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Congress of the Philippines

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Congress of the Philippines

Kongreso ng Pilipinas
18th Congress of the Philippines
Seal of the Philippine Senate.svg
 
Seal of the Philippine House of Representatives.svg
Seals of the Senate (left) and of the House of Representatives (right)
Type
Type
HousesSenate
House of Representatives
History
FoundedJune 9, 1945 (1945-06-09)
Preceded byNational Assembly of the Philippines
New session started
July 22, 2019 (2019-07-22)
Leadership
Tito Sotto, NPC
since July 22, 2019
Lord Allan Velasco, PDP–Laban
since October 12, 2020
Structure
Seats328 (see list)
24 senators
304 representatives
Philippine Senate composition.svg
Senate political groups
Majority bloc (20)
    •   PDP–Laban (5)
    •   Nacionalista (4)
    •   NPC (3)
    •   CIBAC (1)
    •   Lakas (1)
    •   LDP (1)
    •   Reporma (1)
    •   UNA (1)
    •   Independent (3)
Minority bloc (4)
Philippine House of Representatives composition.svg
Majority bloc (270)
Minority bloc (24)
Independent minority bloc (5)
Vacancies (5)
    •   Vacancies (5)
Joint committees
Joint committees are chaired by senators
AuthorityArticle VI of the Constitution of the Philippines
Elections
Multiple non-transferable vote
Parallel voting (Party-list proportional representation and first-past-the-post)
Senate last election
May 13, 2019
May 13, 2019
Senate next election
May 9, 2022
May 9, 2022
Meeting place
Plenary Hall, Batasang Pambansa Complex
Joint sessions are usually held at the Batasang Pambansa Complex, Quezon City
Website
Senate of the Philippines
House of Representatives of the Philippines

The Congress of the Philippines (Filipino: Kongreso ng Pilipinas) is the bicameral legislature of the Philippines. It consists of the Senate (upper house) and the House of Representatives (lower house),[1] although colloquially, the term "Congress" commonly refers to just the latter.[a]

The Senate is composed of 24 senators[2] half of which are elected every three years. Each senator, therefore, serves a total of six years. The senators are elected by the whole electorate and do not represent any geographical district.

In the ongoing 18th Congress, there are 304 seats in the House of Representatives. The Constitution states that the House "shall be composed of not more than 250 members, unless otherwise fixed by law," and that at least 20% of it shall be sectoral representatives. There are two types of congressmen: the district and the sectoral representatives. At the time of the ratification of the constitution, there were 200 districts, leaving 50 seats for sectoral representatives.

The district congressmen represent a particular congressional district of the country. All provinces in the country are composed of at least one congressional district. Several cities also have their own congressional districts, with some having two or more representatives.[1] From 200 districts in 1987, the number of districts have increased to 243. Every new Congress has seen an increase in the number of districts.

The party-list congressmen represent the minority sectors of the population. This enables these minority groups to be represented in the Congress, when they would otherwise not be represented properly through district representation. Also known as party-list representatives, sectoral congressmen represent labor unions, rights groups, and other organizations.[1] With the increase of districts also means that the seats for party-list representatives increase as well, as the 1:4 ratio has to be respected.

The Constitution provides that Congress shall convene for its regular session every year beginning on the 4th Monday of July. A regular session can last until thirty days before the opening of its next regular session in the succeeding year. The president may, however, call special sessions which are usually held between regular legislative sessions to handle emergencies or urgent matters.[1]

History

Spanish era

During the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, municipal governments, or Cabildos were established. One such example was the Cabildo in Manila, established in 1571.[3]

When the Philippines was under colonial rule as part of the Spanish East Indies, the colony was not given representation to the Spanish Cortes. It was only in 1809 where the colony was made an integral part of Spain and was given representation in the Cortes. While colonies such as the Philippines were selecting its delegates, substitutes were named so that the Cortes can convene. The substitutes, and first delegates for the Philippines were Pedro Pérez de Tagle and José Manuel Couto. Both had no connections to the colony.[4]

By July 1810, Governor General Manuel González de Aguilar received the instruction to hold an election. As only the Manila Municipal Council qualified to elect a representative, it was tasked to select a delegate. Three of its representatives, the governor-general and the Archbishop of Manila selected Ventura de los Reyes as Manila's delegate to the Cortes. De los Reyes arrived in Cadiz in December 1811.[4]

However, with Napoleon I's defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, his brother Joseph Bonaparte was removed from the Spanish throne, and the Cádiz Constitution was replaced by the Cortes on May 24, 1816, with a more conservative constitution that removed Philippine representation on the Cortes, among other things. Restoration of Philippine representation to the Cortes was one of the grievances by the Ilustrados, the educated class during the late 19th century.[2]

Revolutionary era

The Illustrados' campaign transformed into the Philippine Revolution that aimed to overthrow Spanish rule. Proclaiming independence on June 12, 1898, President Emilio Aguinaldo then ordered the convening of a revolutionary congress at Malolos. The Malolos Congress, among other things, approved the Malolos Constitution. With the approval of the Treaty of Paris, the Spanish ceded the Philippines to the United States. The revolutionaries, attempting to prevent American conquest, launched the Philippine–American War, but were defeated when Aguinaldo was captured in 1901.[2]

American era

When the Philippines was under American colonial rule, the legislative body was the Philippine Commission which existed from 1900 to 1907. The President of the United States appointed the members of the Philippine Commission. Furthermore, two Filipinos served as Resident Commissioners to the House of Representatives of the United States from 1907 to 1935, then only one from 1935 to 1946. The Resident Commissioners had a voice in the House, but did not have voting rights.[2]

The Philippine Bill of 1902 mandated the creation of a bicameral or a two-chamber Philippine Legislature with the Philippine Commission as the Upper House and the Philippine Assembly as the Lower House. This bicameral legislature was inaugurated in 1907. Through the leadership of then Speaker Sergio Osmeña and then-Floor Leader Manuel L. Quezon, the Rules of the 59th United States Congress were substantially adopted as the Rules of the Philippine Legislature.[2]

In 1916, the Jones Law changed the legislative system. The Philippine Commission was abolished, and a new bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was established.[2]

Commonwealth and Second Republic era

The legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935 Constitution, aside from instituting the Commonwealth which gave the Filipinos more role in government, established a unicameral National Assembly. But in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was created. Those elected in 1941 would not serve until 1945, as World War II erupted. The invading Japanese set up the Second Philippine Republic and convened its own National Assembly. With the Japanese defeat in 1945, the Commonwealth and its Congress was restored. The same setup continued until the Americans granted independence on July 4, 1946.[2]

Independent era

Upon the inauguration of the Republic of the Philippines on July 4, 1946, Republic Act No. 6 was enacted providing that on the date of the proclamation of the Republic of the Philippines, the existing Congress would be known as the First Congress of the Republic. Successive Congresses were elected until President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law on September 23, 1972. Marcos then ruled by decree.[2]

As early as 1970, Marcos had convened a constitutional convention to revise the 1935 constitution; in 1973, the Constitution was approved. It abolished the bicameral Congress and created a unicameral National Assembly, which would ultimately be known as the Batasang Pambansa in a semi-presidential system of government. The batasan elected a prime minister. The Batasang Pambansa first convened in 1978. [2]

Marcos was overthrown after the 1986 People Power Revolution; President Corazon Aquino then ruled by decree. Later that year she appointed a constitutional commission that drafted a new constitution. The Constitution was approved in a plebiscite the next year; it restored the presidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines. It first convened in 1987.[2]

Seat

Congress of the Philippines is located in Metro Manila
Senate
Senate
House of Representatives
House of Representatives
Congress Building
Congress Building
Japanese Schoolhouse
Japanese Schoolhouse
Ayuntamiento
Ayuntamiento
Locations of the historical (blue) and current (red) seats of Congress in Metro Manila.

The two houses of Congress meet at different places in Metro Manila, the seat of government: the Senate meets at the GSIS Building, the main office of the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) at Pasay, while the House of Representatives sits at the Batasang Pambansa Complex in Quezon City. The two are around 25 kilometers (16 mi) apart.

The Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan served as a meeting place of unicameral congress of the First Philippine Republic.

After the Americans defeated the First Republic, the US-instituted Philippine Legislature convened at the Ayuntamiento in Intramuros, Manila from 1907 to 1926, when it transferred to the Legislative Building just outside Intramuros. In the Legislative Building, the Senate occupied the upper floors while the House of Representatives used the lower floors.

With the Legislative Building destroyed during the Battle of Manila of 1945, the Commonwealth Congress convened at the Old Japanese Schoolhouse at Sampaloc. Congress met at the school auditorium, with the Senate convening on evenings and the House of Representatives meeting every morning. The Senate subsequently moved to the Manila City Hall, with the House staying in the schoolhouse. The two chambers of Congress returned to the reconstructed Legislative Building, now the Congress Building in 1950. In 1973, when President Marcos ruled by decree, Congress was padlocked. Marcos built a new seat of a unicameral parliament at Quezon City, which would eventually be the Batasang Pambansa Complex. The parliament that will eventually be named as the Batasang Pambansa (National Legislature), first met at the Batasang Pambansa Complex in 1978.

With the overthrow of Marcos after the People Power Revolution, the bicameral Congress was restored. The House of Representatives inherited the Batasang Pambansa Complex, while the Senate returned to the Congress Building. In May 1997, the Senate moved to the newly constructed building owned by the GSIS on land reclaimed from Manila Bay at Pasay; the Congress Building was eventually transformed into the National Museum of Fine Arts. The Senate will eventually move into a new building that they would own in Fort Bonifacio, Taguig.

Powers

Commission on Appointments
Commission on Appointments
Bicameral Conference Committee
Bicameral Conference Committee

The powers of the Congress of the Philippines may be classified as:

General Legislative

It consists of the enactment of laws intended as a rule of conduct to govern the relation between individuals (i.e., civil laws, commercial laws, etc.) or between individuals and the state (i.e., criminal law, political law, etc.)[2]

Implied Powers

It is essential to the effective exercise of other powers expressly granted to the assembly.

Inherent Powers

These are the powers which though not expressly given are nevertheless exercised by the Congress as they are necessary for its existence such as:

  • to determine the rules of proceedings;
  • to compel attendance of absent members to obtain quorum to do business;
  • to keep journal of its proceedings; etc.
Specific Legislative

It has reference to powers which the Constitution expressly and specifically directs to perform or execute.

Powers enjoyed by the Congress classifiable under this category are:

  • Power to appropriate;
  • Power to act as constituent assembly; (for drafting an amendment to the constitution upon a vote of three-fourths of all its members)
  • Power to impeach; (to initiate all cases of impeachment is the power of the House of Representatives; To try all cases of impeachment is the power of the Senate.)
  • Power to confirm treaties;(Only the Senate is authorized to use this power.)
  • Power to declare the existence of war; (The Senate and the House of Representatives must convene in joint session to do this.)
  • Power to concur amnesty; and
  • Power to act as board of canvasser for presidential/vice-presidential votes. (by creating a joint congressional committee to do the canvassing.)
  • Power to contempt
  • Blending of power
  • Delegation of power
  • Budgetary power
  • Power to taxation
Executive

Powers of the Congress that are executive in nature are:

Supervisory

The Congress of the Philippines exercises considerable control and supervision over the administrative branch - e.g.:

  • To decide the creation of a department/agency/office;
  • To define powers and duties of officers;
  • To appropriate funds for governmental operations;
  • To prescribe rules and procedure to be followed; etc.
Electoral

Considered as electoral power of the Congress of the Philippines are the Congress' power to:

  • Elect its presiding officer/s and other officers of the House;
  • Act as board of canvassers for the canvass of presidential/vice-presidential votes; and
  • Elect the President in case of any electoral tie to the said post.
Judicial

Constitutionally, each house has judicial powers:

  • To punish its Members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all its Members, suspend or expel a Member
  • To concur and approve amnesty declared by the President of the Philippines;
  • To initiate, prosecute and thereafter decide cases of impeachment; and
  • To decide electoral protests of its members through the respective Electoral Tribunal.
Miscellaneous

The other powers of Congress mandated by the Constitution are as follows:

  • To authorize the Commission on Audit to audit fund and property;
  • To authorize the President of the Philippines to fix tariff rates, quotas, and dues;
  • To authorize the President of the Philippines to formulate rules and regulations in times of emergency;
  • To reapportion legislative districts based on established constitutional standards;
  • To implement laws on autonomy;
  • To establish a national language commission;
  • To implement free public secondary education;
  • To allow small scale utilization of natural resources;
  • To specify the limits of forest lands and national parks;
  • To determine the ownership and extent of ancestral domain; and
  • To establish independent economic and planning agency.

Lawmaking

  • Preparation of the bill
The Member or the Bill Drafting Division of the Reference and Research Bureau prepares and drafts the bill upon the Member's request.
  • First reading
    1. The bill is filed with the Bills and Index Service and the same is numbered and reproduced.
    2. Three days after its filing, the same is included in the Order of Business for First Reading.
    3. On First Reading, the Secretary General reads the title and number of the bill. The Speaker refers the bill to the appropriate Committee/s.
  • Committee consideration / action
    1. The Committee where the bill was referred to evaluates it to determine the necessity of conducting public hearings.
    • If the Committee finds it necessary to conduct public hearings, it schedules the time thereof, issues public notices and invites resource persons from the public and private sectors, the academe, and experts on the proposed legislation.
    • If the Committee determines that public hearing is not needed, it schedules the bill for Committee discussion/s.
    1. Based on the result of the public hearings or Committee discussions, the Committee may introduce amendments, consolidate bills on the same subject matter, or propose a substitute bill. It then prepares the corresponding committee report.
    2. The Committee approves the Committee Report and formally transmits the same to the Plenary Affairs Bureau.
  • Second reading
    1. The Committee Report is registered and numbered by the Bills and Index Service. It is included in the Order of Business and referred to the Committee on Rules.
    2. The Committee on Rules schedules the bill for consideration on Second Reading.
    3. On Second Reading, the Secretary General reads the number, title and text of the bill and the following takes place:
    • Period of Sponsorship and Debate
    • Period of Amendments
    • Voting, which may be by
    1. viva voce
    2. count by tellers
    3. division of the House
    4. nominal voting
  • Third reading
    1. The amendments, if any, are engrossed and printed copies of the bill are reproduced for Third Reading.
    2. The engrossed bill is included in the Calendar of Bills for Third Reading and copies of the same are distributed to all the Members three days before its Third Reading.
    3. On Third Reading, the Secretary General reads only the number and title of the bill.
    4. A roll call or nominal voting is called and a Member, if he desires, is given three minutes to explain his vote. No amendment on the bill is allowed at this stage.
    • The bill is approved by an affirmative vote of a majority of the Members present.
    • If the bill is disapproved, the same is transmitted to the Archives.
  • Transmittal of the approved bill to the Senate
    The approved bill is transmitted to the Senate for its concurrence.
  • Senate action on approved bill of the House
    The bill undergoes the same legislative process in the Senate.
  • Conference committee
    1. A Conference Committee is constituted and is composed of Members from each House of Congress to settle, reconcile or thresh out differences or disagreements on any provision of the bill.
    2. The conferees are not limited to reconciling the differences in the bill but may introduce new provisions germane to the subject matter or may report out an entirely new bill on the subject.
    3. The Conference Committee prepares a report to be signed by all the conferees and the chairman.
    4. The Conference Committee Report is submitted for consideration/approval of both Houses. No amendment is allowed.
  • Transmittal of the bill to the President
    Copies of the bill, signed by the Senate President and the Speaker of the House of Representatives and certified by both the Secretary of the Senate and the Secretary General of the House, are transmitted to the President.
  • Presidential action on the bill
    If the bill is approved by the President, it is assigned an RA number and transmitted to the House where it originated.
  • Action on approved bill
    The bill is reproduced and copies are sent to the Official Gazette Office for publication and distribution to the implementing agencies. It is then included in the annual compilation of Acts and Resolutions.
  • Action on vetoed bill
    The message is included in the Order of Business. If the Congress decides to override the veto, the House and the Senate shall proceed separately to reconsider the bill or the vetoed items of the bill. If the bill or its vetoed items is passed by a vote of two-thirds of the Members of each House, such bill or items shall become a law.

Composition

In the diagrams below, Congress is divided in blocs, with the colors referring to the political party of the person leading that bloc. The blocs are determined by the vote of the member in speakership or Senate presidential elections.

The Senate is composed of the winners of the 2016 and 2019 Senate elections. The House of Representatives is composed of the winners of the 2019 House of Representatives elections. In both chambers, the majority bloc is composed of members generally supportive of the presidency of Rodrigo Duterte, while the minority blocs are those opposed. In the House of Representatives, there is an independent minority bloc, and 4 vacant seats.

In both chambers, membership in committees is determined by the size of the bloc; only members of the majority and minority blocs are given committee memberships. In the Philippines, political parties are liquid, and it is not uncommon to see partymates see themselves on different blocs.

Leadership

Each chamber is headed by a presiding officer, both elected from their respective membership; in the Senate, it is the Senate President, while in the House of Representatives, it is the Speaker. The Senate also has a Senate president pro tempore, and the House of Representatives has deputy speakers. Each chamber has its own floor leaders.

Senate House of Representatives
Position Holder Party Position Holder Party District/Party-list
President Tito Sotto NPC Speaker Lord Allan Velasco PDP–Laban Marinduque–lone
President pro tempore Ralph Recto Nacionalista Deputy Speakers Paolo Duterte NUP Davao City–1st
Ferdinand Hernandez PDP–Laban South Cotabato–2nd
Evelina Escudero NPC Sorsogon–1st
Loren Legarda NPC Antique–lone
Conrado Estrella III Abono Party-list
Prospero Pichay Jr. Lakas Surigao del Sur–1st
Roberto Puno NUP Antipolo–1st
Eddie Villanueva CIBAC Party-list
Neptali Gonzales II PDP–Laban Mandaluyong–lone
Rosemarie Arenas PDP–Laban Pangasinan–3rd
Rodante Marcoleta SAGIP Party-list
Henry Oaminal Nacionalista Misamis Occidental–2nd
Pablo John Garcia NUP Cebu–3rd
Vilma Santos Nacionalista Batangas–6th
Deogracias Victor Savellano Nacionalista Ilocos Sur–1st
Mujiv Hataman Liberal Basilan–lone
Mikee Romero 1-PACMAN Party-list
Paulino Salvador Leachon PDP–Laban Oriental Mindoro–1st
Lito Atienza Buhay Party-list
Rufus Rodriguez CDP Cagayan de Oro–2nd
Arnolfo Teves Jr. PDP–Laban Negros Oriental–3rd
Benny Abante NUP Manila–6th
Weslie Gatchalian NPC Valenzuela–1st
Eric Martinez PDP–Laban Valenzuela–2nd
Juan Pablo Bondoc PDP–Laban Pampanga–4th
Bernadette Herrera-Dy BH Party-list
Divina Grace Yu PDP–Laban Zamboanga del Sur–1st
Rogelio Pacquiao PDP–Laban Sarangani–lone
Kristine Singson-Meehan Bileg Ilocos Sur–2nd
Strike Revilla NUP Cavite–2nd
Isidro Ungab HNP Davao City–3rd
Abraham Tolentino NUP Cavite–8th
Camille Villar Nacionalista Las Piñas–lone
Majority Leader Juan Miguel Zubiri Independent Majority Leader Martin Romualdez Lakas Leyte–1st
Minority Leader Franklin Drilon Liberal Minority Leader Joseph Stephen Paduano Abang Lingkod Party-list

Summary

Voting requirements

The vote requirements in the Congress of the Philippines are as follows:

Requirement Senate House of Representatives Joint session All members
One-fifth N/A N/A
One-third N/A
  • Pass articles of impeachment
N/A N/A
Majority (50% +1 member)
  • Election of the Senate President
  • Election of the Speaker
  • Revocation of martial law
  • Revocation of the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus
  • Submit to the electorate the question of calling a constitutional convention
  • Grant a tax exemption
  • Concurrence of a grant of amnesty
  • Passage of laws
  • Election of the president in case of a tie vote.
  • Confirmation of an appointment of the president to a vice president
Two-thirds
  • Suspend or expel a member
  • Designation of the vice president as acting president
  • Override a presidential veto
  • Declaration of a state of war (voting separately)
  • Call a constitutional convention
  • Conviction of impeached officials
  • Concurrence on a treaty
N/A
Three-fourths N/A N/A N/A
  • Passage of amendments to, or revision of the constitution

In most cases, such as the approval of bills, only a majority of members present is needed; on some cases such as the election of presiding officers, a majority of all members, including vacant seats, is needed.

Sessions

A new session of Congress starts after every House of Representatives election. During the operation of the 1935 constitution as amended in 1940, mid-term elections in the Senate cause its membership to be changed mid-session. From 1945 to 1972, there were two commonwealth congresses and seven congresses of the republic, with the 2nd Commonwealth Congress becoming the 1st Congress of the Republic. During the usage of the 1973 constitution, the Batasang Pambansa was the legislature, with it having two elections. Starting in the 1987 constitution, each Senate election was synchronized with the House elections, with the first congress under that constitution being counted as the "8th Congress", picking up from the last congress of the 1935 constitution.

Per historical era

In operation Authority Regime Legislature Type Upper house Lower house
1898–99 Malolos Constitution First Philippine Republic controlled areas Malolos Congress Unicameral Malolos Congress
War powers authority of the President of the United States United States Military Government controlled areas Martial law; military governor ruled by decree
1900–1902 Malolos Constitution First Philippine Republic controlled areas Malolos Congress Unicameral Malolos Congress
Appointment by the President of the United States United States Military Government controlled areas Taft Commission Unicameral Philippine Commission
1902–1907 Philippine Organic Act Insular Government of the Philippine Islands Philippine Commission Unicameral
1907–1916 Philippine Legislature Bicameral Philippine Commission Philippine Assembly
1916–1935 Philippine Autonomy Act Bicameral Senate House of Representatives
1935–1941 1935 Constitution  Commonwealth of the Philippines National Assembly Unicameral National Assembly
1942–43 War powers authority of the Emperor of Japan  Empire of Japan Martial law; governor-general ruled by decree
1943–44 1943 Constitution  Second Philippine Republic National Assembly Unicameral National Assembly
1945–46 Amendments to the 1935 Constitution  Commonwealth of the Philippines Congress (Commonwealth) Bicameral Senate House of Representatives
1946–1973 Third Republic of the Philippines Congress Bicameral
1973–1976 1973 Constitution Philippines under Martial Law Martial law; president ruled by decree
1976–1978
(never convened)
Batasang Bayan Unicameral National Assembly
1978–1986 Amendments to the 1973 Constitution Fourth Republic of the Philippines Batasang Pambansa Unicameral Batasang Pambansa
1986–1987 Provisional Government President ruled by decree
1987–present 1987 Constitution  Republic of the Philippines Congress Bicameral Senate House of Representatives

List of Congresses

Election Congress Senate election results House of Representatives elections results
Pre-1941 See Philippine Legislature and National Assembly of the Philippines
1941 1st Commonwealth Congress
1941 Philippine Senate elections results.svg
24 Nacionalista
1941 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
95 Nacionalista
3 independent
1946 2nd Commonwealth Congress
1946 Philippine Senate election results.svg
9 Nacionalista (Liberal wing)
6 Nacionalista
1 Popular Front
1946 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
49 Nacionalista (Liberal wing)
35 Nacionalista
6 Democratic Alliance
3 others
1st Congress
1947
1947 Philippine Senate election results.svg
6 Liberal
2 Nacionalista
1949 2nd Congress
1949 Philippine Senate election results.svg
8 Liberal
1949 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
60 Liberal
33 Nacionalista
7 others
1951
1951 Philippine Senate election results.svg
8 Nacionalista
1953 3rd Congress
1953 Philippine Senate election results.svg
5 Nacionalista
2 Democratic
1 Citizens'
1953 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
59 Nacionalista
31 Liberal
11 Democratic
1 independent
1955
1955 Philippine Senate election results.svg
9 Nacionalista
1957 4th Congress
1957 Philippine Senate election results.svg
6 Nacionalista
2 Liberal
1957 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
82 Nacionalista
19 Liberal
1 NCP
1959
1959 Philippine Senate election results.svg
5 Nacionalista
2 Liberal
1 NCP
1961 5th Congress
1961 Philippine Senate election results.svg
4 Liberal
2 Nacionalista
2 Progressive
1961 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
74 Nacionalista
29 Liberal
1 independent
1963
1963 Philippine Senate election results.svg
4 Liberal
4 Nacionalista
1965 6th Congress
1965 Philippine Senate election results.svg
5 Nacionalista
2 Liberal
1 NCP
1965 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
61 Liberal
38 Nacionalista
5 others
1967
1967 Philippine Senate election results.svg
6 Nacionalista
1 Liberal
1 independent
1969 7th Congress
1969 Philippine Senate election results.svg
6 Nacionalista
2 Liberal
1969 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
88 Nacionalista
18 Liberal
4 others
1971
1971 Philippine Senate election results.svg
5 Liberal
3 Nacionalista
1978, 1984 See Batasang Pambansa
1987 8th Congress
1987 Philippine Senate election results.svg
22 LABAN
2 GAD
1987 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
43 PDP–Laban
24 Lakas ng Bansa
19 UNIDO
16 Liberal
11 KBL
55 coalitions
32 others
14 appointed sectoral seats
1992 9th Congress
1992 Philippine Senate election results.svg
16 LDP
5 NPC
2 Lakas
1 Liberal
1992 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
86 LDP
41 Lakas
30 NPC
11 LP-PDP
32 others
16 appointed sectoral seats
1995 10th Congress
1995 Philippine Senate election results.svg
4 Lakas
4 LDP
1 Nacionalista
1 NPC
1 PRP
1 independent
1995 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
157 pro-administration coalition
26 opposition coalition
12 hybrid coalitions
9 others
16 appointed sectoral seats
1998 11th Congress
1998 Philippine Senate election results.svg
5 Lakas
4 LDP
1 NPC
1 PMP
1 PDP–Laban
1998 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
111 Lakas
55 LAMMP
15 Liberal
25 others
14 party-lists
2001 12th Congress
2001 Philippine Senate election results.svg
3 Lakas
2 LDP
1 Liberal
1 PDP–Laban
6 independent
2001 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
73 Lakas
40 NPC
21 LDP
19 Liberal
52 others
17 party-lists
2004 13th Congress
2004 Philippine Senate election results.svg
5 KNP
4 Lakas
2 Liberal
1 PRP
2004 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
92 Lakas
53 NPC
29 Liberal
15 LDP
20 others
28 party-lists
2007 14th Congress
2007 Philippine Senate election results.svg
2 Liberal
2 Nacionalista
2 NPC
2 UNO
1 KAMPI
1 LDP
1 PDP–Laban
1 independent
2007 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
89 Lakas
44 KAMPI
28 NPC
23 Liberal
11 Nacionalista
23 others
53 party-lists
2010 15th Congress
2010 Philippine Senate election results.svg
3 Liberal
2 Lakas–Kampi
2 Nacionalista
2 PMP
1 NPC
1 PRP
1 independent
2010 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
106 Lakas–Kampi
47 Liberal
29 NPC
25 Nacionalista
22 others
57 party-lists
2013 16th Congress
2013 Philippine Senate election results.svg
3 Nacionalista
3 UNA
1 LDP
1 Liberal
1 NPC
1 PDP–Laban
2013 Philippine House of Representatives elections seat diagram.svg
109 Liberal
42 NPC
24 NUP
18 Nacionalista
14 Lakas
27 others
59 party-lists
2016 17th Congress
2016 Philippine Senate election results.svg
5 Liberal
2 NPC
1 Akbayan
1 UNA
3 independent
2016 Philippine House of Representatives elections results.svg
115 Liberal
42 NPC
24 Nacionalista
23 NUP
11 UNA
23 others
59 party-lists
2019 18th Congress
2019 Philippine Senate election diagram.svg
4 PDP–Laban
3 Nacionalista
1 Lakas
1 LDP
1 NPC
1 UNA
1 independent
2019 Philippine House of Representatives elections diagram.svg
82 PDP–Laban
42 Nacionalista
37 NPC
23 NUP
18 Liberal
12 Lakas
27 others
61 party-lists

Latest elections

Senate

In the Philippines, the most common way to illustrate the result in a Senate election is via a tally of candidates in descending order of votes. The twelve candidates with the highest number of votes are elected.


e • d Summary of the May 13, 2019 Philippine Senate election results
# Candidate Coalition Party Votes %
1. Cynthia Villar HNP Nacionalista 25,283,727 53.46%
2. Grace Poe Independent 22,029,788 46.58%
3. Bong Go HNP PDP–Laban 20,657,702 42.35%
4. Pia Cayetano HNP Nacionalista 19,789,019 41.84%
5. Ronald dela Rosa HNP PDP–Laban 19,004,225 40.18%
6. Sonny Angara HNP LDP 18,161,862 38.40%
7. Lito Lapid NPC 16,965,464 35.87%
8. Imee Marcos HNP Nacionalista 15,882,628 33.58%
9. Francis Tolentino HNP PDP–Laban 15,510,026 32.79%
10. Koko Pimentel HNP PDP–Laban 14,668,665 31.01%
11. Bong Revilla HNP Lakas 14,624,445 30.92%
12. Nancy Binay UNA UNA 14,504,936 30.67%
13. JV Ejercito HNP NPC 14,313,727 30.26%
14. Bam Aquino Otso Diretso Liberal 14,144,923 29.91%
15. Jinggoy Estrada HNP PMP 11,359,305 24.02%
16. Mar Roxas Otso Diretso Liberal 9,843,288 20.81%
17. Serge Osmeña Independent 9,455,202 19.99%
18. Willie Ong Lakas 7,616,265 16.12%
19. Dong Mangudadatu HNP PDP–Laban 7,499,604 15.86%
20. Jiggy Manicad HNP Independent 6,896,889 14.58%
21. Chel Diokno Otso Diretso Liberal 6,342,939 13.41%
22. Juan Ponce Enrile PMP 5,319,298 11.25%
23. Gary Alejano Otso Diretso Liberal 4,726,652 9.99%
24. Neri Colmenares Labor Win Makabayan 4,683,942 9.90%
25. Samira Gutoc Otso Diretso Liberal 4,345,252 9.19%
26. Romulo Macalintal Otso Diretso Independent 4,007,339 8.47%
27. Erin Tañada Otso Diretso Liberal 3,870,529 8.18%
28. Larry Gadon KBL 3,487,780 7.37%
29. Florin Hilbay Otso Diretso Aksyon 2,757,879 5.83%
30. Freddie Aguilar Independent 2,580,230 5.46%
31. Glenn Chong KDP 2,534,335 5.36%
32. Raffy Alunan Bagumbayan 2,059,359 4.35%
33. Faisal Mangondato KKK Independent 1,988,719 4.20%
34. Agnes Escudero KKK Independent 1,545,985 3.27%
35. Dado Padilla PFP 1,095,337 2.32%
36. Ernesto Arellano KKK, Labor Win Independent 937,713 2.30%
37. Allan Montaño Labor Win Independent 923,419 2.25%
38. Leody de Guzman Labor Win PLM 893,506 2.17%
39. Melchor Chavez WPP 764,473 2.06%
40. Vanjie Abejo KKK Independent 656,006 2.00%
41. Toti Casiño KDP 580,853 1.97%
42. Abner Afuang WPP 559,001 1.92%
43. Shariff Albani WPP 496,855 1.87%
44. Dan Roleda UNA UNA 469,840 1.80%
45. Ding Generoso KKK Independent 449,785 1.75%
46. Lady Ann Sahidulla KDP 444,096 1.68%
47. Abraham Jangao Independent 434,697 1.65%
48. Marcelino Arias WPP 404,513 1.59%
49. Richard Alfajora KKK Independent 404,513 1.57%
50. Sonny Matula Labor Win WPP 400,339 1.50%
51. Elmer Francisco PFP 395,427 1.45%
52. Joan Sheelah Nalliw KKK Independent 390,165 1.38%
53. Gerald Arcega WPP 383,749 1.30%
54. Butch Valdes KDP 367,851 1.20%
55. Jesus Caceres KKK Independent 358,472 0.90%
56. Bernard Austria PDSP 347,013 0.70%
57. Jonathan Baldevarona Independent 310,411 0.67%
58. Emily Mallillin KKK Independent 304,215 0.64%
59. Charlie Gaddi KKK Independent 286,361 0.50%
60. RJ Javellana KDP 258,538 0.47%
61. Junbert Guigayuma WPP 240,306 0.40%
62. Luther Meniano WPP 159,774 0.30%
Total turnout 47,296,442 74.31%
Total votes 362,179,156 N/A
Registered voters 63,643,263 100.0%
Reference: Commission on Elections sitting as the National Board of Canvassers.

House of Representatives

A voter has two votes in the House of Representatives: one vote for a representative elected in the voter's congressional district (first-past-the-post), and one vote for a party in the party-list system (closed list), the so-called party-list representatives; party-list representatives shall comprise not more than 20% of the House of Representatives.

To determine the winning parties in the party-list election, a party must surpass the 2% election threshold of the national vote; usually, the party with the largest number of votes wins the maximum three seats, the rest two seats. If the number of seats of the parties that surpassed the 2% threshold is less than 20% of the total seats, the parties that won less than 2% of the vote gets one seat each until the 20% requirement is met.

District elections

2019 Philippine House of Representatives elections diagram.svg
PartyVotes%+/–Seats+/–
Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan12,653,96031.22+29.3282+79
Nacionalista Party6,524,10016.10+6.6842+18
Nationalist People's Coalition5,797,54314.31−2.7337−5
National Unity Party3,852,9099.51−0.1625+2
Liberal Party2,321,7595.73−35.9918−97
Lakas-CMD2,069,8715.11+3.5712+8
Partido Federal ng Pilipinas965,0482.38New5New
Hugpong ng Pagbabago652,3181.61New3New
Aksyon Demokratiko398,6160.98−0.410
Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino396,6140.98+0.771New
Bukidnon Paglaum335,6280.83+0.482+1
Pederalismo ng Dugong Dakilang Samahan259,4230.64New00
Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino252,8060.62+0.3220
United Nationalist Alliance232,6570.57−6.050−11
Hugpong sa Tawong Lungsod197,0240.49+0.351New
Partidong Pagbabago ng Palawan185,8100.46New2New
Bileg Ti Ilokano158,5230.39New1New
People's Reform Party138,0140.34New1New
Unang Sigaw ng Nueva Ecija120,6740.30New00
Katipunan ng Demokratikong Pilipino116,4530.29New00
Asenso Abrenio115,8650.29New1New
Kambilan ning Memalen Kapampangan107,0780.26New00
Padayon Pilipino98,4500.24−0.1000
Asenso Manileño84,6560.21−0.2920
Kusog Bicolandia82,8320.20New00
Centrist Democratic Party of the Philippines81,7410.20+0.161New
Partido Navoteño80,2650.20New1New
Kabalikat ng Bayan sa Kaunlaran65,8360.16−0.0310
Partido Demokratiko Sosyalista ng Pilipinas56,2230.14New00
Bagumbayan-VNP33,7310.08New00
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan33,5940.08−0.4500
Adelante Zamboanga Party28,6050.07New00
Labor Party Philippines9,7180.02+0.0000
Democratic Party of the Philippines1,1100.00New00
Hugpong Surigao Sur8160.00New00
Philippine Green Republican Party7010.00−0.0100
Independent2,014,2114.97−0.862−2
Party-list seats[b]61+2
Total40,525,182100.00304+5
Valid votes40,525,18286.34
Invalid/blank votes6,411,95713.66
Total votes46,937,139
Registered voters/turnout61,843,77175.90
Source: COMELEC (Seats won), (Turnout and electorate)
  1. ^ The URL of the website of the House of Representatives is, for example, www.congress.gov.ph.
  2. ^ There were supposed to be 306 seats up, out of 245 districts and 61 party-seats. After the party-list seats were seated, the Supreme Court then ruled that the two newest districts, whose elections were deferred, will be disputed in the 2022 election. The Supreme Court did no longer unseat one party-list seat.

Party-list election

PartyVotes%+/–Seats+/–
Anti-Crime and Terrorism Community Involvement and Support2,651,9879.51+9.173New
Bayan Muna1,117,4034.01+2.143+2
Ako Bicol Political Party1,049,0403.76−1.382−1
Citizens' Battle Against Corruption929,7183.33+1.612+1
Alyansa ng mga Mamamayang Probinsyano770,3442.76New2New
One Patriotic Coalition of Marginalized Nationals713,9692.56−1.4920
Marino Samahan ng mga Seaman681,4482.44+2.122New
Probinsyano Ako630,4352.26New2New
Coalition of Association of Senior Citizens in the Philippines516,9271.85−1.201−1
Magkakasama sa Sakahan Kaunlaran496,3371.78New1New
Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives480,8741.72New1New
Gabriela Women's Party449,4401.61−2.611−1
An Waray442,0901.59−0.2310
Cooperative NATCCO Network Party417,2851.50−0.571−1
ACT Teachers395,3271.42−2.231−1
Philippine Rural Electric Cooperatives Association394,9661.42New1New
Ako Bisaya394,3041.41New1New
Tingog Sinirangan391,2111.40+0.751New
Abono378,2041.36−0.901−1
Buhay Hayaan Yumabong361,4931.30−1.051−1
Duterte Youth354,6291.27New1New
Kalinga-Advocacy for Social Empowerment and Nation Building Through Easing Poverty339,6651.22New10
Puwersa ng Bayaning Atleta326,2581.17−1.241−1
Alliance of Organizations Networks and Associations of the Philippines320,0001.15−0.1910
Rural Electric Consumers and Beneficiaries of Development and Advancement318,5111.14New1New
Bagong Henerasyon288,7521.04+0.1210
Bahay para sa Pamilyang Pilipino281,7931.01New1New
Construction Workers Solidarity277,9401.00+0.971New
Abang Lingkod275,1990.99−0.4510
Advocacy for Teacher Empowerment Through Action, Cooperation and Harmony Towards Educational Reforms274,4600.98−0.4910
Barangay Health Wellness269,5180.97New1New
Social Amelioration and Genuine Intervention on Poverty257,3130.92−0.311New
Trade Union Congress Party256,0590.92−0.5210
Magdalo para sa Pilipino253,5360.91+0.0510
Galing sa Puso Party249,4840.89New1New
Manila Teachers Savings and Loan Association249,4160.89+0.0610
Rebolusyonaryong Alyansa Makabansa238,1500.85+0.381New
Alagaan Natin Ating Kalusugan237,6290.85+0.261New
Ako Padayon Pilipino235,1120.84New1New
Ang Asosayon Sang Mangunguma Nga Bisaya-Owa Mangunguma234,5520.84−0.6910
Kusug Tausug228,2240.82+0.0610
Dumper Philippines Taxi Drivers Association223,1990.80+0.781New
Talino at Galing ng Pinoy217,5250.78+0.511New
Public Safety Alliance for Transformation and Rule of Law216,6530.78New1New
Anak Mindanao212,3230.76−1.421−1
Agricultural Sector Alliance of the Philippines208,7520.75−1.0810
LPG Marketers Association208,2190.75−0.6910
OFW Family Club200,8810.72+0.091New
Kabalikat ng Mamamayan198,5710.71−1.891−1
Democratic Independent Workers Association196,3850.70−0.741New
Kabataan195,8370.70−0.2310
Aksyon Magsasaka-Partido Tinig ng Masa191,8040.69New00
Serbisyo sa Bayan Party180,5350.65−0.220−2
Angkla: ang Partido ng mga Pilipinong Marino179,9090.65−0.390−1
Akbayan173,3560.62−1.260−1
Wow Pilipinas Movement172,0800.62New00
Ina na Nagmamahal sa Anak170,0190.61New00
You Against Corruption and Poverty167,8260.60−0.860−1
Abante Mindanao166,8830.60−0.0500
Butil Farmers Party164,4120.59−0.630−1
Append158,0030.57New00
Anakpawis146,5110.53−0.600−1
Ang National Coalition of Indigenous People Action Na!144,2910.52−0.460−1
Ang Nars141,2630.51−0.1700
Partido ng Bayan and Bida136,0930.49New00
Kasosyo Producer-Consumer Exchange Association134,7950.48New00
Agri-Agra na Reporma para sa Magsasaka ng Pilipinas Movement133,5050.48−2.100−2
Acts Overseas Filipino Workers Coalition of Organizations131,8650.47−0.690−1
Adhikaing Tinaguyod ng Kooperatiba131,3440.47+0.1000
Ang Mata'y Alagaan128,2010.46−0.560−1
1st Consumers Alliance for Rural Energy127,8670.46New0−1
Murang Kuryente Partylist127,5300.46New00
Una ang Edukasyon119,6460.43−0.430−1
Philippine Educators Alliance for Community Empowerment119,2110.43New00
Association of Lady Entrepreneurs113,1340.41New00
Aangat Tayo109,9390.39−0.360−1
Ako An Bisaya109,4630.39−0.1100
Avid Builders of Active Nation's Citizenry Towards Empowered Philippines97,1140.35New00
Alay Buhay Community Development Foundation94,3200.34−0.2400
Global Workers and Family Federation89,7750.32−0.0400
Confederation of Non-Stock Savings and Loan Associations88,0750.32−0.3400
Abe Kapampangan83,3790.30New00
National Association for Electricity Consumers for Reforms81,1410.29New00
Philippine National Police Retirees Association79,8180.29New00
Kilusang Maypagasa79,3580.28New00
Joint Union of Active Nationalist Filipino Movement76,7690.28New00
Tanggol Maralita76,4280.27−0.1500
Ating Agapay Sentrong Samahan ng mga Obrero74,7220.27−0.640−1
1 Alliance Advocating Autonomy Party74,4650.27New00
Ang Kabuhayan74,2290.27−0.810−1
Agbiag! Timpuyog Ilocano70,3180.25−0.490−1
Abakada Guro69,2570.25−0.4200
Alliance of Philippine Fishing Federations69,1380.25−0.4300
Ang Laban ng Indiginong Filipino68,8050.25−0.7700
Laang Kawal ng Pilipinas68,3330.25New00
Sinag Tungo sa Kaunlaran61,6960.22+0.0300
People's Champ Guardians60,4480.22New00
Luntiang Pilipinas Partylist59,0960.21New00
Grains Retailers Confederation of the Philippines58,5610.21New00
Alliance of National Urban Poor Organization Assembly54,7670.20+0.1400
Ako Bisdak-Bisayang Dako51,2280.18New00
Kooperatiba-Kapisanan ng Magsasaka ng Pilipinas50,8890.18New00
Union of Nationalistic Democratic Filipino Organization45,7100.16+0.0100
Isang Lapian ng Mangingisda at Bayan Tungo sa Kaunlaran44,1810.16New00
Ako Ayoko sa Bawal na Droga43,5830.16New00
Barangay Natin40,8990.15+0.0500
1-United Transport Koalisyon36,2850.13New00
AMEPA OFW Access Center35,3730.13−0.2400
Academicians Students and Educators Alliance Inc.32,4640.12−0.2700
Arts, Business and Science Professionals31,3940.11−0.820−1
Sulong Dignidad Party29,8300.11New00
Kabalikat ng Nagkakaisang Manileño29,1870.10New00
Parents Teacher Alliance28,9080.10New00
Partido Lakas ng Masa28,8240.10New00
Partido ng Manggagawa28,3510.10New00
Movement for Economic Transformation and Righteous Opportunities28,2610.10−0.1900
One Advocacy for Health Progress and Opportunity26,5640.10−0.0700
Ang Tao Muna at Bayan25,9460.09+0.0000
Alliance of Volunteer Educators25,0250.09−0.4000
Awareness of Keepers of the Environment24,7800.09+0.0000
One Unified Transport Alliance of the Philippines-Bicol Region22,9480.08New00
One Philippines21,9740.08New00
Partido Sandugo19,6490.07New00
Pinagbuklod na Filipino para sa Bayan18,2970.07New00
Federation of International Cable TV and Telecommunications Association of the Philippines16,0380.06−0.0500
Tribal Communities Association of the Philippines15,7310.06−0.1000
Tinderong Pinoy Party14,5800.05−0.0900
Pilipinas para sa Pinoy13,8480.05New00
Kaisahan ng mga Maliliit na Magsasaka12,0610.04−0.0900
Noble Advancement of Marvelous People of the Philippines11,7510.04New00
Filipino Family Party10,5890.04New00
Alliance of Public Transport Organization8,8830.03New00
Kamais Pilipinas (Kapatirang Magmamais ng Pilipinas)7,5710.03New00
Sandigan ng mga Manggagawa sa Konstruksyon6,3440.02New00
Total27,884,790100.0061+2
Valid votes27,884,79058.96−13.02
Invalid/blank votes19,411,65241.04+13.02
Total votes47,296,442
Registered voters/turnout63,643,26374.31−6.39
Source: COMELEC


See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Article VI: THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT". Philippines Official Gazette. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "The Legislative Branch". Philippines Official Gazette. Philippines Official Gazette. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  3. ^ "The City Council of Manila". Manila Standard. June 24, 2002. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  4. ^ a b Elizalde, María Dolores (September 2013). "The Philippines at the Cortes de Cádiz". Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints. 61 (3): 331–361. doi:10.1353/phs.2013.0014. hdl:10261/165907. S2CID 145232653.

Sources

External links

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