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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Congo River
Zaire River
Aerial view of the Congo River near Kisangani.jpg
The Congo River near Kisangani, Congo
Congobasinmap.png
The drainage basin of the Congo River
Physical characteristics
SourceLualaba River
 • locationBoyoma Falls
 • elevation1,590 m (5,220 ft)
MouthAtlantic Ocean
 • coordinates
06°04′27″S 12°26′59.99″E / 6.07417°S 12.4499972°E / -6.07417; 12.4499972
Length4,700 km (2,900 mi)
Basin size4,014,500 km2 (1,550,000 sq mi)[1]
Width 
 • minimum200 m (660 ft) (Lower Congo); 1,440 m (4,720 ft) (Middle Congo)[2][3][4]
 • maximum19,000 m (62,000 ft) (mouth)
Depth 
 • average12 m (39 ft) to 75 m (246 ft) (Lower Congo); 5 m (16 ft) to 22 m (72 ft) (Middle Congo)[2][3][4]
 • maximum219.5 m (720 ft) (Lower Congo); 50 m (160 ft) (Middle Congo)[2][3][4]
Discharge 
 • locationAtlantic Ocean (near mouth)
 • average41,200 m3/s (1,450,000 cu ft/s)[1]
 • minimum23,000 m3/s (810,000 cu ft/s)[1]
 • maximum75,000 m3/s (2,600,000 cu ft/s)[1]
Basin features
Tributaries 
 • leftLubudi, Lomami, Lulonga, Ikelemba, Ruki, Kasai, Inkisi
 • rightLufira, Luvua, Lukuga, Luama, Elila, Ulindi, Lowa, Maiko, Lindi, Aruwimi, Itimbiri, Mongala, Ubangi, Sangha, Likouala, Alima, Léfini

The Congo River (Kongo: Nzâdi Kôngo, French: Fleuve Congo, Portuguese: Rio Congo), formerly also known as the Zaire River, is the second longest river in Africa, shorter only than the Nile, as well as the second largest river in the world by discharge volume, following only the Amazon. It is also the world's deepest recorded river, with measured depths around 219.5 m (720 ft).[5] The Congo-Lualaba-Chambeshi River system has an overall length of 4,700 km (2,920 mi), which makes it the world's ninth-longest river. The Chambeshi is a tributary of the Lualaba River, and Lualaba is the name of the Congo River upstream of Boyoma Falls, extending for 1,800 km (1,120 mi).

Measured along with the Lualaba, the main tributary, the Congo River has a total length of 4,370 km (2,715 mi). It is the only major river to cross the Equator twice.[6] The Congo Basin has a total area of about 4,000,000 km2 (1,500,000 sq mi), or 13% of the entire African landmass.

Name

The name Congo/Kongo originates from the Kingdom of Kongo once located on the southern bank of the river. The kingdom in turn was named for the indigenous Bantu Kongo people, known in the 17th century as "Esikongo".[7] South of the Kingdom of Kongo proper lay the similarly named Kakongo kingdom, mentioned in 1535. Abraham Ortelius in his world map of 1564 labeled as "Manicongo" the city at the mouth of the river.[8] The tribal names in Kongo possibly derive from a word for a public gathering or tribal assembly. The modern name of the Kongo people or Bakongo was introduced in the early 20th century.[citation needed]

The name Zaire is from a Portuguese adaptation of a Kikongo word, nzere ("river"), a truncation of nzadi o nzere ("river swallowing rivers").[9] The river was known as Zaire during the 16th and 17th centuries; Congo seems to have replaced Zaire gradually in English usage during the 18th century, and Congo is the preferred English name in 19th-century literature, although references to Zahir or Zaire as the name used by the inhabitants remained common.[10] The Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo are named after it, as was the previous Republic of the Congo which had gained independence in 1960 from the Belgian Congo. The Republic of Zaire during 1971–1997 was also named after the river's name in French and Portuguese.

Basin and course

Aerial view from the west of the Congo River with upstream half of Pool Malebo and Mbamu
Aerial view from the west of the Congo River with upstream half of Pool Malebo and Mbamu

The Congo's drainage basin covers 4,014,500 km2 (1,550,000 sq mi),[1] an area larger than India. The Congo's discharge at its mouth ranges from 23,000 to 75,000 m3/s (810,000 to 2,650,000 cu ft/s), with an average of 41,000 m3/s (1,400,000 cu ft/s).[1] The river transports annually 86 million tonnes of suspended sediment to the Atlantic Ocean and an additional 6% of bedload.[11]

The river and its tributaries flow through the Congo rainforest, the second largest rainforest area in the world, after the Amazon rainforest in South America. The river also has the second-largest flow in the world, behind the Amazon; the second-largest drainage basin of any river, behind the Amazon; and is one of the deepest rivers in the world, at depths greater than 220 m (720 ft).[5][12] Because its drainage basin includes areas both north and south of the Equator, its flow is stable, as there is always at least one part of the river experiencing a rainy season.[13]

The sources of the Congo are in the highlands and mountains of the East African Rift, as well as Lake Tanganyika and Lake Mweru, which feed the Lualaba River, which then becomes the Congo below Boyoma Falls. The Chambeshi River in Zambia is generally taken as the source of the Congo in line with the accepted practice worldwide of using the longest tributary, as with the Nile River.

The Congo flows generally toward the northwest from Kisangani just below the Boyoma Falls, then gradually bends southwestward, passing by Mbandaka, joining with the Ubangi River and running into the Pool Malebo (Stanley Pool). Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville) and Brazzaville are on opposite sides of the river at the Pool, where the river narrows and falls through a number of cataracts in deep canyons (collectively known as the Livingstone Falls), running by Matadi and Boma, and into the sea at Muanda.

Lower Congo constitutes the 'lower' parts of the great river; that is the section of the river from the river mouth at the Atlantic coast to the twin capitals of Brazzaville and Kinshasa. In this section of the river, there are two significant tributaries, both on the left or south side. The Kwilu River originates in the hills near the Angolan border and enters the Congo some 100 km upstream from Matadi. The other being the Inkisi River, that flows in a northerly direction from the Uíge Province in Angola to the confluence with the Congo at Zongo some 80 km downstream from the twin capitals. Because of the vast number of rapids, in particular the Livingstone Falls, this section of the river is not operated continuously by riverboats.

Tributaries

Course and drainage basin of the Congo River with countries marked
Course and drainage basin of the Congo River with countries marked
Course and drainage basin of the Congo River with topography shading
Course and drainage basin of the Congo River with topography shading

The main river and tributaries are (sorted in order from the mouth heading upstream):

Left tributary Right tributary Length (km) Basin size (km²) Average discharge (m3/s)
Lower Congo

(river mouth to Kinshasa)

M'pozo 170 79
Kwilu 284 6,500 89
Inkisi 392 13,500 291
Djoué 175 6,225 158
Middle Congo

(Kinshasa to the Boyoma Falls)

Nsele 193 4,500 77
Lufimi 250 11,500 199
Kasai 2,153 884,370 11,600
Léfini 14,000 423
Nkeni 8,000 249
Alima 500 21,030 700
Likouala 615 69,800 1,053
Sangha 1,395 191,953 2,471
Irebu 35 7,380 106
Ubangi 2,299 651,918 5,936
Ruki 1,200 173,790 4,500
Ikelemba 345 12,510 222
Lulonga 705 76,950 2,040
Mongala 590 52,200 709
Itimbiri 535 50,490 773
Aruwimi 1,287 116,100 2,200
Lomami 1,798 109,080 2,062
Lindi 600 60,300 1,200
Upper Congo

(Lualaba; upstream from the Boyoma Falls)

Maiko 319
Lilo 192
Ruiki 126
Lilo 93
Lowa 600 49,590 1,625
Ulindi 690 30,240 902
Kasuku 176
Ambe 68
Elila 670 27,360 678
Lueki 59
Lubutu 57
Kunda 41
Luama 320 25,000 221
Lukuga 350 271,580 271
Luvidjo 240 70
Luvua 373 265,260 600
Kalumen-

gongo

67
Lovoi 186
Lufira 590 51,480 502
Lubudi 370 27,500 192

[14][15][16][17]

Lower Congo (river mouth to Kinshasa) Downstream of Kinshasa, from the river mouth at Banana, there are a few major tributaries.

Middle Congo (Kinshasa to the Boyoma Falls)

Upper Congo (Lualaba; upstream from the Boyoma Falls)

Economic importance

The town of Mbandaka is a busy port on the banks of the Congo River.
The town of Mbandaka is a busy port on the banks of the Congo River.
The Congo River at Maluku.
The Congo River at Maluku.

Although the Livingstone Falls prevent access from the sea, nearly the entire Congo above them is readily navigable in sections, especially between Kinshasa and Kisangani. Large river steamers worked the river until quite recently.[when?] The Congo River still is a lifeline in a land with few roads or railways.[18] Railways now bypass the three major falls, and much of the trade of Central Africa passes along the river, including copper, palm oil (as kernels), sugar, coffee, and cotton.[19]

Hydroelectric power

The Congo River is the most powerful river in Africa. During the rainy season over 50,000 cubic metres (1,800,000 cu ft) of water per second flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Opportunities for the Congo River and its tributaries to generate hydropower are therefore enormous. Scientists have calculated that the entire Congo Basin accounts for 13 percent of global hydropower potential. This would provide sufficient power for all of sub-Saharan Africa's electricity needs.[20]

Currently there are about 40 hydropower plants in the Congo Basin. The largest are the Inga dams, about 200 kilometres (120 mi) southwest of Kinshasa. The project was launched in the early 1970s, when the first dam was completed.[21] The plan (as originally conceived) called for the construction of five dams that would have had a total generating capacity of 34,500 megawatts (MW). To date only the Inga I and Inga II dams have been built, generating 1,776 MW.[20]

In February 2005, South Africa's state-owned power company, Eskom, announced a proposal to expand generation through improvements and the construction of a new hydroelectric dam. The project would bring the maximum output of the facility to 40 gigawatts (54,000,000 hp).[22] It is feared that these new hydroelectric dams could lead to the extinction of many of the fish species that are native to the river.[23]

Natural history

The beginning of the Livingstone Falls (Lower Congo Rapids) near Kinshasa
The beginning of the Livingstone Falls (Lower Congo Rapids) near Kinshasa

The current course of the Congo River formed between 1.5 and 2 million years BP, during the Pleistocene.[24] It is likely that during this period many upper tributaries of the Congo were captured from adjacent river basins, including the Uele and upper Ubangi from the Chari system[25] and the Chambeshi River[26] alongside a number of upper Kasai River tributaries[27] from the Zambezi system.

The Congo's formation may have led to the allopatric speciation of the bonobo and the common chimpanzee from their most recent common ancestor.[28] The bonobo is endemic to the humid forests in the region, as are other iconic species like the Allen's swamp monkey, dryas monkey, aquatic genet, okapi, and Congo peafowl.[29][30]

In terms of aquatic life, the Congo River Basin has a very high species richness and among the highest known concentrations of endemics.[31] As of 2009, almost 800 fish species have been recorded from the Congo River Basin (not counting Lake Tanganyika, which is connected but ecologically very different),[32] and large sections remain virtually unstudied.[33] For example, the section in Salonga National Park, which is about the size of Belgium, had still not been sampled at all in 2006.[34] New fish species are scientifically described with some regularity from the Congo River Basin, and many undescribed species are known.[35]

The Congo has by far the highest diversity of any African river system; in comparison, the next richest are the Niger, Volta and Nile with about 240, 140 and 130 fish species, respectively.[32][36] Because of the great ecological differences between the regions in the Congo basin —including habitats such as river rapids, deep rivers, swamps, and lakes— it is often divided into multiple ecoregions (instead of treating it as a single ecoregion). Among these ecoregions, the Livingstone Falls cataracts has more than 300 fish species,[37] including approximately 80 endemics[23] while the southwestern part (Kasai River basin) has more than 200 fish species, of which about a quarter are endemic.[38]

The dominant fish families – at least in parts of the river – are Cyprinidae (carp/cyprinids, such as Labeo simpsoni), Mormyridae (elephant fishes), Alestidae (African tetras), Mochokidae (squeaker catfishes), and Cichlidae (cichlids).[39] Among the natives in the river is the huge, highly carnivorous giant tigerfish. Three of the more unusual endemics are the whitish (non-pigmented) and blind Lamprologus lethops, which is believed to live as deep as 160 metres (520 ft) below the surface,[23] Heterochromis multidens, which is more closely related to cichlids of the Americas than other African cichlids,[40] and Caecobarbus geertsii, the only known cavefish in Central Africa.[41] There are also numerous endemic frogs and snails.[39][42] Several hydroelectric dams are planned on the river, and these may lead to the extinction of many of the endemics.[23]

Several species of turtles and the slender-snouted, Nile and dwarf crocodile are native to the Congo River Basin. African manatees inhabit the lower parts of the river.[43]

History

Pre-colonial history

17th-century map of the Congo estuary
17th-century map of the Congo estuary
In this 1853 map of Africa, the remaining Unexplored Region essentially corresponds to the Congo basin
In this 1853 map of Africa, the remaining Unexplored Region essentially corresponds to the Congo basin

The entire Congo basin is populated by Bantu peoples, divided into several hundred ethnic groups. Bantu expansion is estimated to have reached the middle Congo by about 500 BC and the upper Congo by the first century AD. Remnants of the aboriginal population displaced by the Bantu migration, Pygmies/Abatwa of the Ubangian phylum, remain in the remote forest areas of the Congo Basin.

The Kingdom of Kongo was formed in the late 14th century from a merging of the kingdoms of Mpemba Kasi and Mbata Kingdom on the left banks of the lower Congo River. Its territorial control along the river remained limited to what corresponds to the modern Kongo Central province. European exploration of the Congo began in 1482 when Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão discovered the river estuary[44] (likely in August 1482), which he marked by a Padrão, or stone pillar (still existing, but only in fragments) erected on Shark Point. Cão sailed up the river for a short distance, establishing contact with the Kingdom of Kongo. The full course of the river remained unknown throughout the early modern period.[45]

The upper Congo basin runs west of the Albertine Rift.[44] Its connection to the Congo was unknown until 1877. The extreme northeast of the Congo basin was reached by the Nilotic expansion at some point between the 15th and 18th centuries, by the ancestors of the Southern Luo speaking Alur people. Francisco de Lacerda followed the Zambezi and reached the uppermost part of the Congo basin (the Kazembe in the upper Luapula basin) in 1796.

The upper Congo River was first reached by the Arab slave trade by the 19th century. Nyangwe was founded as a slavers' outpost around 1860. David Livingstone was the first European to reach Nyangwe in March 1871.[44] Livingstone proposed to prove that the Lualaba connected to the Nile, but on 15 July, he witnessed a massacre of about 400 Africans by Arab slavers in Nyangwe, which experience left him too horrified and shattered to continue his mission to find the sources of the Nile, so he turned back to Lake Tanganyika.[46][47]

Early European colonization

Henry M Stanley with the officers of the Advance Column, Cairo, 1890. From the left: Dr. Thomas Heazle Parke, Robert H. Nelson, Henry M. Stanley, William G. Stairs, and Arthur J. M. Jephson
Henry M Stanley with the officers of the Advance Column, Cairo, 1890. From the left: Dr. Thomas Heazle Parke, Robert H. Nelson, Henry M. Stanley, William G. Stairs, and Arthur J. M. Jephson
Congo River Allegory by Thomas Vinçotte.[48]
Congo River Allegory by Thomas Vinçotte.[48]

The Europeans had not reached the central regions of the Congo basin from either the east or west, until Henry Morton Stanley's expedition of 1876–77. At the time one of the last open questions of the European exploration of Africa was whether the Lualaba River fed the Nile (Livingstone's theory), the Congo[49] or even the Niger River. Financed in 1874, Stanley's first trans-Africa exploration started in Zanzibar and reached the Lualaba on October 17, 1876. Overland he reached Nyangwe, the center of a lawless area containing cannibal tribes at which Tippu Tip based his trade in slaves. Stanley managed to hire a force from Tippu Tip to guard him for the next 150 kilometres (90 mi) or so, for 90 days.

The party left Nyangwe overland through the dense Matimba forest. On November 19 they reached the Lualaba again. Since the going through the forest was so heavy, Tippu Tip turned around with his party on December 28, leaving Stanley on his own, with 143 people, including eight children and 16 women. They had 23 canoes. His first encounter with a local tribe was with the cannibal Wenya. In total Stanley reports 32 unfriendly meetings on the river, some violent, even though he attempted to negotiate a peaceful thoroughfare. But the tribes were wary as their only experience of outsiders was with slave traders.

On January 6, 1877, after 640 kilometres (400 mi), they reached Boyoma Falls (called Stanley Falls for some time after), consisting of seven cataracts spanning 100 kilometres (60 mi) which they had to bypass overland. It took them to February 7 to reach the end of the falls. Here Stanley learned that the river was called Ikuta Yacongo,[50] proving to him that he had reached the Congo and that the Lualaba did not feed the Nile.

From this point, the tribes were no longer cannibals[clarification needed] but possessed firearms, apparently as a result of Portuguese influence[citation needed]. Some four weeks and 1,900 kilometres (1,200 mi) later he reached Stanley Pool (now Pool Malebo), the site of the present day cities Kinshasa and Brazzaville. Further downstream were the Livingstone Falls, misnamed as Livingstone had never been on the Congo: a series of 32 falls and rapids with an elevation change of 270 metres (900 ft) over 350 kilometres (220 mi). On 15 March they started the descent of the falls, which took five months and cost numerous lives. From the Isangile Falls, five falls from the foot, they beached the canoes and Lady Alice and left the river, aiming for the Portuguese outpost of Boma via land.

On August 3 they reached the hamlet Nsada. From there Stanley sent four men with letters forward to Boma, asking for food for his starving people. On August 7 relief came, being sent by representatives from the Liverpool trading firm Hatton & Cookson. On August 9 they reached Boma, 1,001 days since leaving Zanzibar on November 12, 1874. The party then consisted of 108 people, including three children born during the trip. Most probably (Stanley's own publications give inconsistent figures), he lost 132 people through disease, hunger, drowning, killing and desertion.[51]

Kinshasa was founded as a trading post by Stanley in 1881 and named Léopoldville in honor of Leopold II of Belgium. The Congo Basin was privately claimed by Leopold II as Congo Free State in 1885 where the many Atrocities in the Congo Free State were committed until the region was called the Belgian Congo.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Bossche, J.P. vanden; G. M. Bernacsek (1990). Source Book for the Inland Fishery Resources of Africa, Volume 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. pp. 338–339. ISBN 978-92-5-102983-1. Archived from the original on 2016-04-25. Retrieved 2015-12-27.
  2. ^ a b c "Discharge and Other Hydraulic Measurements for Characterizing the Hydraulics of Lower Congo River". 2009.
  3. ^ a b c "Velocity Mapping in the Lower Congo River: A First Look at the Unique Bathymetry and Hydrodynamics of Bulu Reach, West Central Africa". 2009.
  4. ^ a b c "Multi-threaded Congo River channel hydraulics: Field-based characterisation and representation in hydrodynamic models" (PDF). 2020.
  5. ^ a b Oberg, Kevin (July 2008). "Discharge and Other Hydraulic Measurements for Characterizing the Hydraulics of Lower Congo River, July 2008" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-10-15. Retrieved 2012-03-14.
  6. ^ Forbath, Peter. The River Congo (1979), p. 6. "Not until it crosses the Equator will it at last turn away from this misleading course and, describing a remarkable counter-clockwise arc first to the west and then to the southwest, flow back across the Equator and on down to the Atlantic.
    In this the Congo is exceptional. No other major river in the world crosses the Equator even once, let alone twice."
  7. ^ Anderson, David (2000). Africa's Urban Past. p. 79. ISBN 9780852557617. Archived from the original on 2017-12-22. Retrieved 2017-05-04.
  8. ^ Manikongo was properly the title of the kings of Kongo; their capital was at the site of modern M'banza-Kongo, capital of Angola's northwestern Zaire Province. Ortelius had no knowledge of the orography of Africa and drew fictitious courses for its rivers; his Congo upstream of its estuary turns sharply south, flowing through what would correspond to Angola and Botswana.
  9. ^ Peter Forbath (1977). The River Congo. p. 19.
  10. ^ James Barbot (1746). An Abstract of a Voyage to Congo River, Or the Zair and to Cabinde in the Year 1700. James Hingston Tuckey (1818). Narrative of an Expedition to Explore the River Zaire, Usually Called the Congo, in South Africa, in 1816. Archived from the original on 2018-05-21. Retrieved 2019-11-11. John Purdy (1822). Memoir, Descriptive and Explanatory, to Accompany the New Chart of the Ethiopic Or Southern Atlantic Ocean. p. 112. Congo River, called Zahir or Zaire by the natives
  11. ^ Hanibal Lemma, and colleagues (2019). "Bedload transport measurements in the Gilgel Abay River, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia (Table 7)". Journal of Hydrology. 577: 123968. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.123968. S2CID 199099061.
  12. ^ "Monster Fish of the Congo". National Geographic Channel. 2009. Archived from the original on 2010-12-06.
  13. ^ The Congo River Archived 2017-10-20 at the Wayback Machine. Rainforests.mongabay.com. Retrieved on 2011-11-29.
  14. ^ "Satellite-based estimates of surface water dynamics in the Congo River Basin (HAL)". 2017.
  15. ^ "Rivers Network". 2020.
  16. ^ "Topographic maps".
  17. ^ "Comission Internationale du Bassin Congo-Oubangui-Sangha (CICOS)". 2014.
  18. ^ See, for instance, Thierry Michel's film Congo River Archived 2009-11-29 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "DR Congo – AFRICAN FINE COFFEES ASSOCIATION (AFCA)". 7 October 2016. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  20. ^ a b Alain Nubourgh, Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC) Archived 2011-09-02 at the Wayback Machine. Weetlogs.scilogs.be (2010-04-27). Retrieved on 2011-11-29.
  21. ^ Showers, Kate B. (2011-09-01). "Electrifying Africa: An Environmental History with Policy Implications". Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography. 93 (3): 193–221. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0467.2011.00373.x. ISSN 1468-0467. S2CID 145515488.
  22. ^ Vasagar, Jeevan (2005-02-25). "Could a $50bn plan to tame this mighty river bring electricity to all of Africa?". World news. London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-04-30.
  23. ^ a b c d Norlander, Britt (20 April 2009). "Rough waters: one of the world's most turbulent rivers is home to a wide array of fish species. Now, large dams are threatening their future". Science World. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012.
  24. ^ Leonard C. Beadle (1981). The inland waters of tropical Africa: an introduction to tropical limnology. Longman. p. 475. ISBN 978-0-582-46341-7. Archived from the original on 5 January 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2011. "It is hypothesized that in the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene, a coastal Lower Guinean river captured Malebo Pool, connecting the previously interior Congo Basin to the ocean." Thieme et al., Freshwater Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar: A Conservation Assessment Ecoregions Assessments, Island Press, 2005, p. 297 Archived 2019-12-24 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ Cooper, John E. and Hull, Gordon; Gorilla Pathology and Health: With a Catalogue of Preserved Materials, p. 371 ISBN 9780128020395
  26. ^ Skelton, P.H. 1994. ‘Diversity and distribution of freshwater fishes in East and Southern Africa’, in Biological diversity in African fresh and brackish water fishes, Symposium Paradi(G.G. Teugels, J.F. Guégan, and J.J. Albaret, editors), pp. 95–131. Annals of the Royal Central African Museum (Zoology) No. 275.
  27. ^ Gupta, Avijit (editor); Large Rivers: Geomorphology and Management, p. 327 ISBN 9780470849873
  28. ^ Caswell JL, Mallick S, Richter DJ, et al. (2008). "Analysis of chimpanzee history based on genome sequence alignments". PLOS Genet. 4 (4): e1000057. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000057. PMC 2278377. PMID 18421364.
  29. ^ Kingdon, Jonathan (1997). The Kingdon Guide to African Mammals. London: Academic Press Limited. ISBN 978-0-1240-8355-4.
  30. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Afropavo congensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22679430A92814166. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22679430A92814166.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  31. ^ Dickman, Kyle (2009-11-03). "Evolution in the Deepest River in the World". Science & Nature. Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on 2011-11-09. Retrieved 2009-11-04.
  32. ^ a b Frans Witte; Martien J. P. van Oijen; Ferdinand A. Sibbing (2009). "Fish Fauna of the Nile". In Henri J. Dumont (ed.). The Nile. Springer. pp. 647–675. ISBN 978-1-4020-9725-6.
  33. ^ Freshwater Ecoregions of the World (2008). Sudanic Congo – Oubangi. Archived 2011-10-05 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 2 May 2011.
  34. ^ Schliewen, U.K.; M.L.J. Stiassny (2006). "A new species of Nanochromis (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Mai Ndombe, central Congo Basin, Democratic Republic of Congo". Zootaxa. 1169: 33–46. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1169.1.2. S2CID 86533120.
  35. ^ Schwarzer, J.; B. Misof; U.K. Schliewen (2011). "Speciation within genomic networks: a case study based on Steatocranus cichlids of the lower Congo rapids". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 25 (1): 138–148. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2011.02409.x. PMID 22070232.
  36. ^ Winemiller, K.O.; A.A. Agostinho; and É.P. Caramaschi (2008). "Fish Ecology in Tropical Streams". In Dudgeon, D. (ed.). Tropical Stream Ecology. Academic Press. pp. 107–146. ISBN 978-0-12-088449-0.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  37. ^ Weisberger, Mindy (12 January 2020). "Dying Fish Revealed Congo Is World's Deepest River". livescience.com. LiveScience. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  38. ^ Freshwater Ecoregions of the World (2008). Kasai. Archived 2011-10-05 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 2 May 2011.
  39. ^ a b Freshwater Ecoregions of the World (2008). Upper Lualaba. Archived 2011-10-05 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 2 May 2011.
  40. ^ Kullander, S.O. (1998). A phylogeny and classification of the South American Cichlidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). pp. 461–498 in Malabarba, L., et al. (eds.), Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes, Porto Alegre.
  41. ^ Proudlove, G. (2006). Subterranean fishes of the world. ISBN 978-2-9527084-0-1.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  42. ^ Freshwater Ecoregions of the World (2008). Lower Congo Rapids. Archived 2011-10-05 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 2 May 2011.
  43. ^ Powell, J. & Kouadio, A. (2008). "Trichechus senegalensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  44. ^ a b c Cana, Frank Richardson (1911). "Congo" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 917.
  45. ^ The Dieppe maps of the mid-16th century show the Congo only as a minor river while having the Nile run throughout the continent, rising in Southern Africa. The same interpretation is in essence still found in Jan Blaeu's Atlas Maior of 1660. Jacques Bellin's map of the Congo in Histoire Generale Des Voyages by Antoine François Prévost (1754) shows awareness of the river reaching further inland, to the provinces of Sundi and Pango, but has no detailed knowledge of its course.
  46. ^ Livingstone, David (2012). Livingstone's 1871 Field Diary. A Multispectral Critical Edition. UCLA Digital Library: Los Angeles, CA. Available <http://livingstone.library.ucla.edu/1871diary/ Archived 2014-09-05 at the Wayback Machine>
  47. ^ See also Jeal, Tim (1973). Livingstone. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Pp. 331–335.
  48. ^ Brussels, Monument to Congo pionniers, 50th Jubileum Park.
  49. ^ Jeal, 2007 pp. 188–219.
  50. ^ Jeal, 2007 p. 199; February 7, 1877,
  51. ^ Jeal, 2007 p. 217. Stanley, Henry M. (1988). Through the Dark Continent. Dover Publications. pp. 432 pages. ISBN 978-0-486-25667-2.

General sources

  • Cana, Frank Richardson (1911). "Congo" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 6 (11th ed.). pp. 914–917.
  • Forbath, Peter (1979). The River Congo: The Discovery, Exploration and Exploitation of the World's Most Dramatic River. New York: E. P. Dutton,. ISBN 0-525-47573-7.

External links

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