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Columbus Day
Desembarco de Colón de Dióscoro Puebla.jpg
First Landing of Columbus on the Shores of the New World; painting by Dióscoro Puebla (1862)
Observed byVarious countries in the Americas, Italy, Spain, various Little Italys around the world.
DateOctober 12 (actual/traditional); second Monday in October (observed in the United States)
2018 dateOctober 8  (2018-10-08)
2019 dateOctober 14  (2019-10-14)
2020 dateOctober 12  (2020-10-12)
2021 dateOctober 11  (2021-10-11)

Columbus Day is a national holiday in many countries of the Americas and elsewhere which officially celebrates the anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas on October 12, 1492 (Julian Calendar; it would have been October 21, 1492 on the Gregorian Proleptic Calendar, which extends the Gregorian Calendar to dates prior to its adoption in 1582). Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer who set sail across the Atlantic Ocean in search of a faster route to the Far East only to land at the New World. His first voyage to the New World on the Spanish ships Santa María, Niña, and La Pinta took approximately three months. Columbus and his crew's arrival to the New World initiated the Columbian Exchange which introduced the transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, and technology between the new world and the old.

The landing is celebrated as "Columbus Day" in the United States but the name varies on the international spectrum. In some Latin American countries, October 12 is known as "Día de la Raza" or (Day of the Race). This is the case of Mexico which inspired in Jose Vasoncelos's book celebrates the Day of the Iberoamerican Race. Some countries such as Spain refer the holiday as "Día de la Hispanidad" and "Fiesta Nacional de España" where it is also the religious festivity of la Virgen del Pilar. Peru celebrates since 2009 the "Day of the original peoples and intercultural dialogue". Belize and Uruguay celebrate it as Día de las Américas (Day of the Americas). Since Argentina's former president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner officially adopted "Día del Respeto a la Diversidad Cultural" (Day of Respect for Cultural Diversity) November 3, 2010. "Giornata Nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo or Festa Nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo" is the formal name of Italy's celebration as well as in Little Italys around the world.[1][2]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Goodbye, Columbus Day
  • ✪ Should We Celebrate Columbus Day?
  • ✪ In Defense of Columbus: An Exaggerated Evil
  • ✪ The History of Columbus Day | National Geographic
  • ✪ Columbus Day | Song Lyrics | Song for Kids | Preschool Songs


Thanksgiving. Independence Day. Memorial Day. Holidays are a great time to riddle Americans with needless, oppressive guilt. But the one that stands head an shoulders above the rest, is Columbus Day. The day where progressives indoctrinate your children into believing Columbus to be Satan incarnate, the USA to be his evil spawn and the Native Americans to be pacifists and so now we have “Indigenous People’s Day” or as it would have been named thirty years ago, “Aboriginals” day, or as it would have been named ten or fifteen years ago, “Native Americans day”, or as it could be named tomorrow, in Canada, “First Nations Peoples day.” Feeling the urge to self-inflict grievous bodily harm yet? That’s only natural because the whole charade has become an exercise in hating Western civilization which is really just an exercise in hating yourself. First, as far as Columbus goes, the guy deserves some credit, right? Flawed, to be sure, but he was the greatest navigator of his age, the first person to cross the Atlantic from the continent of Europe. And he did so without any maps and only three small ships. If you can name them, by the way, comment below, as I’m sure your professor can’t. But your professor probably has taught you the tale of Columbus as a villain, usually as a starting off point to indict the United States as a whole, often relying on a few key myths and some pivotal lies by omission. So, to start with, I’ll bet that you probably believe Columbus and other European settlers to simply have committed mass genocide against Native Americans, sorry Indigenous. But here’s the truth. While there were many examples of brutal warfare between Europeans and Native Americans, neither side actually committed genocide; in fact there was never an outright policy of Indian extermination. The Native Americans were mostly wiped out through infectious diseases that the settlers had inadvertently brought with them. Of the estimated 250,000 natives in Hispaniola, Columbus' first stop in the Americas in 1492, new infectious diseases wiped out a staggering 95% of their population by 1517. As far as the genocide by violence, you can look at any historical account of even the most one-sided battles, and find that they were still just that, battles. Take Wounded Knee, although hundreds of years later, I only bring it up because I know that if I don’t you will. It’s become ubiquitous with the idea of Native American’s genocide. After all there were 150-350 Aboriginals killed or wounded. That’s terrible. But there were also 25 American soldiers killed and 39 wounded. That’s not genocide, that’s a one-sided beatdown with Old Glory wielding the hammer. And sometimes the “massacres” went the other direction. See the Apaches for reference or the Comanches or a dozen or so other tribes. So the natives often gave as good as they got—not exactly the way genocide usually tends to work. Here’s another thing I bet you’ve been made to believe: that many Native Americans, sorry American Indians, sorry Idon’tknowwhattakeyourpick lived in harmony with the environment until Columbus arrived, and European settlers destroyed the land with their evil technology. Truth? Not only did the Natives brutally take out people, but they took out entire forests, and hunted species to extinction. Squatting Bear and his first nations buddies weren’t hopping into kayaks to block whaling ships probably because they were too busy killing seals to waterproof their kayaks. You also probably believe that The Native American, sorry, two-spirited, first nations, something-or-other culture was a beautiful, pantheistic one of peace. The truth is... not so much. When Columbus arrived, the islands were inhabited by two main tribes. The Arawaks who were passive and friendly and the Caribs, who were vicious cannibals. The Arawaks actually lived in fear of the Caribs for, you guessed it the reasons being that they hunted them down to enslave them and eat them. Yes, eat them. Ironically, we get the name Caribbean Islands from those famous people eaters. The only way settlers were able to conquer this land was through the help of Native Americans who teamed up with them to settle the score with other tribes who were even bigger jerks than they were! That’s not even to mention the populations in Central and South America famous for ritual human sacrifice. You think Cortes was able to command and conquer with only 500 or so Conquistadors? Of course not, it took 50,000 screaming angry allied Natives who’d had it up to here with being tortured, enslaved and forced to carry gold for the other, Native Aztecs. At some point they decided to roll the dice and go with the guys sporting funny beards and metal hats. None of this is to say that the early settlers were perfect, or that they didn’t carry out their fair share of pretty scummy stuff. But to use America’s mistakes as the brush with which to paint the entirety of its history, while completely ignoring the Indigenous lifestyle of barbarism and borderline evil is inaccurate at best, dishonest at worst. There were plenty of bloody, horrendous battles between the Europeans and the Indians. When a Neolithic tribe encounters a more technologically advanced people, the guys with the boom-boom sticks usually win. Columbus is not the issue here and never was. This whole indigenous people’s day charade is about teaching your children to despise Western Civilization and anybody who dare defend it. But then again that could just be my Western civ privilege talking. Happy Columbus Day. I’m Steven Crowder for Prager University.


United States observance


Celebration of Christopher Columbus's voyage in the early United States is recorded from as early as 1792. The Tammany Society in New York City [3] (for whom it became an annual tradition)[4][5] and the Massachusetts Historical Society in Boston celebrated the 300th anniversary of Columbus' landing in the New World.[6][7] President Benjamin Harrison called upon the people of the United States to celebrate Columbus's landing in the New World on the 400th anniversary of the event.[8] During the anniversary in 1892, teachers, preachers, poets and politicians used rituals to teach ideals of patriotism. These rituals took themes such as citizenship boundaries, the importance of loyalty to the nation, and the celebration of social progress.[9][10][11]

Many Italian-Americans observe Columbus Day as a celebration of their heritage, and the first such celebration was held in New York City on October 12, 1866.[12] The day was first enshrined as a legal holiday in the United States through the lobbying of Angelo Noce, a first generation Italian, in Denver.[13] The first statewide holiday was proclaimed by Colorado governor Jesse F. McDonald in 1905, and it was made a statutory holiday in 1907.[14][15] In April 1934, as a result of lobbying by the Knights of Columbus and New York City Italian leader Generoso Pope, Congress and President Franklin Delano Roosevelt proclaimed October 12 be a federal holiday under the name Columbus Day.[14][16][17][18]

Since 1971 (Oct. 11), the holiday has been attributed to the second Monday in October,[19] coincidentally exactly the same day as Thanksgiving in neighboring Canada since 1957. It is generally observed nowadays by banks, the bond market, the U.S. Postal Service, other federal agencies, most state government offices, many businesses, and most school districts. Some businesses and some stock exchanges remain open, and some states and municipalities abstain from observing the holiday.[20] The traditional date of the holiday also adjoins the anniversary of the United States Navy (founded October 13, 1775), and thus both occasions are customarily observed by the Navy and the Marine Corps with either a 72- or 96-hour liberty period.[21]

Local observance of Columbus Day

Columbus Day in Salem, Massachusetts in 1892
Columbus Day in Salem, Massachusetts in 1892

Actual observance varies in different parts of the United States, ranging from large-scale parades and events to complete non-observance. Most states do not celebrate Columbus Day as an official state holiday.[22] Some mark it as a "Day of Observance" or "Recognition.” Most states that celebrate Columbus Day will close state services, while others operate as normal.[23]

San Francisco claims the nation's oldest continuously existing celebration with the Italian-American community's annual Columbus Day Parade, which was established by Nicola Larco in 1868,[24] while New York City boasts the largest, with over 35,000 marchers and one million viewers.[25][26][27]

As in the mainland United States, Columbus Day is a legal holiday in the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico. In the United States Virgin Islands, the day is celebrated as both Columbus Day and "Puerto Rico Friendship Day."[28]

Virginia also celebrates two legal holidays on the day, Columbus Day and Yorktown Victory Day, which honors the final victory at the Siege of Yorktown in the Revolutionary War.[29]


The celebration of Columbus Day in the United States began to decline at the end of the 20th century, although many Italian-Americans, and others, continue to champion it.[30][31] The states of Florida,[32] Hawaii,[33][34] Alaska,[35][36] Vermont,[37] South Dakota,[38] New Mexico,[39]and Maine[40] do not recognize it and have each replaced it with celebrations of Indigenous People's Day (in Hawaii, Discoverers' Day, in South Dakota, Native American Day[31]). Columbus Day also competes with Leif Erikson Day. A lack of recognition or a reduced level of observance for Columbus Day is not always due to concerns about honoring Native Americans. For example a community of predominantly Scandinavian descent may observe Leif Erikson Day instead.[41] In the state of Oregon, Columbus Day is not an official holiday.[42]

Iowa and Nevada do not celebrate Columbus Day as an official holiday, but the states' respective governors are "authorized and requested" by statute to proclaim the day each year.[43] Several states have removed the day as a paid holiday for state government workers, while still maintaining it—either as a day of recognition, or as a legal holiday for other purposes, including California and Texas.[44][45][46][47][48]

U.S. cities that officially eschew Columbus Day to celebrate Indigenous Peoples' Day, began with Berkeley, California in 1992 and, as of 2018, include Austin, Boise, Cincinnati, Denver, Los Angeles, Mankato, Minnesota, Portland, Oregon, San Francisco, Santa Fe, New Mexico, Seattle, St. Paul, Minnesota, Tacoma, and "dozens of others."[30][49][50][51][45][52][53][54][55][56][57] Columbus, Ohio has chosen to honor veterans instead of Christopher Columbus, and removed Columbus Day as a city holiday. Various tribal governments in Oklahoma designate the day as Native American Day, or name it after their own tribe.[58]

Latin American observance

Día de la Raza

Argentine government poster from 1947 including the concept of la Raza.
Argentine government poster from 1947 including the concept of la Raza.

The date Columbus arrived in the Americas is celebrated in some countries of Latin America. The most common name for the celebration in Spanish (including some Latin American communities[59] in the United States) is the Día de la Raza ("day of the race" or the "day of the [Hispanic] people"), commemorating the first encounters of Europeans and the Native Americans. The day was first celebrated in Argentina in 1917, in Venezuela and Colombia in 1921, in Chile in 1922 and in Mexico it was first celebrated in 1928. The day was also celebrated under this title in Spain until 1957, when it was changed to the Día de la Hispanidad ("Hispanicity Day"), and in Venezuela it was celebrated under this title until 2002, when it was changed to the Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Day of Indigenous Resistance). Originally conceived of as a celebration of Hispanic influence in the Americas, as evidenced by the complementary celebrations in Spain and Latin America, Día de la Raza has come to be seen by nationalist activists throughout Latin America as a counter to Columbus Day; a celebration of the native races and cultures and their resistance to the arrival of Europeans in the Americas.[citation needed]

In the United States, Día de la Raza has served as a time of mobilization for pan-ethnic Latino activists, particularly since the 1960s. Since then, La Raza has served as a periodic rallying cry for Hispanic activists. The first Hispanic March on Washington occurred on Columbus Day in 1996. The name is still used by the largest Hispanic social justice organization in the nation, the National Council of La Raza.[9]


The Day of the Race was established in Argentina in 1916 by a decree of President Hipólito Yrigoyen. The name was changed to "Day of Respect of Cultural Diversity" by a Decree of Necessity and Urgency 1584/2010 issued by President Cristina Kirchner. Under the likely influence of the Venezuelan government, the statue of Columbus was removed from its original position near the Casa Rosada and replaced by one of Juana Azurduy.


Colombia, the only country in the world with a name originated from Columbus himself, celebrates El día de la Raza y de la Hispanidad and is taken as an opportunity to celebrate the encounter of "the two worlds" and to reflect on the richness that the racial diversity has brought to the culture.


In Perú it is known as "día del descubrimiento de America" ("Day of the discovery of America").


Statue-less plinth in Caracas in 2006. A statue by the 19th century sculptor De la Cova, which formerly occupied the plinth, was knocked down by activists after a "public trial" during the celebrations of the newly instituted "Day of the Indigenous Resistance" (October 12) in 2004.[60]
Statue-less plinth in Caracas in 2006. A statue by the 19th century sculptor De la Cova, which formerly occupied the plinth, was knocked down by activists after a "public trial" during the celebrations of the newly instituted "Day of the Indigenous Resistance" (October 12) in 2004.[60]

Between 1921 and 2002, Venezuela celebrated Día de la Raza along with many other Latin American nations. The original holiday was officially established in 1921 under President Juan Vicente Gómez. In 2002, under President Hugo Chávez, the holiday was changed to Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Day of Indigenous Resistance) to commemorate the Indigenous peoples' resistance to European settlement.[61]

Monument to Columbus

On October 12, 2004, a crowd of pro-government activists toppled a statue of Christopher Columbus in Caracas. The activists also sprayed allusive graffiti over its pedestal. The Walk where the statue had stood was renamed in 2008 "Indigenous Resistance Walk". Later a statue of an indigenous leader, Guaicaipuro, was erected on the plinth.[61]

Costa Rica

On September 21, 1994, Costa Rica changed the official holiday from Día de la Raza to Día del Encuentro de las Culturas (Day of the Encounter of Cultures) to recognize the mix of European, Native American (autochthonous populations), African and Asian cultures that constitute modern Costa Rican (and Latin American) culture and ethnicity. In accordance to the Costa Rican labor law, the holiday is observed on October 12. However, should this date coincide with a Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday or Friday, the employer shall agree that said holiday be postponed to the following Monday.[62]


In Brazil, Columbus Day is not celebrated. Instead, the country celebrates the arrival on the coast of present-day Brazil of the fleet led by Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral on April 22, 1500. This date is known in Brazil as "O Descobrimento do Brasil" (The Discovery of Brazil). The date began to be celebrated after the country's independence from Portugal, when Brazilian Emperor Pedro II instituted the date as part of a plan to foster a sense of nationalism among Brazil's diverse citizenry—giving them a common identity and history as residents of a unique Portuguese-speaking empire surrounded by Hispanic Republics of the Americas.[63] The Discovery of Brazil was originally celebrated on May 3, but scholars in the nineteen century found definitive evidence proving April 22 to be the actual date of the arrival of Cabral's fleet on South American shores.[64] In 2000, the government of Brazil used the date to celebrate 500 years of the existence of the country. The festivities, however, were met with protests by indigenous peoples who claimed it marked 500 years of genocide of indigenous Brazilians.[65][66]

However, since 1980 October 12 is a national holiday, the feast of the patron saint of the country, Our Lady of Aparecida.

Caribbean observance

Only a handful of Caribbean countries still observe holidays related to Columbus Day. In Belize, October 12 is celebrated as Day of the Americas or Pan American Day.[67][68][69] In the Bahamas, it was formerly known as Discovery Day, until 2001 when it was replaced by National Heroes Day. In 1937, Cuban President Federico Laredo Brú (1936–1940) spoke to the nation and countries of America in Cuba on October 12 commemorating Christopher Columbus's voyage to the New World. Federico Laredo Brú spoke about Columbus' impact on the land and the future of its settlement. He ended his speech with venerating Christopher Columbus' efforts to colonize and establish settlements along the new front and the pride of ones nation. He added "Por mi raza hablo mi espiritu," which translates to "For my race my spirit called," in order to support the political infrastructure at the time.[70]

Columbus' Legacy in the Caribbean

The Columbus Lighthouse in Santo Domingo Este, Dominican Republic

December 1937, Cuban president Federico Laredo Brú and Dominican Republic president Rafael Trujillo ordered a crew of aviators to travel through Latin America collecting funds from large capital cities for a monumental light house in the Dominican Republic. The exploration Escuadrilla Binacional Pro Faro de Colón was inspired by Columbus' odyssey to the Americas where three of the four planes were named after the vessels that journeyed across the North Atlantic Ocean (Santa María, Niña, and La Pinta). The expedition consisted of three Stinson Reliant SR-9 borrowed from the Cuban Air Force and a Curtiss Wright CW-19R from the Dominican military aviation named "Colombo" after Columbus. On December 15, after visiting a majority of South America, their destination in Lima, Peru was prolonagted due to an unexpected sandstorm locally knows as Paracas. Pilots of the Colon and La Pinta were forced to land in the city of Pisco however La Nina disappeared in the storm. The Santa Maria was the only plane to reach the Peruvian Capital as planned, landing at Las Palmas on the day of the storm. After extensive searching rescue La Nina radioed from Lima announcing their whereabouts after their radio was damaged in the storm. The aircraft restrategized in Las Palmas and on December 29 their expedition took off from El Techo airport in Bogotá en route to El Guabito airport in Cali. Later that day the crew flew into an unexpected storm with minimal visibility and poor navigation flying over the Valley of Cauca. La Nina, La Pinta and the Santa Maria flew straight into high mountains crashing to their deaths. Colon, unaware of the other aircraft flew over the storm and safely made it to Panama City. The CW-19R Colon is still preserved today as remembrance of the bravery of the crew and Christopher Columbus' odyssey.[71] The Columbus Lighthouse stands today in the Dominican Republic.

European observance


Monument to Christopher Columbus in Genoa, Italy
Monument to Christopher Columbus in Genoa, Italy

Since the 18th century, many Italian communities in the Americas have observed the Discovery of the New World as a celebration of their heritage; Christopher Columbus (whose original, Italian name is "Cristoforo Colombo") was an Italian explorer, citizen of the Republic of Genoa.[72]

In Italy, Columbus Day has been officially celebrated since 2004.[2] It is officially named Giornata nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo.

The "Lega Navale Italiana" has created a Regata di Colombo as a celebration of the Columbus achievement.[73] Italians have celebrated their "Cristoforo Colombo" naming after him many civilian and military ships, like the ocean liner SS Cristoforo Colombo.


Since 1987, Spain has celebrated the anniversary of Columbus's arrival in the Americas as its Fiesta Nacional or "National Day". Previously Spain had celebrated the day as Día de la Hispanidad, emphasizing Spain's ties with Hispanidad, the international Hispanic community.[74] In 1981 a royal decree established the Día de la Hispanidad as a national holiday.[74] However, in 1987 the name was changed to Fiesta Nacional, and October 12 became one of two national celebrations, along with Constitution Day on December 6.[75] Spain's "national day" had moved around several times during the various regime changes of the 20th century; establishing it on the day of the international Columbus celebration was part of a compromise between conservatives, who wanted to emphasize the status of the monarchy and Spain's history, and Republicans, who wanted to commemorate Spain's burgeoning democracy with an official holiday.[75] Since 2000, October 12 has also been Spain's Day of the Armed Forces, celebrated each year with a military parade in Madrid.[75] Other than this, however, the holiday is not widely or enthusiastically celebrated in Spain. There are no large-scale patriotic parades, marches or other events, but shops and businesses are closed as with other bank holidays.[76] The observation is generally overshadowed by the feast day of Our Lady of the Pillar (Fiestas del Pilar).[75] This holiday was declared a religious feast day throughout the Spanish Empire in 1730. In recent years, celebration of the holiday has faced some opposition from various organizations.

Opposition to Columbus celebrations

Engraving by Theodor de Bry depicting the controversial account by Bartolomé de las Casas regarding the Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias, 1552. De Bry's works are characteristic of the anti-Spanish propaganda that originated as a result of the Eighty Years' War, known as the Black Legend.
Engraving by Theodor de Bry depicting the controversial account by Bartolomé de las Casas regarding the Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias, 1552. De Bry's works are characteristic of the anti-Spanish propaganda that originated as a result of the Eighty Years' War, known as the Black Legend.

Opposition to Columbus Day dates back to at least the 19th century, when anti-immigrant nativists (see Know Nothings) sought to eliminate its celebration because of its association with immigrants from the Catholic countries of Ireland and Italy, and the American Catholic fraternal organization, the Knights of Columbus.[77] Some anti-Catholics, notably including the Ku Klux Klan and the Women of the Ku Klux Klan, opposed celebrations of Columbus or monuments about him because they thought that it increased Catholic influence in the United States, which was largely a Protestant country.[77]

By far the more common opposition today, decrying both Columbus' and other Europeans' actions against the indigenous populations of the Americas, did not gain much traction until the latter half of the 20th century. This opposition was led by Native Americans and expanded upon by left-wing political parties,[78][79][80][81][82] though it has become more mainstream.[83] Surveys conducted in 2013 and 2015 found 26% to 38% of American adults not in favor of celebrating Columbus Day.[84][85]

There are many interrelated strands of criticism. One refers primarily to the treatment of the indigenous populations during the European colonization of the Americas which followed Columbus's discovery. Some groups, such as the American Indian Movement, have argued that the ongoing actions and injustices against Native Americans are masked by Columbus myths and celebrations.[86] American anthropologist Jack Weatherford says that on Columbus Day, Americans celebrate the greatest waves of genocide of the American Indians known in history.[87]

A second strain of criticism of Columbus Day focuses on the character of Columbus himself. In time for the 2004 observation of the day, the final volume of a compendium of Columbus-era documents was published by the University of California, Los Angeles's Medieval and Renaissance Center. It stated that Columbus, while a brilliant mariner, exploited and enslaved the indigenous population.[88]

Spelman College historian Howard Zinn described some of the details of how Columbus personally ordered the enslavement and mutilation of the native Arawak people in a bid to repay his investors.[89]

Journalist and media critic Norman Solomon reflects, in Columbus Day: A Clash of Myth and History, that many people choose to hold on to the myths surrounding Columbus. He quotes from the logbook Columbus's initial description of the American Indians: "They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance.... They would make fine servants.... With 50 men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want." Solomon states that the most important contemporary documentary evidence is the multi-volume History of the Indies by the Catholic priest Bartolomé de las Casas, who observed the region where Columbus was governor. In contrast to "the myth," Solomon quotes Las Casas, who describes Spaniards driven by "insatiable greed"—"killing, terrorizing, afflicting, and torturing the native peoples" with "the strangest and most varied new methods of cruelty" and how systematic violence was aimed at preventing "[American] Indians from daring to think of themselves as human beings." The Spaniards "thought nothing of knifing [American] Indians by tens and twenties and of cutting slices off them to test the sharpness of their blades," wrote Las Casas. "My eyes have seen these acts so foreign to human nature, and now I tremble as I write."[90]

In the summer of 1990, 350 representatives from American Indian groups from all over the hemisphere, met in Quito, Ecuador, at the first Intercontinental Gathering of Indigenous People in the Americas, to mobilize against the 500th anniversary (quin-centennial) celebration of Columbus Day planned for 1992. The following summer, in Davis, California, more than a hundred Native Americans gathered for a follow-up meeting to the Quito conference. They declared October 12, 1992 to be "International Day of Solidarity with Indigenous People."[91]

See also


  1. ^ Columbus Day, Giornata di Cristoforo Colombo Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b "Governo Italiano – Dipartimento per il Cerimoniale dello Stato". November 23, 2012. Archived from the original on May 22, 2013. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
  3. ^ "Today in History – October 12". The Library of Congress. Archived from the original on January 18, 2018. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
  4. ^ Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll (December 1, 2012). This Violent Empire: The Birth of an American National Identity. UNC Press Books. ISBN 9780807895917.
  5. ^ Strausbaugh, John (August 2, 2016). City of Sedition: The History of New York City during the Civil War. Grand Central Publishing. ISBN 9781455584192.
  6. ^ "Massachusetts Historical Society: Search the MHS Website". Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  7. ^ "Tammany Hall | American political history". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  8. ^ "Proclamation on the 400th Anniversary of the Discovery of America by Columbus". Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  9. ^ a b Kubal, Timothy. 2008. Cultural Movements and Collective Memory: Christopher Columbus and the Rewriting of the National Origin Myth. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  10. ^ Connell, William J. (2010). "What Columbus Day Really Means". The American Scholar.
  11. ^ Appelbaum, Yoni (October 8, 2012). "How Columbus Day Fell Victim to Its Own Success". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on April 23, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  12. ^ "Día de la Raza – Viva Cuernavaca". Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  13. ^ Noce, Angelo (1910). Columbus Day in Colorado: Angelo Noce ... Angelo Noce, printer.
  14. ^ a b Sale, Kirkpatrick, "The Conquest of Paradise", p. 359, ISBN 0-333-57479-6
  15. ^ "Yuma Pioneer September 15, 1905 — Colorado Historic Newspapers Collection". Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  16. ^ United States House of Representatives (April 30, 1934). "36 USC 107, ch. 184, 48 Stat. 657". United States Code. Office of the Law Revision Counsel. Archived from the original (Text) on October 6, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  17. ^ American Memory (October 6, 2010). "Today in History: October 12". Today in History. Library of Congress (National Digital Library). Archived from the original on October 11, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  18. ^ Russell, Judy G. (October 9, 2018). "Columbus Day quiz answer". The Legal Genealogist. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  19. ^ "LBJ Signs Bill to Set Up Five 3-Day Holidays". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. via Google News. Associated Press. June 29, 1968. The bill in question became the Uniform Monday Holiday Act.
  20. ^ Dougherty, Conor; Reddy, Sudeep (October 10, 2009). "Is Columbus Day Sailing Off the Calendar?". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on August 21, 2017.
  21. ^ "Sampson, Rear-Adm. William Thomas, (9 Feb. 1840–6 May 1902), United States Navy; Commander-in-Chief, US Naval Forces on North Atlantic Station, 1898–99", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, December 1, 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u190642
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