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Communist state

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Map of countries that declared themselves or were declared to be Communist states under the Marxist–Leninist or Maoist definition at some point in their history (note that not all of these countries were Marxist–Leninist or Maoist at the same time)
Map of countries that declared themselves or were declared to be Communist states under the Marxist–Leninist or Maoist definition at some point in their history (note that not all of these countries were Marxist–Leninist or Maoist at the same time)

A Communist state (sometimes referred to as Marxist–Leninist state or workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist-Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.[citation needed]

There have been several instances of Communist states with functioning political participation processes involving several other non-party organisations, such as trade unions, factory committees and direct democratic participation.[1][2][3][4][5] The term "Communist state" is used by Western historians, political scientists and media to refer to these countries. However, contrary to Western usage, these states do not describe themselves as "communist" nor do they claim to have achieved communism—they refer to themselves as Socialist or Workers' states that are in the process of constructing socialism.[6][7][8][9]

Communist states are typically administered by a single, centralised party apparatus, although some provide the impression of multiple political parties but these are all solely in control by that centralised party. These parties usually are Marxist–Leninist or some variation thereof (including Maoism in China), with the official aim of achieving socialism and progressing toward a communist society. These states are usually termed by Marxists as dictatorships of the proletariat, or dictatorships of the working class, whereby the working class is the ruling class of the country in contrast to capitalism, whereby the bourgeoisie is the ruling class.

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Transcription

Today we're taking a look at the final chapters of the Cold War and Communism's inevitable downfall across Eastern Europe. Despite the largest military alliance in human history and the ever-present threat of nuclear war, in the end, it was not opposing force of arms or nuclear annihilation that defeated the Soviet Union and its allies...so what was it exactly? First, it’s worth mentioning that Communism and Stalinism, or Stalin's version of Communism, are not one and the same. In fact, practically no nation on Earth every actually achieved the true ideals of Communism, falling far short and often falling into despotism or fascism. So what exactly is Communism, how is it different from Stalinism, and where did it come from? Communism's roots lie in the minds of two German political philosophers, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marx and Engels grew up in the heyday of imperialist Europe, with the great powers jostling for world domination and sparking proxy wars across their vast colonial empires. The Industrial Revolution was in full swing at that time, and workers flocked to the cities to work in factories and industrial plants. The Industrial Revolution and its many technological advances exponentially increased a worker's productivity, but as Marx and Engels noted, the worker himself received little of this extra benefit. Though a worker was now ten to twenty times more productive, his wages did not reflect this increase, meaning that the only profiteer of his greatly increased productivity was the factory owner. Marx and Engels saw this deepening economic divide as fundamentally unjust and tyrannical, and in 1848 wrote The Communist Manifesto. In the Manifesto, Marx and Engels proclaimed that the history of mankind was a history of class struggles, outlining how every civilization has existed with an oppressed working majority exploited by the oppressive, wealthy minority. This state of affairs, they said, would inevitably lead to a worker's revolution as the proletariat, or working class, would eventually realize their own potential and seize the means of production for themselves from the bourgeoisie, or wealthy elite. The Manifesto would go on to lay down the rules of an ideal society, from the abolition of child labour, to free public education, nationalization of credit and banking systems, and a progressive income tax. Thus were the roots of Communism born. Ultimately the goal of a Communist society is one in which the means of production are equally shared by all. While some extremists would call for complete wealth redistribution, Marx and Engels' original vision was one where Communism created a classless, wealth-less society, and everyone has equal opportunity to access credit, education, or the physical resources required to prosper. Though often compared to Socialism, Communism as envisioned by Marx and Engels is an evolution of Socialism, with Socialism itself merely a step in the direction of Communism. By fully automating industry, Karl Marx envisioned a future utopia where everyone was liberated from the actual necessity of “earning a living”, and thus individuals measured their wealth not by money or material possessions, but by the amount of free time they have to pursue their passions. Karl Marx and Frederick Engels would lay out very lofty ideals for their Communist utopia, and though they would fade from popularity for nearly a quarter of a century, their ideas would be resurrected in the late 1800s, where they would help plant the seeds of revolution in the Russian people. Suffering under the yoke of an oppressive and exploitative Tsarist regime, Vladimir Lenin and his Bolsheviks would seize power in 1917 and begin to lay the groundwork down for a Marxist government. But suffering a series of strokes, Lenin would die just a few years later, leaving a power vacuum in Russia with two sides vying for supremacy: Leon Trotsky, close confidant of Lenin and sworn enemy of Joseph Stalin, whom he warned publicly would destroy Lenin's vision of a truly Communist Russia. Unfortunately for the young Soviet Union, it would be Stalin who would rise to power and Trotsky would see himself removed from post after post until finally being ousted from the Communist Party and exiled from the Soviet Union. With Joseph Stalin's rise, Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin's hopes for a truly Communist utopia would die, and the western world would forever reject the idea of Communism as a valid political theory. Rather than reducing government and working towards nearly complete non-governance, Joseph Stalin would instead expand the reach of government as he completely federalized most of the Soviet Union's industries. Where Marx and Lenin had envisioned a worker's utopia that prioritized civil liberties and an open, transparent government, Stalin instead created a society where civil liberties were stripped away while the population was aggressively monitored by secret police for dissent. By creating an oppressive regime, Stalin guaranteed from the day he rose to power that Communism would ultimately fail. So why did Communism fail exactly? It’s almost impossible to narrow down to any number of specific reasons as the story of the Cold War is one fraught with political nuance, but there were running trends across the entire Soviet Bloc that ensured its downfall. One of the biggest flaws in Stalinist Communism was the focus on productivity and efficiency. With the dawning of the computer age, technological progress began to increase exponentially, but rather than attempt to innovate, the Soviet Union and its allies instead practiced a doctrine of 'tried and true', attempting to make the processes of yesterday as efficient as possible. Innovation is born of risk, but risk affects production quotas and that was, in Stalin's Soviet-Bloc, an unacceptable outcome. While many breakthrough technologies that define our modern age actually had their roots in the Soviet Union, such as the laser, Soviet scientists did not know how to properly market new technologies and lacked the open, competitive market system that breeds the innovators and visionaries of a capitalist society. But such inward focus extended past just efficiency and production quotas- in response to an antagonistic West, the Soviet Union and allies chose to turn their focus inwards and ignore a changing world. This myopic focus on the self attempted to shut the world away, but just past the Soviet-Bloc's borders the world was changing, quickly, and Eastern Europeans began to yearn for that change themselves. With freedom of expression severely curtailed, and art discouraged or forced to be approved by committees who judged art's merits solely on if it served the state's goals or not, Eastern Europeans were yearning for the rights and social revolutions they saw happening across the Western world. As Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. marched on Washington, many Soviet-Bloc citizens watched on illegal broadcasts or recordings and found more in common than not. With Eastern Europeans yearning for the right to expression, Stalinist economic policies would inevitably hasten the coming revolutions. Though Stalin was a student of Lenin and Marx, he failed to understand what both men knew already- true Communism was an act of ongoing evolution that would require decades if not centuries of slow, steady change. When Stalin attempted to implement Communism's fundamental tenet of worker equality, he would completely ignore what Lenin and Marx understood about worker equality. In Stalin's eyes, Communism meant that a neurosurgeon and a factory worker should be paid the same wage as equals- and while this is technically true about Communism, what Stalin did not understand was that in Lenin/Marxist Communism, the workers would be equal because they would be liberated from the necessity of earning a living through automation of industry, and thus would be equally free to pursue neurosurgery or work at a factory if that is what either man's passions were. But Stalin either missed or ignored this crucial step, and by equalizing wages, Stalin ensured that the Soviet Union and allies would exasperate a lack of innovation and ferment dissent amongst the people who would be denied any opportunity at advancing past their lot in life. Eventually the world's greatest social experiment would fail and the Communist order around the world would fall. Only nations such as China who practice Communism more in name than actual spirit would continue past the collapse of the Soviet Union. Haunted by a myopic isolationist view of the world, fermenting growing dissent by oppression, and refusing to innovate, Stalinist Communism was doomed from the moment it began, but as some historians have remarked, the inevitable end of the Cold War could already be seen when the first American Pepsi went on sale at Red Square in 1973. So, what do you think about Stalin's implementation of Communism? With the dawning of artificial intelligence and smart robotics, is Karl Marx's and Frederick Engels' vision of society, freed from the necessity of earning a living by automating industry, finally achievable? If so, would a society where art and education are prioritized and individuals are free to pursue their passions truly be a utopia? Let us know your thoughts in the comments! Also, be sure to check out our other video called Russia vs the United States! Thanks for watching, and, as always, don’t forget to like, share, and subscribe. See you next time!

Contents

Communist party as the leader of the state

In the theories of German philosopher Karl Marx, a state in any society is an instrument of oppression by one social class over another, historically a minority exploiter class ruling over a majority exploited class. Marx saw that in his contemporary time the new nation states were characterized by increasingly intensified class contradiction between the capitalist class and the working class it ruled over. He predicted that if the class contradictions of the capitalist system continue to intensify, that the working class will ultimately become conscious of itself as an exploited collective and will overthrow the capitalists and establish collective ownership over the means of production, therein arriving at a new phase of development called socialism (in Marxist understanding).

The state ruled by the working class during the transition into classless society is called the "dictatorship of the proletariat". Vladimir Lenin created revolutionary vanguard theory in an attempt to expand on the concept. Lenin saw that science is something that is initially practicable by only a minority of society who happen to be in a position free from distraction so that they may contemplate it and believed that scientific socialism was no exception. He therefore advocated that the Communist party should be structured as a vanguard of those who have achieved full class consciousness to be at the forefront of the class struggle and lead the workers to expand class consciousness and replace the capitalist class as the ruling class, therein establishing the proletarian state.

Development of Communist states

During the 20th century, the world's first constitutionally socialist state was in Russia in 1917. In 1922, it joined other former territories of the empire to become the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). After World War II, the Soviet Army occupied much of Eastern Europe and thus helped establish Communist states in these countries. Most Communist states in Eastern Europe were allied with the Soviet Union, except for Yugoslavia which declared itself non-aligned. In 1949, after a war against Japanese occupation and a civil war resulting in a Communist victory, the People's Republic of China (PRC) was established. Communist states were also established in Cambodia, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam. A Communist state was established in North Korea, although it later adopted its own ideology called Juche. In 1989, the Communist states in Eastern Europe collapsed under public pressure during a wave of non-violent movements which led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Today, the existing Communist states in the world are in China, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam.

These Communist states often do not claim to have achieved socialism or communism in their countries—rather, they claim to be building and working toward the establishment of socialism in their countries. For example, the preamble to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam's Constitution states that Vietnam only entered a transition stage between capitalism and socialism after the country was re-unified under the Communist Party in 1976[10] and the 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Cuba states that the role of the Communist Party is to "guide the common effort toward the goals and construction of socialism".[11]

State institutions in Communist states

Communist states share similar institutions, which are organized on the premise that the Communist party is a vanguard of the proletariat and represents the long-term interests of the people. The doctrine of democratic centralism, which was developed by Vladimir Lenin as a set of principles to be used in the internal affairs of the Communist party, is extended to society at large.[12]

According to democratic centralism, all leaders must be elected by the people and all proposals must be debated openly, but once a decision has been reached all people have a duty to obey that decision and all debate should end. When used within a political party, democratic centralism is meant to prevent factionalism and splits. When applied to an entire state, democratic centralism creates a one-party system.[12]

The constitutions of most Communist states describe their political system as a form of democracy.[13] They thus recognize the sovereignty of the people as embodied in a series of representative parliamentary institutions. Such states do not have a separation of powers and instead have one national legislative body (such as the Supreme Soviet in the Soviet Union) which is considered the highest organ of state power and which is legally superior to the executive and judicial branches of government.[14]

Such national legislative politics in Communist states often have a similar structure to the parliaments that exist in liberal republics, with two significant differences: first, the deputies elected to these national legislative bodies are not expected to represent the interests of any particular constituency, but the long-term interests of the people as a whole; and second, against Marx's advice, the legislative bodies of Communist states are not in permanent session. Rather, they convene once or several times per year in sessions which usually last only a few days.[15]

When the national legislative body is not in session, its powers are transferred to a smaller council (often called a presidium) which combines legislative and executive power and in some Communist states (such as the Soviet Union before 1990), acts as a collective head of state. In some systems, the presidium is composed of important Communist party members who vote the resolutions of the Communist party into law.

State social institutions

A feature of Communist states is the existence of numerous state-sponsored social organizations (trade unions, youth organizations, women's organizations, associations of teachers, writers, journalists and other professionals, consumer cooperatives, sports clubs and so on) which are integrated into the political system.

In Communist states, the social organizations are expected to promote social unity and cohesion, to serve as a link between the government and society and to provide a forum for recruitment of new Communist party members.[16]

Political power

Historically, the political organization of many socialist states has been dominated by a one-party monopoly. Some Communist governments, such as North Korea, East Germany or Czechoslovakia, have or had more than one political party, but all minor parties are or were required to follow the leadership of the Communist party. In Communist states, the government may not tolerate criticism of policies that have already been implemented in the past or are being implemented in the present.[17]

Nevertheless, Communist parties have won elections and governed in the context of multi-party democracies without seeking to establish a one-party state and therefore these entities do not fall under the definition of Communist state. Examples include San Marino, Nicaragua (1979–1990),[18] Moldova, Nepal (presently), Cyprus[19] and the Indian states of Kerala, West Bengal and Tripura.[20]

Criticism

Countries such as the Soviet Union and China were criticized by Western authors and organisations on the basis of a lack of multi-party Western democracy,[21][22] in addition to several other areas where socialist society and Western societies differed. For instance, socialist societies were commonly characterised by state ownership or social ownership of the means of production either through administration through party organisations, democratically elected councils and communes and co-operative structures—in opposition to the liberal democratic capitalist free market paradigm of management, ownership and control by corporations and private individuals.[23] Communist states have also been criticised for the influence and outreach of their respective ruling parties on society, in addition to lack of recognition for some Western legal rights and liberties [24] such as the right to ownership of private property and the restriction of the right to free speech.

Soviet advocates and socialists responded to these criticisms by highlighting the ideological differences in the concept of "freedom". McFarland and Ageyev noted that "Marxist–Leninist norms disparaged laissez-faire individualism (as when housing is determined by one's ability to pay), also [condemning] wide variations in personal wealth as the West has not. Instead, Soviet ideals emphasized equality—free education and medical care, little disparity in housing or salaries, and so forth".[25] When asked to comment on the claim that former citizens of Communist states enjoy increased freedoms, Heinz Kessler, former East German Minister of National Defence, replied: "Millions of people in Eastern Europe are now free from employment, free from safe streets, free from health care, free from social security".[26] The early economic development policies of Communist states have been criticised for focusing primarily on the development of heavy industry.

In his critique of states run under Marxist–Leninist ideology, economist Michael Ellman of the University of Amsterdam notes that such states compared favorably with Western states in some health indicators such as infant mortality and life expectancy.[27] Similarly, Amartya Sen's own analysis of international comparisons of life expectancy found that several Marxist–Leninist states made significant gains and commented "one thought that is bound to occur is that communism is good for poverty removal".[28] The dissolution of the Soviet Union was followed by a rapid increase in poverty,[29][30][31] crime,[32][33] corruption,[34][35] unemployment,[36] homelessness,[37][38] rates of disease[39][40][41] and income inequality,[42] along with decreases in calorie intake, life expectancy, adult literacy and income.[43]

List of current Communist states

A map of Communist states (1993–present)
A map of Communist states (1993–present)

The following countries are one-party states in which the institutions of the ruling Communist party and the state have become intertwined. They are generally adherents of Marxism–Leninism in particular. They are listed here together with the year of their founding and their respective ruling parties.[44]

Country Local name Since Ruling party
 People's Republic of China In Chinese: 中华人民共和国
In Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
1 October 1949 Communist Party of China
 Republic of Cuba In Spanish: República de Cuba 1 July 1961 Communist Party of Cuba
 Lao People's Democratic Republic In Lao: Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao 2 December 1975 Lao People's Revolutionary Party
 Socialist Republic of Vietnam In Vietnamese: Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam 2 September 1945 (in the north)
30 April 1975 (in the south)
2 July 1976 (unified)
Communist Party of Vietnam
North Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea[a] In Korean: 조선민주주의인민공화국
In Revised Romanization: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk
9 September 1948 Workers' Party of Korea

Multi-party states with governing Communist parties

There are multi-party states with Communist parties leading the government. Such states are not considered to be Communist states as the countries themselves allow for multiple parties and do not provide a constitutional role for their Communist parties.

San Marino (1945–1957), Moldova (2001–2009), Cyprus (2001–2013) and Guyana (1992–2015) have also had officially Marxist–Leninist ruling parties.

List of former Communist states

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Socialist state although the government's official ideology is now the Juche part of Kimilsungism–Kimjongilism policy of Kim Il-sung, as opposed to traditional Marxism–Leninism. In 2009, the Constitution of North Korea was quietly amended so that not only did it remove all Marxist–Leninist references present in the first draft, but it also dropped all reference to "Communism".[45] It is a Kimilsungist–Kimjongilist hereditary totalitarian military dictatorship.

Citations

  1. ^ Sloan, Pat (1937). "Soviet democracy". Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  2. ^ Farber, Samuel (1992). "Before Stalinism: The Rise and Fall of Soviet Democracy". Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  3. ^ Getzler, Israel (2002). "Kronstadt 1917-1921: The Fate of a Soviet Democracy". Cambridge University Press. Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  4. ^ Webb, Sidney; Beatrice Webb (1935). "Soviet communism: a new civilisation?". Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  5. ^ Busky, Donald F. (July 20, 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. p. 9. ISBN 978-0275968861. In a modern sense of the word, communism refers to the ideology of Marxism-Leninism.
  6. ^ Wilczynski, J. (2008). The Economics of Socialism after World War Two: 1945-1990. Aldine Transaction. p. 21. ISBN 978-0202362281. Contrary to Western usage, these countries describe themselves as 'Socialist' (not 'Communist'). The second stage (Marx's 'higher phase'), or 'Communism' is to be marked by an age of plenty, distribution according to needs (not work), the absence of money and the market mechanism, the disappearance of the last vestiges of capitalism and the ultimate 'whithering away' of the State.
  7. ^ Steele, David Ramsay (September 1999). From Marx to Mises: Post Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation. Open Court. p. 45. ISBN 978-0875484495. Among Western journalists the term 'Communist' came to refer exclusively to regimes and movements associated with the Communist International and its offspring: regimes which insisted that they were not communist but socialist, and movements which were barely communist in any sense at all.
  8. ^ Rosser, Mariana V. and J Barkley Jr. (23 July 2003). Comparative Economics in a Transforming World Economy. MIT Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0262182348. Ironically, the ideological father of communism, Karl Marx, claimed that communism entailed the withering away of the state. The dictatorship of the proletariat was to be a strictly temporary phenomenon. Well aware of this, the Soviet Communists never claimed to have achieved communism, always labeling their own system socialist rather than communist and viewing their system as in transition to communism.
  9. ^ Williams, Raymond (1983). "Socialism". Keywords: A vocabulary of culture and society, revised edition. Oxford University Press. p. 289. ISBN 0-19-520469-7. The decisive distinction between socialist and communist, as in one sense these terms are now ordinarily used, came with the renaming, in 1918, of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks) as the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). From that time on, a distinction of socialist from communist, often with supporting definitions such as social democrat or democratic socialist, became widely current, although it is significant that all communist parties, in line with earlier usage, continued to describe themselves as socialist and dedicated to socialism.
  10. ^ "VN Embassy - Constitution of 1992". Archived 9 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Full Text. From the Preamble: "On 2 July 1976, the National Assembly of reunified Vietnam decided to change the country's name to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; the country entered a period of transition to socialism, strove for national construction, and unyieldingly defended its frontiers while fulfilling its internationalist duty".
  11. ^ "Cubanet - Constitution of the Republic of Cuba, 1992". Archived 9 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Full Text. From Article 5: "The Communist Party of Cuba, a follower of Martí’s ideas and of Marxism-Leninism, and the organized vanguard of the Cuban nation, is the highest leading force of society and of the state, which organizes and guides the common effort toward the goals of the construction of socialism and the progress toward a communist society".
  12. ^ a b Furtak, Robert K. The political systems of the socialist states, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1986, pp. 8–9.
  13. ^ Furtak, Robert K. The political systems of the socialist states, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1986, p. 12.
  14. ^ Furtak, Robert K. The political systems of the socialist states, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1987, p. 13.
  15. ^ Furtak, Robert K. The political systems of the socialist states, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1986, p. 14.
  16. ^ Furtak, Robert K. The political systems of the socialist states, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1986, p. 16–17.
  17. ^ Furtak, Robert K. The political systems of the socialist states, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1986, p. 18–19.
  18. ^ Kinzer, Stephen (15 January 1987). "NICARAGUA'S COMMUNIST PARTY SHIFTS TO OPPOSITION". The New York Times.
  19. ^ "Cyprus elects its first communist president", The Guardian, 25 February 2008.
  20. ^ Kerala Assembly Elections-- 2006
  21. ^ SP, Huntington (1970). Authoritarian politics in modern society: the dynamics of established one-party systems. Basic Books (AZ). |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  22. ^ Lowy, Michael (1986). "Mass organization, party, and state: Democracy in the transition to socialism". Transition and Development: Problems of Third World Socialism (94): 264.
  23. ^ Amandae, Sonja (2003). Rationalizing capitalist democracy: The cold war origins of rational choice liberalism. University of Chicago Press.
  24. ^ "Assemblée parlementaire du Conseil de l'Europe". coe.int.
  25. ^ McFarland, Sam; Ageyev, Vladimir; Abalakina-Paap, Marina (1992). "Authoritarianism in the former Soviet Union". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.63.6.1004.
  26. ^ Parenti, Michael (1997). Blackshirts and reds : rational fascism and the overthrow of communism. San Francisco: City Lights Books. p. 118. ISBN 0-87286-330-1.
  27. ^ Michael Ellman. Socialist Planning. Cambridge University Press. 2014. ISBN 1107427320. p. 372.
  28. ^ Richard G. Wilkinson. Unhealthy Societies: The Afflictions of Inequality. Routledge. November 1996. ISBN 0415092353. p. 122.
  29. ^ McAaley, Alastair. Russia and the Baltics: Poverty and Poverty Research in a Changing World. Archived from the original on 23 January 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  30. ^ "An epidemic of street kids overwhelms Russian cities". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  31. ^ Targ, Harry (2006). Challenging Late Capitalism, Neoliberal Globalization, & Militarism.
  32. ^ Theodore P. Gerber & Michael Hout, "More Shock than Therapy: Market Transition, Employment, and Income in Russia, 1991–1995", AJS Volume 104 Number 1 (July 1998): 1–50.
  33. ^ Volkov, Vladimir. "The bitter legacy of Boris Yeltsin (1931-2007)".
  34. ^ "Cops for hire". Economist. 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  35. ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index 2014". Transparency International. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  36. ^ Hardt, John (2003). Russia's Uncertain Economic Future: With a Comprehensive Subject Index. M. E Sharpe. p. 481.
  37. ^ Alexander, Catharine; Buchil, Victor; Humphrey, Caroline (12 September 2007). Urban Life in Post-Soviet Asia. CRC Press. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  38. ^ Smorodinskaya. Encyclopaedia of Contemporary Russian. Routledge.
  39. ^ Galazkaa, Artur. "Implications of the Diphtheria Epidemic in the Former Soviet Union for Immunization Programs". Journal of Infectious Diseases. 181: 244–248. doi:10.1086/315570.
  40. ^ Shubnikov, Eugene. "Non-communicable Diseases and Former Soviet Union countries". Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  41. ^ Wharton, Melinda; Vitek, Charles. "Diphtheria in the Former Soviet Union: Reemergence of a Pandemic Disease". CDC: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  42. ^ Hoepller, C (2011). Russian Demographics: The Role of the Collapse of the Soviet Union.
  43. ^ Poland, Marshall. "Russian Economy in the Aftermath of the Collapse of the Soviet Union". Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  44. ^ The World Factbook: "FIELD LISTING :: GOVERNMENT TYPE".
  45. ^ "DPRK has quietly amended its Constitution". Leonid Petrov's Korea Vision.
  46. ^ cahoon, ben. "German States since 1918". worldstatesmen.org.
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