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Command and control

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes ... [that] employs human, physical, and information resources to solve problems and accomplish missions" to achieve the goals of an organization or enterprise, according to a 2015 definition by military scientists Marius Vassiliou, David S. Alberts and Jonathan R. Agre,[1][2] The term often refers to a military system.

Versions of the United States Army Field Manual 3-0 circulated circa 1999 define C2 in a military organization as the exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commanding officer over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of a mission.[3][4]

A 1988 NATO definition is that command and control is the exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated individual over assigned resources in the accomplishment of a common goal.[5] An Australian Defence Force definition, similar to that of NATO, emphasises that C2 is the system empowering designated personnel to exercise lawful authority and direction over assigned forces for the accomplishment of missions and tasks.[6] (The Australian doctrine goes on to state: The use of agreed terminology and definitions is fundamental to any C2 system and the development of joint doctrine and procedures. The definitions in the following paragraphs have some agreement internationally, although not every potential ally will use the terms with exactly the same meaning.[6])

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Transcription

TIP OVER TIP OVER TIP OVER DANGIT mind control foiled again Hey Guys Julia here for DNews I’ve wanted to control things with my mind since.. forever.. well mostly since I saw Matilda when I was a kid. While I don’t have super powers, maybe technology can help me out. Brain-computer interfaces, or BCI are, just like that sounds, devices that connect your brain to a computer. They can read your mind and make things move! While it might seem like a fantasy, it’s 2016 baby and it’s real, it’s here and they have many uses. They are often a powerful aid to those with severe disabilities that inhibit movement, like quadriplegics or those with cerebral palsy. They help people communicate, walk, and even drive a car! Seriously. Recently, Chinese researchers introduce a prototype for a mind-controlled car! This particular technology uses an EEG, or electroencephalogram, made up of 16 sensors on a cap that reads electric signals from the brain. Just by thinking, the controller can make the car move forward and backward and even come to a stop. A controller can also both lock and unlock the vehicle without lifting a finger. But before you get too excited, the researchers from Nankai University don’t intend to actually produce one of these cars, it was more a practice in seeing how useful such can tech can be, especially for those with disabilities. Although BCI tech was first researched in the 1970s, it’s come along way in the past few decades. They work by measuring the signals brain waves give off. These kinds of brain-computer interfaces can’t read your every thought, but they can take all the electrical buzz from your brain and translate it into a single command like “walk forward” with alarming accuracy. But a lot of what’s picked up is fuzzy white noise from other brain signals or electrical signals given off from muscles moving. An algorithm filters the the noise from the notion. That notion has to be sustained “conscious, intentional activity”. According to research given at the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, some EEGS can translate intention 98% of the time . Now people, like paraplegic individuals can browse the web and write emails by moving a mentally controlled mouse. But it’s still a slow going and cumbersome process; The system has to learn the patient’s signals too. Both the patient and the computer are learning the process at the same time. So it can take months of practice and training. Because many BCI spelling systems flash different letters on a screen and you have to think something like YES for the letter you want. The BCI reads that change in the brain waves. So you can imagine that it would take time just to write your name. Some systems reportedly take a minute just to type out less than 10 characters. As for walking, EEG controlled exoskeletons like this one, help people who’ve lost control of their legs walk again. But they take a whole crew of physical therapists to help wire someone into the machine. So they aren’t just high tech toys. But if you’re more curious about the novelty factor, this tech is already hitting the toy market. Like the car, toys or other tech like this only measure concentration and so can’t control many factors at once. Like the car can only go forwards or backwards, toys like Star Wars Science Force Trainer only send a ball blowing up a tube. But more complicated gadgets are on the horizon, one study published in the Journal of Neural Engineering found that a person can control a drone through an obstacle course, just by the power of their thoughts. How cool is that? We know you love watching online, but we’re excited to announce DNews is now on Science channel! Trace and Amy will be sharing a minute of the best in science in between awesome programming. So check out as Science Presents DNews at 9! Every weeknight, Monday through Friday, and use your twitter to let them know if you want more! So the power of the mind is pretty awesome. But your mind isn’t the only way to control tech. The human body is full of kinetic energy, potential energy, heat, and electricity. Maybe we can use these resources for energy. To find out more about how your body can be a power plant, check out this episode right here So I really want to know… HAVE YOU USED ONE OF THESE MIND CONTROL GADGETS? Did they live up to your expectations? Let me know down in the comments below…

Contents

Overview

US perspective

The US Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms[7] defines command and control as: "The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. Also called C2. Source: JP 1".[8]

The edition of the Dictionary "As Amended Through April 2010" elaborates, "Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission."[9] However, this sentence is missing from the "command and control" entry for the edition "As Amended Through 15 August 2014."[10]

Commanding officers are assisted in executing these tasks by specialized staff officers and enlisted personnel. These military staff are a group of officers and enlisted personnel that provides a bi-directional flow of information between a commanding officer and subordinate military units.[citation needed]

The purpose of a military staff is mainly that of providing accurate, timely information which by category represents information on which command decisions are based. The key application is that of decisions that effectively manage unit resources. While information flow toward the commander is a priority, information that is useful or contingent in nature is communicated to lower staffs and units.[citation needed]

Computer security industry

This term is also in common use within the computer security industry and in the context of cyberwarfare. Here the term refers to the influence an attacker has over a compromised computer system that they control. For example, a valid usage of the term is to say that attackers use "command and control infrastructure" to issue "command and control instructions" to their victims. Advanced analysis of command and control methodologies can be used to identify attackers, associate attacks, and disrupt ongoing malicious activity.[11]

Derivative terms

There are a plethora of derivative terms which emphasise different aspects, uses and sub-domains of C2. These terms come with a plethora of associated abbreviations – for example, in addition to C2, command and control is also often abbreviated as C2, and sometimes as C&C.

Embraer R-99 MULTI INTEL, an example of aircraft with C3I capabilities
Embraer R-99 MULTI INTEL, an example of aircraft with C3I capabilities

Command and control have been coupled with

and others.

Some of the more common variations include:

  • C2I – Command, Control & Intelligence
  • C2I – Command, Control & Information (A less common usage)[13]
  • C2IS – Command and Control Information Systems
  • C2ISR – C2I plus Surveillance and Reconnaissance
  • C2ISTAR – C2 plus ISTAR (Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, and Reconnaissance)
  • C3 – Command, Control & Communication (Human activity focus)
  • C3 – Command, Control & Communications (Technology focus)
  • C3 – Consultation, Command, and Control [NATO]
  • C3I – 4 possibilities; the most common is Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence
  • C3ISTAR – C3 plus ISTAR
  • C3ISREW – C2ISR plus Communications plus Electronic Warfare (Technology focus)
  • C4, C4I, C4ISR, C4ISTAR, C4ISREW, C4ISTAREW – plus Computers (Technology focus) or Computing (Human activity focus)[14][15]
  • C4I2 – Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, and Interoperability
  • C5I – Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Collaboration and Intelligence
  • NC2 − Nuclear command and control
  • NC3 − Nuclear command and control and communications

and others.

Command: The exercise of authority based upon certain knowledge to attain an objective.
Control: The process of verifying and correcting activity such that the objective or goal of command is accomplished.
Communication: Ability to exercise the necessary liaison to exercise effective command between tactical or strategic units to command.
Computers: The computer systems and compatibility of computer systems. Also includes data processing.
Intelligence: Includes collection as well as analysis and distribution of information.

Command and control centers

The Soviet nuclear-powered command and control naval ship SSV-33 Ural.
The Soviet nuclear-powered command and control naval ship SSV-33 Ural.

A command and control center is typically a secure room or building in a government, military or prison facility that operates as the agency's dispatch center, surveillance monitoring center, coordination office and alarm monitoring center all in one. Command and control centers are operated by a government or municipal agency.

Various branches of the US military such as the US Coast Guard and Navy have command and control centers. They are also common in many large correctional facilities.

A command and control center that is used by a military unit in a deployed location is usually called a "command post".[16] A warship has a Combat Information Center for tactical control of the ship's resources, but commanding a fleet or joint operation requires additional space for commanders and staff plus C4I facilities provided on a Flagship (e.g., aircraft carriers), sometimes a Command ship or upgraded logistics ship such as USS Coronado.

Command and control warfare

Command and control warfare encompasses all the military tactics that use communications technology. It can be abbreviated as C2W. An older name for these tactics is "signals warfare", derived from the name given to communications by the military. Newer names include information operations and information warfare.

The following techniques are combined:

with the physical destruction of enemy communications facilities. The objective is to deny information to the enemy and so disrupt its command and control capabilities. At the same time precautions are taken to protect friendly command and control capabilities against retaliation.

In addition to targeting the enemy's command and control, information warfare can be directed to the enemy's politicians and other civilian communications.

See also

US and other NATO specific:

Other

References

Citations

  1. ^ Vassiliou, Marius, David S. Alberts, and Jonathan R. Agre (2015). "C2 Re-Envisioned: the Future of the Enterprise." CRC Press; New York; p. 1.
  2. ^ See also Ross Pigeau; Carol McCann (Spring 2002). "Re-conceptualizing Command and Control" (PDF). Canadian Military Journal. 3 (1): 53–63.
  3. ^ para 5-2, United States Army Field Manual: FM 3–0
    Headquarters, Department of the Army (14 June 2001). FM 3–0, Operations. Washington, DC: GPO. OCLC 50597897. Archived from the original (PDF inside ZIPSFX) on 19 February 2002. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
    Newer versions of FM 3-0 do not define Command and control, even though they use the term extensively.
  4. ^ Builder, Carl H., Bankes, Steven C., Nordin, Richard, "Command Concepts – A Theory Derived from the Practice of Command and Control", MR775, RAND, ISBN 0-8330-2450-7, 1999
  5. ^ Neville Stanton; Christopher Baber; Don Harris (1 January 2008). Modelling Command and Control: Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
  6. ^ a b "ADDP 00.1 Command and Control" (PDF). Commonwealth of Australia. 27 May 2009. pp. 1–2.
  7. ^ DoD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, www.dtic.mil
  8. ^ Command and control Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, www.dtic.mil
  9. ^ Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S.) (8 November 2010). "Command and Control". Joint Publication 1-02. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (As Amended Through 31 January 2011) (PDF). p. 65. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  10. ^ Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S.) (8 November 2010). "Command and Control". Joint Publication 1-02. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (As Amended Through 15 August 2014) (PDF). p. 44. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  11. ^ Command Five Pty Ltd, "Command and Control in the Fifth Domain" Archived 27 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, February 2012, www.commandfive.com
  12. ^ In modern warfare, computers have become a key component as cyberspace is now seen as "the fifth domain of warfare" – refer: Clarke, Richard A. (2010). Cyber War. HarperCollins. and
    "Cyberwar: War in the Fifth Domain". Economist. 1 July 2010.
  13. ^ TTCP Groups, www.dtic.mil/ttcp/
  14. ^ "Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms" Archived 23 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Joint Publication 1-02, US Department of Defense, 17 March 2009.
  15. ^ Sloan, E., "Security and Defence in the Terrorist Era", McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal, 2005; see Ch. 7 for C4ISTAR discussion.
  16. ^ US Army PEO C3T – Project Manager, Command Posts Archived 11 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine, peoc3t.monmouth.army.mil

Sources

External links

This page was last edited on 6 May 2019, at 12:49
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