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  • Théâtre-Français
  • Théâtre de la République
FounderLouis XIV
PurposeTheatre company
Headquarters2 Rue de Richelieu, 1st arrondissement of Paris, France
Coordinates48°51′49″N 2°20′10″E / 48.8635°N 2.3362°E / 48.8635; 2.3362

The Comédie-Française (French: [kɔmedifʁɑ̃sɛːz]) or Théâtre-Français (French: [teɑtʁ(ə)fʁɑ̃sɛ]) is one of the few state theatres in France. Founded in 1680, it is the oldest active theatre company in the world. Established as a French state-controlled entity in 1995, it is the only state theatre in France to have its own permanent troupe of actors. The company's primary venue is the Salle Richelieu, which is a part of the Palais-Royal complex and located at 2, Rue de Richelieu on Place André-Malraux in the 1st arrondissement of Paris.

The theatre has also been known as the Théâtre de la République and popularly as "La Maison de Molière" (The House of Molière). It acquired the latter name from the troupe of the best-known playwright associated with the Comédie-Française, Molière. He was considered the patron of French actors. He died seven years before his troupe became known as the Comédie-Française, but the company continued to be known as "La Maison de Molière" even after the official change of name.[1]

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The Comédie-Française was founded on 8 August 1680 by a decree of Louis XIV merging the only two Parisian acting troupes of the time, the troupe of the Guénégaud Theatre and that of the Hôtel de Bourgogne.[2] On the death of Molière in 1673, the troupe at the Guénégaud had been formed by a merger of the Théâtre du Marais and the Troupe de Molière.[3] Two years later they received a royal grant of 12,000 livres per year; and seven years later they received their present designation.[1] Thus the Comédie-Française may be said to have an unbroken tradition reaching back to the days of Molière.[1]

Comédie-Française, late 18th century
A performance of Marivaux's La Double Inconstance in 2015
Iconic corner, entry to the Salle Richelieu, 2009

The company gave its first performance on 25 August 1680 at the Guénégaud.[4] Its leading actors included Molière's widow, Armande Béjart, her husband, Guérin d'Estriché, La Grange, Mlle Champmeslé, Baron, Hauteroche, and Raymond Poisson.[5] The repertoire consisted of the collection of theatrical works by Molière and Jean Racine, along with a few works by Pierre Corneille, Paul Scarron and Jean Rotrou.

In the 18th century, the Comédie-Française was often enjoyed by the French nobility, since the price to watch at the theater was expensive.

On the performance of Joseph Chénier's anti-monarchical play Charles IX in 1789, violent political discussions arose among the performers, and ultimately they split into two sections: the Republican party, under the young tragedian Talma, establishing a new theatre under the name "Théâtre de la République," on the site of the present building in the Rue de Richelieu; while the Royalist section took the title "Théâtre de la Nation".[2] On 3 September 1793, during the French Revolution, the Théâtre de la Nation was closed by order of the Committee of Public Safety for putting on the allegedly seditious play Pamela, and the actors were imprisoned though gradually released later. On 31 May 1799, the new government made the Salle Richelieu available and allowed the actors to reconstitute the troupe.

The Comédie-Française today has a repertoire of 3,000 works and three theatres in Paris (Salle Richelieu, next to the Palais Royal; théâtre du Vieux-Colombier; Studio-Théâtre).

COVID-19 pandemic

Since October 2020, and because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Comédie-Française had to close as it is the case for all other theaters in France.[6] The Comédie-Française having a permanent troupe of actors, it was decided to switch temporarily to an online program, including readings of the full text of In Search of Lost Time, and an online initiative called Théâtre à la table where actors of the troupe play works in the repertoire after a one week rehearsal.[7]

Online attendance for this initiative was unexpectedly high, including people outside of Paris and in other countries.[8][9][10]

In May 2021 Éric Ruf, the managing director of the Comédie-Française, declared that 30% of the public of the online program never went to the Comédie-Française, and that they would continue this program even after the reopening.[11]

Theatre buildings

The Comédie-Française has had several homes since its inception in 1680 in the Salle Guénégaud. In 1689, it was established in a theatre across from the Café Procope. From 1770 to 1782, the Comédie performed in the theatre in the royal palace of the Tuileries. In 1782, the company moved into the Salle du Faubourg Saint-Germain, designed by architects Marie-Joseph Peyre and Charles De Wailly and located on the site of today's Odéon. Since 1799, the Comédie-Française has been housed in the Salle Richelieu (architect Victor Louis) at 2, rue de Richelieu. This theatre was enlarged and modified in the 1800s, then rebuilt in 1900 after a severe fire.[12] The actress Jane Henriot was the only casualty of the fire.[13]

Theatrical troupe

The membership of the theatrical troupe is divided into "sociétaires" and "pensionnaires". The former are regular members of the organisation and as such receive a pension after 20 years of service, while the latter are paid actors who may, after a certain length of service, become "sociétaires". The names of nearly all the great actors and dramatists of France have, at some time in their career, been associated with that of the Comédie-Française.[1]

Administrators of the Comédie-Française

The chief administrator of the Comédie-Française has been given the title administrateur général since Simonis' term of 1850. Before that, a variety of titles were given.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Comédie Française" . Encyclopedia Americana.
  2. ^ a b Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Comédie Française" . New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
  3. ^ Hartnoll 1983, p. 168; Clarke 1998, pp. 13–14.
  4. ^ Brocket & Hildy 2008, p. 195.
  5. ^ Hartnoll 1983, p. 169; Gaines 2002, p. 210 (Guérin), pp. 249–250 (La Grange).
  6. ^ "Coronavirus : Les lieux culturels sont-ils majoritairement fermés en Europe, comme l'affirme Bachelot ?". 20 minutes. 2021-01-16. Retrieved 2021-05-01.
  7. ^ "Confinement : la Comédie-Française "n'a jamais été aussi proche du public" qu'en ligne". France Culture. 2020-12-23. Retrieved 2021-05-01.
  8. ^ "La Web TV de la Comédie-Française cartonne : les raisons d'un engouement" (in French). France Info. 2021-02-25. Depuis le premier confinement c'est une vraie communauté que la troupe de la Comédie-Française a vu croître jour après jour. "En termes de fréquentation, les chiffres sont considérables", témoigne Pauline Plagnol en charge des relations avec les publics : "1,3 million de spectateurs depuis le mois de mars dernier. Soit 16 000 personnes par jour, contre environ 1300 dans nos trois salles habituellement (860 places salle Richelieu, 300 au Vieux-Colombier, 130 au Studio Théâtre). Il y a eu un très bon bouche-à-oreille numérique et très vite un engouement pour cette Web TV. Au-delà des fidèles et des spectateurs initiés aux pratiques culturelles, on a touché un public qui était intimidé par l'Institution, qui ne la connaissait pas vraiment."
  9. ^ "Confinement : la Comédie-Française "n'a jamais été aussi proche du public" qu'en ligne" (in French). France Culture. 2020-12-23. Il y a une "stat" qui m'a également beaucoup intéressé pour le Théâtre à la table, qui est la grosse cerise sur le gâteau parce que c'est vraiment ce que nous travaillons le plus : 98% des web-spectateurs restent au moins une demi-heure sur les deux heures, ce qui est très impressionnant pour internet et plus de 80% qui suivent les représentations dans leur intégralité. C'est donc une pratique extrêmement fidélisée où les gens restent devant leur écran comme s'ils étaient à la salle Richelieu !
  10. ^ "Au bout de six mois, les lectures de "La Recherche" de Proust par les sociétaires de la Comédie Française font toujours un tabac" (in French). France Info. 2021-05-04. Commencées en novembre, au début du deuxième confinement, les lectures de Proust par les comédiens du Français attirent entre 10 000 et 100 000 spectateurs derrière leurs écrans tous les soirs. Un vrai succès.
  11. ^ "Eric Ruf pour "Le soulier de satin" de Paul Claudel" (in French). France Inter. 2021-05-06. Les rendez-vous numériques ne vont pas s'arrêter. Ils n'ont cessé d'évoluer. 30 % de notre public numérique n'est jamais venu à la Comédie-Française. Donc lâcher ce public-là ce serait une absurdité. Donc ça va continuer.
  12. ^ Wild 2012, pp. 99–100, 383–384.
  13. ^ "Pierre-Auguste Renoir "Madame Henriot" 1876 Framed Art Giclée Giclee On Canvas". WorthPoint. Retrieved 2020-05-04.


  • Brockett, Oscar G.; Hildy, Franklin J. (2008). History of the Theatre, tenth edition. Boston: Pearson. ISBN 9780205511860.
  • Clarke, Jan (1998). The Guénégaud Theatre in Paris (1673–1680). Volume One: Founding, Design and Production. Lewiston, New York: The Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 9780773483927.
  • Gaines, James F. (2002). The Molière Encyclopedia. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313312557.
  • Hartnoll, Phyllis, editor (1983). The Oxford Companion to the Theatre (fourth edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192115461.
  • Laugier, Eugène (1853). Documents historiques sur la Comédie-Française pendant le règne de S. M. l'Empereur Napoléon Ier. Paris: Firmin-Didot. Copies 1, 2, and 3 at Internet Archive.
  • Maurice, Charles (1860). Le Théâtre-Français, monuments et dépendances, second edition, revised and enlarged. Paris: Garnier. Copies 1 and 2 at Internet Archive.
  • Sanjuan, Agathe; Poirson, Martial (2018). Comédie-Française: une histoire du théâtre. Paris: Éditions du Seuil. ISBN 9782021343755.
  • Trowbridge, Simon (2020). The Comédie-Française from Molière to Éric Ruf. Oxford: Englance Press. ISBN 9781999730550.
  • Wild, Nicole (2012). Dictionnaire des théâtres parisiens (1807–1914). Lyon: Symétrie. ISBN 9782914373487. OCLC 826926792.

External links

This page was last edited on 27 September 2023, at 22:02
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