1 R+26 Republican
Kentucky 2 R+22 Republican
Kentucky 3 D+8 Democratic
Kentucky 4 R+19 Republican
Kentucky 5 R+33 Republican
Kentucky 6 R+8 Republican
Louisiana 1 R+22 Republican
Louisiana 2 D+25 Democratic
Louisiana 3 R+21 Republican
Louisiana 4 R+14 Republican
Louisiana 5 R+17 Republican
Louisiana 6 R+18 Republican
Maine 1 D+8 Democratic
Maine 2 R+6 Democratic
Maryland 1 R+14 Republican
Maryland 2 D+13 Democratic
Maryland 3 D+16 Democratic
Maryland 4 D+29 Democratic
Maryland 5 D+16 Democratic
Maryland 6 D+8 Democratic
Maryland 7 D+27 Democratic
Maryland 8 D+17 Democratic
Massachusetts 1 D+10 Democratic
Massachusetts 2 D+10 Democratic
Massachusetts 3 D+12 Democratic
Massachusetts 4 D+13 Democratic
Massachusetts 5 D+23 Democratic
Massachusetts 6 D+10 Democratic
Massachusetts 7 D+35 Democratic
Massachusetts 8 D+14 Democratic
Massachusetts 9 D+6 Democratic
Michigan 1 R+12 Republican
Michigan 2 R+9 Republican
Michigan 3 R+5 Republican
Michigan 4 R+14 Republican
Michigan 5 D+1 Democratic
Michigan 6 R+5 Republican
Michigan 7 R+10 Republican
Michigan 8 R+4 Democratic
Michigan 9 D+4 Democratic
Michigan 10 R+18 Republican
Michigan 11 R+2 Democratic
Michigan 12 D+13 Democratic
Michigan 13 D+29 Democratic
Michigan 14 D+29 Democratic
Minnesota 1 R+8 Republican
Minnesota 2 Even Democratic
Minnesota 3 D+6 Democratic
Minnesota 4 D+16 Democratic
Minnesota 5 D+29 Democratic
Minnesota 6 R+14 Republican
Minnesota 7 R+17 Republican
Minnesota 8 R+10 Republican
Mississippi 1 R+18 Republican
Mississippi 2 D+13 Democratic
Mississippi 3 R+13 Republican
Mississippi 4 R+22 Republican
Missouri 1 D+29 Democratic
Missouri 2 R+4 Republican
Missouri 3 R+21 Republican
Missouri 4 R+20 Republican
Missouri 5 D+7 Democratic
Missouri 6 R+18 Republican
Missouri 7 R+24 Republican
Missouri 8 R+30 Republican
Montana at-large R+11 Republican
Nebraska 1 R+11 Republican
Nebraska 2 R+1 Republican
Nebraska 3 R+30 Republican
Nevada 1 D+12 Democratic
Nevada 2 R+8 Republican
Nevada 3 R+2 Democratic
Nevada 4 D+1 Democratic
New Hampshire 1 R+1 Democratic
New Hampshire 2 D+1 Democratic
New Jersey 1 D+11 Democratic
New Jersey 2 R+4 Republican
New Jersey 3 R+3 Democratic
New Jersey 4 R+8 Republican
New Jersey 5 R+1 Democratic
New Jersey 6 D+6 Democratic
New Jersey 7 D+1 Democratic
New Jersey 8 D+24 Democratic
New Jersey 9 D+13 Democratic
New Jersey 10 D+34 Democratic
New Jersey 11 Even Democratic
New Jersey 12 D+16 Democratic
New Mexico 1 D+9 Democratic
New Mexico 2 R+8 Republican
New Mexico 3 D+7 Democratic
New York 1 R+6 Republican
New York 2 R+5 Republican
New York 3 D+3 Democratic
New York 4 D+4 Democratic
New York 5 D+34 Democratic
New York 6 D+13 Democratic
New York 7 D+34 Democratic
New York 8 D+33 Democratic
New York 9 D+32 Democratic
New York 10 D+27 Democratic
New York 11 R+7 Republican
New York 12 D+34 Democratic
New York 13 D+40 Democratic
New York 14 D+25 Democratic
New York 15 D+39 Democratic
New York 16 D+25 Democratic
New York 17 D+9 Democratic
New York 18 R+1 Democratic
New York 19 R+3 Democratic
New York 20 D+7 Democratic
New York 21 R+8 Republican
New York 22 R+9 Republican
New York 23 R+9 Republican
New York 24 D+2 Republican
New York 25 D+8 Democratic
New York 26 D+10 Democratic
New York 27 R+12 Republican
North Carolina 1 D+3 Democratic
North Carolina 2 D+12 Democratic
North Carolina 3 R+14 Republican
North Carolina 4 D+16 Democratic
North Carolina 5 R+20 Republican
North Carolina 6 D+10 Democratic
North Carolina 7 R+11 Republican
North Carolina 8 R+6 Republican
North Carolina 9 R+6 Republican
North Carolina 10 R+21 Republican
North Carolina 11 R+9 Republican
North Carolina 12 D+19 Democratic
North Carolina 13 R+20 Republican
North Dakota at-large R+20 Republican
Ohio 1 R+4 Republican
Ohio 2 R+9 Republican
Ohio 3 D+19 Democratic
Ohio 4 R+20 Republican
Ohio 5 R+15 Republican
Ohio 6 R+24 Republican
Ohio 7 R+18 Republican
Ohio 8 R+19 Republican
Ohio 9 D+9 Democratic
Ohio 10 R+5 Republican
Ohio 11 D+30 Democratic
Ohio 12 R+6 Republican
Ohio 13 D+1 Democratic
Ohio 14 R+5 Republican
Ohio 15 R+9 Republican
Ohio 16 R+10 Republican
Oklahoma 1 R+15 Republican
Oklahoma 2 R+29 Republican
Oklahoma 3 R+29 Republican
Oklahoma 4 R+20 Republican
Oklahoma 5 R+7 Republican
Oregon 1 D+12 Democratic
Oregon 2 R+11 Republican
Oregon 3 D+24 Democratic
Oregon 4 R+1 Democratic
Oregon 5 D+2 Democratic
Pennsylvania 1 Even Republican
Pennsylvania 2 D+21 Democratic
Pennsylvania 3 D+41 Democratic
Pennsylvania 4 D+9 Democratic
Pennsylvania 5 D+13 Democratic
Pennsylvania 6 D+5 Democratic
Pennsylvania 7 Even Democratic
Pennsylvania 8 R+5 Democratic
Pennsylvania 9 R+18 Republican
Pennsylvania 10 R+5 Republican
Pennsylvania 11 R+14 Republican
Pennsylvania 12 R+20 Republican
Pennsylvania 13 R+25 Republican
Pennsylvania 14 R+16 Republican
Pennsylvania 15 R+24 Republican
Pennsylvania 16 R+12 Republican
Pennsylvania 17 R+2 Democratic
Pennsylvania 18 D+13 Democratic
Rhode Island 1 D+12 Democratic
Rhode Island 2 D+4 Democratic
South Carolina 1 R+7 Republican
South Carolina 2 R+9 Republican
South Carolina 3 R+21 Republican
South Carolina 4 R+14 Republican
South Carolina 5 R+11 Republican
South Carolina 6 D+17 Democratic
South Carolina 7 R+11 Republican
South Dakota at-large R+16 Republican
Tennessee 1 R+30 Republican
Tennessee 2 R+18 Republican
Tennessee 3 R+19 Republican
Tennessee 4 R+22 Republican
Tennessee 5 D+9 Democratic
Tennessee 6 R+26 Republican
Tennessee 7 R+21 Republican
Tennessee 8 R+19 Republican
Tennessee 9 D+28 Democratic
Texas 1 R+25 Republican
Texas 2 R+4 Republican
Texas 3 R+6 Republican
Texas 4 R+28 Republican
Texas 5 R+15 Republican
Texas 6 R+6 Republican
Texas 7 D+1 Democratic
Texas 8 R+25 Republican
Texas 9 D+27 Democratic
Texas 10 R+5 Republican
Texas 11 R+32 Republican
Texas 12 R+15 Republican
Texas 13 R+33 Republican
Texas 14 R+12 Republican
Texas 15 D+3 Democratic
Texas 16 D+18 Democratic
Texas 17 R+9 Republican
Texas 18 D+26 Democratic
Texas 19 R+26 Republican
Texas 20 D+13 Democratic
Texas 21 R+5 Republican
Texas 22 R+4 Republican
Texas 23 R+1 Republican
Texas 24 R+2 Republican
Texas 25 R+8 Republican
Texas 26 R+12 Republican
Texas 27 R+14 Republican
Texas 28 D+5 Democratic
Texas 29 D+19 Democratic
Texas 30 D+29 Democratic
Texas 31 R+6 Republican
Texas 32 D+1 Democratic
Texas 33 D+23 Democratic
Texas 34 D+5 Republican
Texas 35 D+17 Democratic
Texas 36 R+25 Republican
Utah 1 R+20 Republican
Utah 2 R+10 Republican
Utah 3 R+17 Republican
Utah 4 R+6 Republican
Vermont at-large D+15 Democratic
Virginia 1 R+6 Republican
Virginia 2 R+1 Democratic
Virginia 3 D+16 Democratic
Virginia 4 D+10 Democratic
Virginia 5 R+7 Republican
Virginia 6 R+14 Republican
Virginia 7 R+3 Democratic
Virginia 8 D+27 Democratic
Virginia 9 R+23 Republican
Virginia 10 D+6 Democratic
Virginia 11 D+19 Democratic
Washington 1 D+8 Democratic
Washington 2 D+11 Democratic
Washington 3 R+5 Republican
Washington 4 R+13 Republican
Washington 5 R+8 Republican
Washington 6 D+6 Democratic
Washington 7 D+36 Democratic
Washington 8 D+1 Democratic
Washington 9 D+23 Democratic
Washington 10 D+5 Democratic
West Virginia 1 R+22 Republican
West Virginia 2 R+20 Republican
West Virginia 3 R+27 Republican
Wisconsin 1 R+7 Republican
Wisconsin 2 D+18 Democratic
Wisconsin 3 R+4 Democratic
Wisconsin 4 D+25 Democratic
Wisconsin 5 R+11 Republican
Wisconsin 6 R+10 Republican
Wisconsin 7 R+12 Republican
Wisconsin 8 R+10 Republican
Wyoming at-large R+26 Republican

By state

The PVIs for states are calculated based on the results of the U.S. presidential elections in 2016 and 2020.[4] The table below reflects the current state of Congress and governors, based on the most recent election results, as of January 2022.

State PVI Party of
in Senate
Alabama R+15 Republican Republican 6R, 1D
Alaska R+9 Republican Republican 1R
Arizona R+3 Republican Democratic 5D, 4R
Arkansas R+16 Republican Republican 4R
California D+14 Democratic Democratic 42D, 11R
Colorado D+3 Democratic Democratic 4D, 3R
Connecticut D+7 Democratic Democratic 5D
Delaware D+6 Democratic Democratic 1D
Florida R+3 Republican Republican 16R, 11D
Georgia R+3 Republican Democratic 8R, 6D
Hawaii D+15 Democratic Democratic 2D
Idaho R+19 Republican Republican 2R
Illinois D+7 Democratic Democratic 13D, 5R
Indiana R+11 Republican Republican 7R, 2D
Iowa R+6 Republican Republican 3R, 1D
Kansas R+11 Democratic Republican 3R, 1D
Kentucky R+16 Democratic Republican 5R, 1D
Louisiana R+12 Democratic Republican 5R, 1D
Maine D+1 Democratic Both* 2D
Maryland D+14 Republican Democratic 7D, 1R
Massachusetts D+14 Republican Democratic 9D
Michigan R+1 Democratic Democratic 7D, 7R
Minnesota D+1 Democratic Democratic 4D, 4R
Mississippi R+10 Republican Republican 3R, 1D
Missouri R+11 Republican Republican 6R, 2D
Montana R+11 Republican Both 1R
Nebraska R+13 Republican Republican 3R
Nevada Even Democratic Democratic 3D, 1R
New Hampshire Even Republican Democratic 2D
New Jersey D+6 Democratic Democratic 10D, 2R
New Mexico D+3 Democratic Democratic 2D, 1R
New York D+10 Democratic Democratic 19D, 8R
North Carolina R+3 Democratic Republican 8R, 5D
North Dakota R+20 Republican Republican 1R
Ohio R+6 Republican Both 12R, 4D
Oklahoma R+20 Republican Republican 5R
Oregon D+6 Democratic Democratic 4D, 1R
Pennsylvania R+2 Democratic Both 9D, 9R
Rhode Island D+8 Democratic Democratic 2D
South Carolina R+8 Republican Republican 6R, 1D
South Dakota R+16 Republican Republican 1R
Tennessee R+14 Republican Republican 7R, 2D
Texas R+5 Republican Republican 24R, 12D
Utah R+13 Republican Republican 4R
Vermont D+15 Republican Democratic* 1D
Virginia D+2 Republican Democratic 7D, 4R
Washington D+8 Democratic Democratic 7D, 3R
West Virginia R+23 Republican Both 3R
Wisconsin R+2 Democratic Both 5R, 3D
Wyoming R+26 Republican Republican 1R
* Includes an independent senator who caucuses with the Democrats.

Extremes and trends

The most Democratic congressional district in the country is Pennsylvania's 3rd, located in West Philadelphia, with a PVI of D+41. The most Republican district is Alabama's 4th, based in North Alabama, at R+34. In terms of states as a whole, Wyoming is the most Republican, at R+26, and Hawaii and Vermont are the most Democratic, at D+15.[4]

In the Senate, the most Republican-leaning state to have a Democratic senator is West Virginia (R+23 PVI), represented by Joe Manchin. The least Democratic-leaning states to have two Democratic senators are Arizona (R+3 PVI), represented by Kyrsten Sinema and Mark Kelly, and Georgia (R+3 PVI), represented by Jon Ossoff and Raphael Warnock. The most Democratic-leaning state to have a Republican senator is Maine (D+1 PVI), represented by Susan Collins. The least Republican-leaning states to have two Republican senators are Florida (R+3 PVI), represented by Marco Rubio and Rick Scott, and North Carolina (R+3 PVI), represented by Richard Burr and Thom Tillis.

In the House, the most Democratic-leaning congressional districts represented by Republicans are California's 21st and Texas's 34th (D+5 PVI), represented by David Valadao and Mayra Flores, respectively. The most Republican-leaning congressional district represented by a Democrat is Maine's 2nd (R+6 PVI), represented by Jared Golden. Following the 2020 elections, there were 28 Republican-leaning House districts represented by Democrats, and 7 Democratic-leaning House districts represented by Republicans.

See also


  1. ^ “To determine the national average for these latest ratings, we have taken the average Democratic share of the two-party presidential vote for 2016 and 2020, which is roughly 51.7 percent. So, if Hillary Clinton carried 55 percent of the two-party vote in a given district in 2016 and Joe Biden carried 58 percent in the district in 2020, the district would have a PVI score of roughly D+5."[3]


  1. ^ Cillizza, Chris (March 14, 2018). "The differences between real grassroots and 'Astroturf' matter". CNN. Retrieved November 29, 2020. Which brings me to the Cook Political Report's Partisan Voting Index or PVI. The goal of the PVI is to compare every congressional district to every other congressional district based on how it has performed in each of the last two presidential elections.
  2. ^ Benen, Steve (February 7, 2017). "There are 119 Republican House members who should be VERY nervous today". MSNBC. Retrieved November 29, 2020. To get a sense of a congressional district's political leanings, there's a helpful metric called the Partisan Voter Index, or PVI, created 20 years ago by the Cook Political Report.
  3. ^ a b c Wasserman, David (April 15, 2021). "Introducing the 2021 Cook Political Report Partisan Voter Index". The Cook Political Report. Retrieved February 3, 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Wasserman, David; Flinn, Ally (April 15, 2021). "Introducing the 2021 Cook Political Report Partisan Voter Index". The Cook Political Report. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  5. ^ "Monopoly Politics". Center for Voting and Democracy. July 1997. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
  6. ^ Nir, David (February 6, 2009). "Swing State Project:: A Look at the Cook Political Report's Partisan Vote Index (PVI)". Swing State Project. Archived from the original on February 24, 2009. Retrieved August 5, 2017.

External links

This page was last edited on 23 June 2022, at 06:09
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