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Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
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  Parties to only the 1951 Convention
  Parties to only the 1967 Protocol
  Parties to both
  Non-members
Signed28 July 1951
LocationGeneva, Switzerland
Effective22 April 1954
Signatories144
PartiesConvention: 145[1]
Protocol: 146[1]
DepositarySecretary-General of the United Nations
LanguagesEnglish and French
(Chinese, Russian and Spanish)
1951 Refugee Convention at Wikisource

The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, also known as the 1951 Refugee Convention, is a United Nations multilateral treaty that defines who is a refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum. The Convention also sets out which people do not qualify as refugees, such as war criminals. The Convention also provides for some visa-free travel for holders of travel documents issued under the convention. Although the Refugee Convention was agreed in Geneva, it is considered incorrect to refer to it as "the Geneva Convention" because that term is more widely understood as referring to any of four treaties regulating armed conflict.

The Refugee Convention builds on Article 14 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which recognizes the right of persons to seek asylum from persecution in other countries. A refugee may enjoy rights and benefits in a state in addition to those provided for in the Convention.[2]

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Transcription

Human migration is nothing new. For more than a million years humans have moved their homes to escape famine, persecution, natural disasters and war. Sometimes migration has been voluntary. But more often people were forced to move to new places, often at great risk. In the last century we have seen hundreds of millions of people migrate across the planet. World War I created massive waves of international refugees. This sparked new, international guidelines, laws and conventions to protect a refugee’s basic human rights. These guidelines were tested soon afterwards: at the start of World War II more than a million people - most of them Jews - attempted to escape Nazi Germany. By 1945, some 40 million people had been forcibly displaced, deported and resettled in Europe and elsewhere. The United Nations was established at the end of WWII. It made a commitment to protect the most vulnerable people wherever in the world they found themselves. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was established in 1948. Before this time, the rights of refugees were not anchored in international law, but subject to the laws of the countries they had fled to. An important, United Nations-backed convention relating to the status of refugees took place in Geneva, Switzerland in 1951. In 1967, a protocol was also adopted; 148 countries signed on to one or both. International support was clearly established. The convention states that people have these basic rights no matter where they are in the world. The right… to an education To exercise religion to justice to remain in a country to not be punished for illegal entry into the territory to practice a profession to housing and to own property to form and join trade unions to public relief and assistance to freedom of movement within the territory to be issued identity and travel documents. All refugees are required to abide by the laws of their host country and respect the maintenance of public order. Today, the Convention is more important than ever. The planet is facing its worst refugee crisis since WWII. Almost 1% of the earth's population is an asylum-seeker, internally displaced or a refugee according to a 2015 UNHCR report. That’s about 24 people displaced every minute. There will always be war, famine, drought. Hunger, crises. There will always be refugees. But respect and care for refugees is a universal human value. The content of this video does not reflect the official opinion of the European Union. Responsibility for the information and views expressed in the video lies entirely with the author(s).

Contents

History

The Convention was approved at a special United Nations conference on 28 July 1951. Denmark was the first state to ratify the treaty on 4 December 1952, which entered into force on 22 April 1954. It was initially limited to protecting European refugees from before 1 January 1951 (after World War II), though states could make a declaration that the provisions would apply to refugees from other places.

The 1967 Protocol removed the time limits and applied to refugees "without any geographic limitation", but declarations previously made by parties to the Convention on geographic scope were grandfathered.[3]

As at 1 July 2013, there were 145 parties to the Convention, and 146 to the Protocol.[1][4][5] Most recently, the President of Nauru, Marcus Stephen, signed both the Convention and the Protocol on 17 June 2011[6][7] and acceded on 28 June 2011. Madagascar and Saint Kitts and Nevis are parties only to the Convention, while Cape Verde, the United States of America and Venezuela are parties only to the Protocol. Since the US ratified the Protocol in 1968, it undertook a majority of the obligations spelled out in the original 1951 document (Articles 2-34), and Article 1 as amended in the Protocol, as "supreme Law of the Land".[8]

The rights promulgated by the Convention generally still stand today. Some have argued that the complex nature of 21st century refugee relationships calls for a new treaty that recognizes the evolving nature of the nation-state, population displacement, environmental migrants, and modern warfare.[9][10] Nevertheless, ideas like the principle of non-refoulement (Article 33) are still applied today, with the 1951 Convention being the hallmark of such rights.

Definition of refugee

Article 1 of the Convention defines a refugee as this:[11][12]

As a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951 and owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it.

The U.N. Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees which entered into force on 4 October 1967, defined the term refugee to mean any person within the definition 1951 Convention as if the words “As a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951 and ...” were omitted.[13]

Several groups have built upon the 1951 Convention to create a more objective definition. While their terms differ from those of the 1951 Convention, the Convention has significantly shaped the new, more objective definitions. They include the 1969 Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa by the Organisation of African Unity (since 2002 African Union) and the 1984 Cartagena Declaration, while nonbinding, also sets out regional standards for refugees in Central America, Mexico and Panama.

With the passage of time and the emergence of new refugee situations, the need was increasingly felt to make the provisions of the 1951 Convention applicable to such new refugees. As a result, a Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees was prepared, and entered into force on 4 October 1967.[14] The UNHCR is called upon to provide international protection to refugees falling within the competence of his Office.[15] Definitions of those persons to whom the High Commissioner’s competence extends are very close to, though not identical with, the definition contained in the 1951 Convention.[16]

Rights and responsibilities of parties to the Refugee Convention

In the general principle of international law, treaties in force are binding upon the parties to it and must be performed in good faith. Countries that have ratified the Refugee Convention are obliged to protect refugees that are on their territory, in accordance with its terms.[17] There are a number of provisions that States parties to the Refugee Convention must adhere to.

Refugees shall

  • abide by the national laws of the contracting states (Article 2)

The contracting states shall

  • exempt refugees from reciprocity (Article 7): That means that the granting of a right to a refugee should not be subject to the granting of similar treatment by the refugee's country of nationality, because refugees do not enjoy the protection of their home state.[17]
  • be able to take provisional measures against a refugee if needed in the interest of essential national security (Article 9)
  • respect a refugee's personal status and the rights that come with it, particularly rights related to marriage (Article 12)
  • provide free access to courts for refugees (Article 16)
  • provide administrative assistance for refugees (Article 25)
  • provide identity papers for refugees (Article 27)
  • provide travel documents for refugees (Article 28)
  • allow refugees to transfer their assets (Article 30)
  • provide the possibility of assimilation and naturalization to refugees (Article 34)
  • cooperate with the UNHCR (Article 35) in the exercise of its functions and to help UNHCR supervise the implementation of the provisions in the Convention.[17]
  • provide information on any national legislation they may adopt to ensure the application of the Convention (Article 36).[17]
  • settle disputes they may have with other contracting states at the International Court of Justice if not otherwise possible (Article 38)

The contracting states shall not

  • discriminate against refugees (Article 3)
  • take exceptional measures against a refugee solely on account of his or her nationality (Article 8)
  • expect refugees to pay taxes and fiscal charges that are different to those of nationals (Article 29)
  • impose penalties on refugees who entered illegally in search of asylum if they present themselves without delay (Article 31), which is commonly interpreted to mean that their unlawful entry and presence ought not to be prosecuted at all[18]
  • expel refugees (Article 32)
  • forcibly return or "refoul" refugees to the country they've fled from (Article 33). It is widely accepted that the prohibition of forcible return is part of customary international law. This means that even States that are not party to the 1951 Refugee Convention must respect the principle of non-refoulement.[17] Therefore, States are obligated under the Convention and under customary international law to respect the principle of non-refoulement. If and when this principle is threatened, UNHCR can respond by intervening with relevant authorities, and if it deems necessary, will inform the public.[17]

Refugees shall be treated at least like nationals in relation to

  • freedom to practice their religion (Article 4)
  • the respect and protection of artistic rights and industrial property (Article 14)
  • rationing (Article 20)
  • elementary education (Article 22)
  • public relief and assistance (Article 23)
  • labour legislation and social security (Article 24)

Refugees shall be treated at least like other non-nationals in relation to

  • movable and immovable property (Article 13)
  • the right of association in unions or other associations (Article 15)
  • wage-earning employment (Article 17)
  • self-employment (Article 18)
  • practice of the liberal professions (Article 19)
  • housing (Article 21)
  • education higher than elementary (Article 22)
  • the right to free movement and free choice of residence within the country (Article 26)

Noncompliance

Although the Convention is "legally binding" there is no body that monitors compliance. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has supervisory responsibilities, but cannot enforce the Convention, and there is no formal mechanism for individuals to file complaints. The Convention specifies that complaints should be referred to the International Court of Justice.[19] It appears that no nation has ever done this.

An individual may lodge a complaint with the UN Human Rights Committee under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, or with the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, but no one has ever done so in regard to violations of the Convention. Nations may levy international sanctions against violators, but no nation has ever done this.

At present, the only real consequences of violation are 1) public shaming in the press, and 2) verbal condemnation of the violator by the UN and by other nations. To date these have not proven to be significant deterrents.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Chapter V – Refugees and Stateless Persons". United Nations Treaty Series. 22 July 2013. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  2. ^ Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, Article 5.
  3. ^ "Treaty Series - Treaties and international agreements registered or filed and recorded with the Secretariat of the United Nations" (PDF). 606 (8791). United Nations. 1970: 268. Retrieved 2013-10-19.
  4. ^ "Chapter V – Refugees and Stateless Persons". United Nations Treaty Series. 22 July 2013. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  5. ^ UNHCR: States Parties to the Convention and Protocol, retrieved 15 July 2010
  6. ^ "Nauru signs UN refugee convention". Radio New Zealand International. 17 June 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  7. ^ "Nauru's UN move on refugee convention adds to pressure on Labor", The Australian, 17 June 2011
  8. ^ Joan Fitzpatrick, "The International Dimension of U.S. Refugee Law", 15 Berkeley J. Int'l. Law 1, Berkeley Law Scholarship Repository, 1997
  9. ^ "SSRN Electronic Library". papers.ssrn.com.
  10. ^ Schoenholtz, Andrew I. (11 June 2015). "The New Refugees and the Old Treaty: Persecutors and Persecuted in the Twenty-First Century" – via papers.ssrn.com.
  11. ^ United Nations High Commission for Refugees. (2012). Text of Convention. Retrieved 5 May 2012. Archived 7 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ What is a Refugee?What is a Refugee?
  13. ^ Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees of 31 January 1967 - English text, Article I § 2.
  14. ^ United Nations High Commission for Refugees 2011 § C(8).
  15. ^ United Nations High Commission for Refugees 2011 § E(14).
  16. ^ United Nations High Commission for Refugees 2011 § E(15).
  17. ^ a b c d e f UNHCR: Refugee protection: A Guide to International Refugee Law, 2001, ISBN 92-9142-101-4, retrieved 19 August 2015
  18. ^ Yewa Holiday (March 24, 2017). "The Problem with the Prosecution of Refugees". University of Oxford, Faculty of Law. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
  19. ^ Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, Article 38.
  20. ^ Rose Moloney, "Does Australia's refugee policy breach UN rules?" Crikey Clarifier, Nov 29, 2012.

External links

This page was last edited on 1 February 2019, at 14:01
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